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The majority of Fiji's islands were formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago. Today, some geothermal activity still occurs on the islands of Vanua Levu
Vanua Levu
and Taveuni.[1] Fiji
Fiji
has been inhabited since the second millennium BC, and was settled first by Austronesians and later by Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji
Fiji
from the 17th century,[2] and, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji
Colony of Fiji
in 1874. Fiji
Fiji
was a Crown colony until 1970, when it gained independence as the Dominion of Fiji. A republic was declared in 1987, following a series of coups d'état. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama
Frank Bainimarama
seized power. When the High Court ruled in 2009 that the military leadership was unlawful, President Ratu
Ratu
Josefa Iloilo, whom the military had retained as the nominal Head of State, formally abrogated the Constitution and reappointed Bainimarama. Later in 2009, Iloilo was replaced as President by Ratu
Ratu
Epeli Nailatikau.[3] After years of delays, a democratic election was held on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won with 59.2% of the vote, and the election was deemed credible by international observers.[4]

Contents

1 Early settlement and development of Fijian culture 2 Early interaction with Europeans 3 Cakobau and the wars against Christian infiltration 4 Attempts at annexation 5 Cotton, confederacies and the Kai Colo 6 Kingdom of Fiji 7 British colony

7.1 " Fiji
Fiji
for the Fijians" 7.2 Blackbirding
Blackbirding
in Fiji 7.3 Indian indenture system
Indian indenture system
in Fiji 7.4 Fiji
Fiji
in World War I 7.5 Fiji
Fiji
in World War II 7.6 The development of political institutions 7.7 Responsible government

8 Independent Fiji

8.1 1987 coups 8.2 The 1990 Constitution 8.3 The 2000 coup and Qarase government 8.4 The 2006 coup

9 Role of the military 10 See also 11 Notes 12 External links

Early settlement and development of Fijian culture[edit]

A Fijian mountain warrior, photograph by Francis Herbert Dufty, 1870s.

Fijian druas

Located in the central Pacific Ocean, Fiji's geography has made it both a destination and a crossroads for migrations for many centuries. According to oral tradition, the indigenous Fijians
Fijians
of today are descendants of the chief Lutunasobasoba and those who arrived with him on the Kaunitoni canoe. Landing at what is now Vuda, the settlers moved inland to the Nakauvadra mountains. Though this oral tradition has not been independently substantiated, the Fijian government officially promotes it, and many tribes today claim to be descended from the children of Lutunasobasoba.[5] Pottery
Pottery
art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji
Fiji
was settled by Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, with Melanesians
Melanesians
following around a thousand years later, although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people
Lapita people
or the ancestors of the Polynesians
Polynesians
settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians
Melanesians
arrived; they may have had some influence on the new culture, and archaeological evidence shows that they would have then moved on to Samoa, Tonga
Tonga
and even Hawai'i. Archeological evidence shows signs of settlement on Moturiki Island
Moturiki Island
from 600 BC and possibly as far back as 900 BC. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Trade between Fiji
Fiji
and neighbouring archipelagos long before European contact is testified by the canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga
Tonga
and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji
Fiji
have been found in Samoa
Samoa
and even the Marquesas Islands. In the 10th century, the Tu'i Tonga
Tonga
Empire was established in Tonga, and Fiji
Fiji
came within its sphere of influence. The Tongan influence brought Polynesian customs and language into Fiji. The empire began to decline in the 13th century. Across 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from east to west, Fiji
Fiji
has been a nation of many languages. Fiji's history was one of settlement but also of mobility and over the centuries, a unique Fijian culture developed. Large elegant watercraft with rigged sails called drua were constructed in Fiji, some being exported to Tonga. Distinctive village architecture evolved consisting of communal and individual bure and vale housing with an advanced system of rampants and moats usually being constructed around the more important settlements. Pigs were domesticated for food and a variety of agricultural plantations such as bananas existed from an early stage. Villages would also be supplied with water brought in by constructed wooden aqueducts. Fijians
Fijians
lived in societies that were led by chiefs, elders and notable warriors. Spiritual leaders, often called bete, were also important cultural figures and the production and consumption of yaqona was part of their ceremonial and community rites. Fijians
Fijians
developed a monetary system where the polished teeth of the sperm whale, called tambua, became an active currency. A type of writing also existed which can be seen today in various petroglyphs around the islands.[6] They also produced a refined masi cloth textile industry with the material being used to make sails and clothes. Men would often wear a white cloth waist garment called a malo with a turban-like headdress. Women were known to wear a neat fringed short skirt called a liku. Fijians
Fijians
would also maintain their hair into distinctive large, rounded or semi-rounded shapes. As with most other human civilisations, warfare was an important part of everyday life in pre-colonial Fiji
Fiji
and the Fijians
Fijians
were noted for their use of weapons such as decorative war-clubs and poisoned arrows. [7] With the arrival of Europeans and colonialism in the late 1700s, many elements of Fijian culture were either repressed or modified to ensure European, namely British, control. This was especially the case concerning traditional Fijian spiritual beliefs. Early colonists and missionaries utilised and conflated the concept of cannibalism in Fiji to give a moral imperative for colonial intrusion. By labelling native Fijian customs as "debased and primitive", they were able to promote a narrative that Fiji
Fiji
was a "paradise wasted on savage cannibals". Additionally, it gave a legitimacy to the violence and punitive actions conducted by the colonists which accompanied the enforced transfer of power to the Europeans.[8] Extravagant stories made during the 19th century, such as that regarding Ratu
Ratu
Udre Udre who is said to have consumed 872 people and to have made a pile of stones to record his achievement,[9] permitted an enduring racial typecast of the "uncivilised" Fijian. Cannibalism, as an impression, was an effective racial tool deployed by the colonists that has endured through the 1900s and into the modern day. Authors such as Deryck Scarr,[10] for example, have perpetuated 19th century claims of "freshly killed corpses piled up for eating" and ceremonial mass human sacrifice on the construction of new houses and boats.[11] Although Fiji
Fiji
was known as the Cannibal Isles,[12] other more more recent research doubts even the existence of cannibalism in Fiji.[13] This view is not without criticism, and perhaps the most accurate account of cannibalism in 19th century Fiji
Fiji
may come from William MacGregor, the long term chief medical officer in British colonial Fiji. During the Little War of 1876, he stated that the rare occasion of tasting of the flesh of the enemy was done "to indicate supreme hatred and not out of relish for a gastronomic treat".[14] Early interaction with Europeans[edit]

The first Europeans to land and live among the Fijians
Fijians
were shipwrecked sailors like Charles Savage.

Levuka, 1842

Dutch explorer Abel Tasman
Abel Tasman
was the first known European visitor to Fiji, sighting the northern island of Vanua Levu
Vanua Levu
and the North Taveuni archipelago in 1643 while looking for the Great Southern Continent.[15] James Cook, the British navigator, visited one of the southern Lau islands in 1774. It was not until 1789, however, that the islands were charted and plotted, when William Bligh, the castaway captain of the HMS Bounty, passed Ovalau and sailed between the main islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu
Vanua Levu
en route to Batavia, in what is now Indonesia. Bligh Water, the strait between the two main islands, is named after him, and for a time, the Fiji
Fiji
Islands were known as the Bligh Islands. The first Europeans to maintain substantial contact with the Fijians were sandalwood merchants, whalers and "beche-de-mer" (sea cucumber) traders. In 1804, the discovery of sandalwood on the southwestern coast of Vanua Levu
Vanua Levu
led to an increase in the number and frequency of Western trading ships visiting Fiji. A sandalwood rush began in the first few years but it dried up when supplies dropped between 1810 and 1814. Some of the Europeans who came to Fiji
Fiji
in this period were accepted by the locals and were allowed to stay as residents. Probably the most famous of these was a Swede by the name of Kalle Svenson, better known as Charlie Savage. Charlie and his firearms were recognised by Nauvilou, the leader of the Bau community, as useful augmentations to their activities in warfare. Charlie was permitted to take wives and establish himself in a high rank in Bau society in exchange for helping defeat local adversaries. In 1813, however, Charlie became a victim of this lifestyle and was killed in a botched raid.[16] By the 1820s, the traders returned for beche-de-mer and Levuka
Levuka
was established as the first European-style town in Fiji, on the island of Ovalau. The market for "beche-de-mer" in China was lucrative and British and American merchants set up processing stations on various islands. Local Fijians
Fijians
were utilised to collect, prepare and pack the product which would then be shipped to Asia. A good cargo would result in a half-yearly profit of around $25,000 for the dealer.[17] The Fijian workers were often given firearms and ammunition as an exchange for their labour, and by the end of the 1820s most of the Fijian chiefs had muskets and many were skilled at using them. Some Fijian chiefs soon felt confident enough with their new weapons to forcibly obtain more destructive weaponry from the Europeans. In 1834, men from Viwa and Bau were able to take control of the French ship L'amiable Josephine and use its cannon against their enemies on the Rewa River, although they later ran it aground.[18] Christian missionaries like David Cargill also arrived in the 1830s from recently converted regions such as Tonga
Tonga
and Tahiti, and by 1840 the European settlement at Levuka
Levuka
had grown to about 40 houses with former whaler, David Whippey, being a notable resident. The religious conversion of the Fijians, just like the associated incursion of European colonialism, was a gradual process which was observed first-hand by Captain Charles Wilkes
Charles Wilkes
of the United States
United States
Exploring Expedition. Wilkes wrote that "all the chiefs seemed to look upon Christianity as a change in which they had much to lose and little to gain", but they would endure the preachings of the missionaries because they "bring vessels to their place and give them opportunities of obtaining many desirable articles".[19] Christianised Fijians, in addition to forsaking their spiritual beliefs, were pressured into cutting their hair short, adopting the sulu form of dress from Tonga and fundamentally changing their marriage and funeral traditions. This process of enforced cultural change was called lotu.[20] The strengthening demands of Western imperial and capital representatives upon coastal Fijians
Fijians
to relinquish their culture, land and resources at this time inevitably led to an increase in the intensity of conflict. In 1840, a surveying party from the Charles Wilkes expedition had a skirmish with the people of Malolo
Malolo
island resulting in a lieutenant and a midshipman being killed. Wilkes, upon hearing of the deaths, organised a large punitive expedition against the Malolo
Malolo
people. He encircled the island with his ships, burnt all the Fijian watercraft he could find and attacked the island. Most of the Maloloans took refuge in a well-fortified village which they defended with muskets and traditional weapons. Wilkes ordered the village to be attacked with rockets which acted as makeshift incendiary devices. The village, with the occupants trapped inside, quickly became an inferno with Wilkes himself noting that the "shouts of men were intermingled with the cries and shrieks of the women and children" as they burnt to death. Those that managed to flee the flames were shot by Wilkes' men. Eventually Wilkes returned to his ship to await the surrender of the survivors saying that whole remaining population should "sue for mercy" and if not "they must expect to be exterminated". Around 57 to 87 Maloloan people were killed in this encounter and even though Wilkes did later face an investigation for these actions, no disciplinary measures were enacted against him.[21] Cakobau and the wars against Christian infiltration[edit]

Ratu
Ratu
Tanoa Visawaqa.

Ratu
Ratu
Seru Epenisa Cakobau, Tui Viti

Main articles: Fiji during the time of Cakobau
Fiji during the time of Cakobau
and Kingdom of Fiji The 1840s was a time of conflict where various Fiji
Fiji
clans attempted to assert dominance over each other. Eventually, a warlord by the name of Seru Epenisa Cakobau
Seru Epenisa Cakobau
of Bau Island was able to become a powerful influence in the region. His father was Ratu
Ratu
Tanoa Visawaqa, the Vunivalu (a chiefly title meaning Warlord, often translated also as Paramount Chief) who had previously defeated the much larger Burebasaga confederacy and succeeded in subduing much of western Fiji. Cakobau, following on from his father, became so dominant that he was able to expel the Europeans from Levuka
Levuka
for five years over a dispute about their giving of weapons to his local enemies. In the early 1850s, Cakobau went one step further and decided to declare war on all Christians. His plans were thwarted after the missionaries in Fiji received support from the already converted Tongans and the presence of a British warship. The Tongan Prince Enele Ma'afu, a Christian, had established himself on the Island of Lakeba
Lakeba
in the Lau archipelago in 1848, forcibly converting the local people to the Methodist Church. Cakobau and other chiefs in the west of Fiji
Fiji
regarded Ma'afu as a threat to their power and resisted his attempts to expand Tonga's dominion. Cakobau's influence, however, began to wane and his heavy imposition of taxes on other Fijian chiefs, who saw him at best as first among equals, caused them to defect from him.[22] Around this time the United States
United States
also became interested in asserting their power in the region and they threatened intervention following a number of incidents involving their consul in the Fiji
Fiji
islands, John Brown Williams. In 1849, Williams had his trading store looted following an accidental fire, caused by stray cannon fire during a Fourth of July
Fourth of July
celebration, and in 1853 the European settlement of Levuka
Levuka
was burnt to the ground. Williams blamed Cakobau for both these incidents and the US representative wanted Cakobau's capital at Bau destroyed in retaliation. A naval blockade was instead set up around the island which put further pressure on Cakobau to give up on his warfare against the foreigners and their Christian allies. Finally, on April 30th 1854, Cakobau offered his soro (surrender) and yielded to these forces. He underwent the "lotu" and converted to Christianity. The traditional Fijian temples in Bau were destroyed and the sacred nokonoko trees were cut down. Cakobau and his remaining men were then compelled to join with the Tongans, backed by the Americans and British, to subjugate the remaining chiefs in the region who still refused to convert. These chiefs were soon defeated with Qaraniqio of the Rewa being poisoned and Ratu
Ratu
Mara of Kaba being hanged in 1855. After these wars, most regions of Fiji, except for the interior highland areas, had been forced into giving up much of their traditional systems and were now vassals of Western interest. Cakobau was retained as a largely symbolic representative of the Fijian people and was allowed to take the ironic title of "Tui Viti" ("King of Fiji"), but the overarching control now lay with foreign powers.[23] Attempts at annexation[edit] When John Williams' Nukulau Island house was subjected to an arson attack in 1855, the commander of the United States
United States
naval frigate USS John Adams demanded compensation amounting to US$5000 for Williams from Cakobau, as the Tui Viti. This initial claim was supplemented by further claims totalling US$38,531. Cakobau was placed in a situation where he had to admit responsibility and promise to pay the debt, or else face punishment from the United States
United States
Navy. He hoped that in delaying payment the United States
United States
would soften their demands. However, reality began to catch up with Cakobau in 1858, when the USS Vandalia sailed into Levuka. Cakobau was still unable to pay his debt and also faced increasing encroachments onto Viti Levu's south coast from Ma'afu and the Tongans. Additionally, William Pritchard, Britain's first official consul to the Fijian islands, arrived in the same year with a focus on annexing Fiji
Fiji
for the British Empire. Cakobau, again in a difficult position, signed a document to cede the islands to Britain with the understanding that it would protect him from both the extortion of the US and the incursions of the Tongans. The document was sent to London
London
for official approval and in the meantime Pritchard set up the so-called Great Council of Chiefs
Great Council of Chiefs
to get a wider validation for British annexation. Pritchard also forced Ma'afu to officially renounce Tonga
Tonga
claims to the area. In 1862, after four years of consideration and following a report from Colonel W.J. Smythe, the British government decided that there was little advantage in administering "yet another savage race" and chose not to approve the annexation. They concluded that Fiji
Fiji
was too isolated and had no clear prospect of being profitable to the Empire and that Cakobau was just one chief among many who did not the have the authority to cede the islands.[24] Cotton, confederacies and the Kai Colo[edit] The rising price of cotton in the wake of the American Civil War (1861–1865) saw a flood of hundreds of settlers come to Fiji
Fiji
in the 1860s from Australia
Australia
and the United States
United States
in order to obtain land and grow cotton. Since there was a still lack functioning government in Fiji, these planters were often able to get the land in violent or fraudulent ways such as exchanging weapons or alcohol with Fijians
Fijians
who may or may not have been the true owners. Although this made for cheap land acquisition, competing land claims between the planters became problematic with no unified government to resolve the disputes. In 1865, the settlers proposed a confederacy of the seven main native kingdoms in Fiji
Fiji
to establish some sort of government. This was initially successful and Cakobau was elected as the first president of the confederacy. The involvement of Cakobau and the other Fijian chiefs was mostly to give an appearance of legitimacy to what was essentially a government for the white settlers. Cakobau was given a $4 tinsel crown to go with his self-assumed title of Tui Viti.[25] With the demand for land high, the white planters started to push into the hilly interior of Viti Levu, the largest island in the archipelago. This put them into direct confrontation with the Kai Colo, which was a general term to describe the various Fijian clans resident to these inland districts. The Kai Colo were still living a mostly traditional lifestyle, they were not christianised and they were not under the rule of Cakobau or the confederacy. In 1867, a travelling missionary named Thomas Baker was killed by Kai Colo in the mountains at the headwaters of the Sigatoka River. The acting British consul, John Bates Thurston, demanded that Cakobau lead a force of Fijians
Fijians
from coastal areas to suppress the Kai Colo. Cakobau eventually led a campaign into the mountains but suffered a humiliating loss with 61 of his fighters being killed. In desperation to save face, Cakobau proposed that a mercenary force of settlers should be brought in from Australia
Australia
to eliminate the Kai Colo and take their land as payment. This plan was dismissed and Cakobau not only lost his position as head of the confederacy, but the confederacy itself collapsed.[26] At this time, the Australian-based Polynesia
Polynesia
Company became interested in acquiring land near what was then a Fijian village called Suva
Suva
at the mouth of the Rewa River. In return for 5,000 km², the company agreed to pay Cakobau's lingering debt that he still owed to the United States. In 1868, the company's settlers came to the 575 km2 (222 sq mi) of land and were joined by other planters who went further up the Rewa River
Rewa River
to establish their properties. These settlers quickly came into conflict with the local eastern Kai Colo people called the Wainimala. The British consul, John Bates Thurston, called in the Australia
Australia
Station section of the Royal Navy for assistance. The Navy duly sent Commander Rowley Lambert and the HMS Challenger to conduct a punitive mission against the Wainimala. Lambert deployed an armed force of 87 men including marines and settlers upon four boats to the upper reaches of the river where they shelled and burnt the village of Deoka. A skirmish ensued which resulted in the deaths of over forty Wainimala. The disturbance also caused the evacuation of some of the settlers along the river as the Wainimala burnt their houses in revenge.[27] Kingdom of Fiji[edit]

Flag of the Kingdom of Fiji, 1871-1874

Main article: Kingdom of Fiji In June 1871, John Bates Thurston, the British honorary consul, forged a "marriage of convenience" between Cakobau and the settlers, and persuaded the Fijian chiefs to accept a constitutional monarchy with Cakobau as king, but with real power in the hands of a cabinet and Legislature dominated by settlers. The Legislative Assembly met for the first time in Levuka
Levuka
in November 1871. The Kingdom of Fiji
Kingdom of Fiji
also known as the Kingdom of Viti, was the first unified Fijian state, and it covered all of modern Fiji
Fiji
from 1871 to 1874, except the island of Rotuma. The new arrangements proved no more workable than the old. Within months, government overspending had led to the accumulation of another unmanageable debt. In 1872, following continuing economic and social unrest, Thurston approached the British government, at Cakobau's request, with another offer to cede the islands. The British were much more sympathetic to annexing Fiji
Fiji
this time than they had been almost two decades earlier. The murder of Bishop John Coleridge Patteson
John Coleridge Patteson
of the Melanesian Mission at Nukapu
Nukapu
in the Reef Islands
Reef Islands
had provoked public outrage, which was compounded by the massacre by crew members of more than 150 Fijians
Fijians
on board the brig Carl. Two British commissioners were sent to Fiji
Fiji
to investigate the possibility of an annexation. The question was complicated by manoeuvrings for power between Cakobau and his old rival, Ma'afu, with both men vacillating for many months. On 21 March 1874, Cakobau made a final offer, which the British accepted. On 23 September, Sir Hercules Robinson, soon to be appointed the British Governor of Fiji, arrived on HMS Dido and received Cakobau with a royal 21-gun salute. After some vacillation, Cakobau agreed to renounce his Tui Viti
Tui Viti
title, retaining the title of Vunivalu, or Protector. The formal cession took place on 10 October 1874, when Cakobau, Ma'afu, and some of the senior Chiefs of Fiji
Fiji
signed two copies of the Deed of Cession. Thus the Colony of Fiji
Colony of Fiji
was founded; 96 years of British rule followed. British colony[edit] Main article: Colony of Fiji The British brought over Indian contract labourers to work on the sugar plantations as the first governor of Fiji, Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon, adopted a policy disallowing the use of native labour or any interference in their culture or way of life. In 1875–76, an epidemic of measles killed over 40,000 Fijians,[28] about one-third of the Fijian population.[29] The population in 1942 was approximately 210,000 of whom 94,000 were Indians, 102,000 native Fijians, 2,000 Chinese and 5,000 Europeans.[30] " Fiji
Fiji
for the Fijians"[edit]

Governor Gordon

Sir Hercules Robinson, who had arrived on 23 September 1874, was appointed as interim Governor. He was replaced in June 1875 by Sir Arthur Gordon. Rather than establish direct rule in all spheres, Gordon granted autonomy over local affairs to Fiji's chiefs, though they were now forbidden to engage in tribal warfare. The colony was divided into four regions, each under the control of a Roko; these regions were further subdivided into twelve districts, each ruled by a traditional chief. A Great Council of Chiefs
Great Council of Chiefs
was established in 1876 to advise the Governor. This body remained in existence until being suspended by the Military-backed interim government in 2007 and abolished in 2012. Under the 1997 Constitution, it functioned as an electoral college that chose Fiji's President, Vice-President, and 14 of the 32 Senators. In its early days, the Great Council was supplemented by a Native Regulation Board (now the Fijian Affairs Board); these two bodies together made laws for the Fijians. (European settlers, however, were not subject to its laws). In 1882, the capital was moved from Levuka
Levuka
to the more accessible Suva. Adopting a " Fiji
Fiji
for the Fijians" policy, Gordon prohibited further sales of land, although it could be leased. This policy has been continued, hardly modified, to this day, and some 83 percent of the land is still natively owned. Gordon also banned the exploitation of Fijians
Fijians
as labourers, and following the failure of the cotton-growing enterprise in the early 1870s, Gordon decided in 1878 to import indentured labourers from India
India
to work on the sugarcane fields that had taken the place of the cotton plantations. The 463 Indians arrived on 14 May 1879 - the first of some 61,000 that were to come before the scheme ended in 1916. The plan involved bringing the Indian workers to Fiji
Fiji
on a five-year contract, after which they could return to India at their own expense; if they chose to renew their contract for a second five-year term, they would be given the option of returning to India
India
at the government's expense, or remaining in Fiji. The great majority chose to stay. The Queensland
Queensland
Act, which regulated indentured labour in Queensland, was made law in Fiji
Fiji
also. The Colonial Sugar Refining Company (Fiji) began operations in Fiji
Fiji
in 1880 and until it ceased operations in 1973, had a considerable influence on the political and economic life of Fiji. Prior to its expansion to Fiji, the CSR was operating Sugar Refineries in Melbourne and Auckland. The decision to enter into the production of raw sugar and sugar cane plantation was due to the Company's desire to shield itself from fluctuations in the price of raw sugar needed to run its refining operations. In May 1880 Fiji's Colonial Secretary John Bates Thurston persuaded the Colonial Sugar Refining Company to extend their operations into Fiji
Fiji
by making available 2,000 acres (8 km²) of land to establish plantations. Blackbirding
Blackbirding
in Fiji[edit] Main article: Blackbirding
Blackbirding
§ In Fiji

Map of Melanesia

The blackbirding era began in Fiji
Fiji
in 1865 when the first New Hebridean and Solomon Island
Solomon Island
labourers were transported there to work on cotton plantations. The American Civil War
American Civil War
had cut off the supply of cotton to the international market when the Union blockaded southern ports. Cotton cultivation was potentially an extremely profitable business. Thousands of European planters flocked to Fiji
Fiji
to establish plantations but found the natives unwilling to adapt to their plans. They sought labour from the Melanesian islands. On 5 July 1865 Ben Pease received the first licence to provide 40 labourers from the New Hebrides
New Hebrides
to Fiji.[31] The British and Queensland
Queensland
governments tried to regulate this recruiting and transport of labour. Melanesian labourers were to be recruited for a term of three years, paid three pounds per year, issued with basic clothing and given access to the company store for supplies. Most Melanesians
Melanesians
were recruited by deceit, usually being enticed aboard ships with gifts, and then locked up. The living and working conditions for them in Fiji
Fiji
were worse than those suffered by the later Indian indentured labourers. In 1875, the chief medical officer in Fiji, Sir William MacGregor, listed a mortality rate of 540 out of every 1000 labourers. After the expiry of the three-year contract, the government required captains to transport the labourers back to their villages, but most ship captains dropped them off at the first island they sighted off the Fiji
Fiji
waters. The British sent warships to enforce the law (Pacific Islanders' Protection Act of 1872) but only a small proportion of the culprits were prosecuted. A notorious incident of the blackbirding trade was the 1871 voyage of the brig Carl, organised by Dr James Patrick Murray,[32] to recruit labourers to work in the plantations of Fiji. Murray had his men reverse their collars and carry black books, so to appear to be church missionaries. When islanders were enticed to a religious service, Murray and his men would produce guns and force the islanders onto boats. During the voyage Murray shot about 60 islanders. He was never brought to trial for his actions, as he was given immunity in return for giving evidence against his crew members.[33][32] The captain of the Carl, Joseph Armstrong, was later sentenced to death.[32][34] Beginning in 1879, British planters arranged for the transport of Indian indentured labourers in Fiji. The number of Melanesian labourers declined, but they were still being recruited and employed in such places as sugar mills and ports, until the start of the First World War. In addition, as recounted by writer Jack London, the British and Queensland
Queensland
ships often used black crews, sometimes recruited among the islanders. Most of the Melanesians
Melanesians
recruited were males. After the recruitment ended, those who chose to stay in Fiji took Fijian wives and settled in areas around Suva. Their multi-cultural descendants identify as a distinct community but, to outsiders, their language and culture cannot be distinguished from native Fijians. Descendants of Solomon Islanders have filed land claims to assert their right to traditional settlements in Fiji: a group living at Tamavua-i-Wai in Fiji
Fiji
received a High Court verdict in their favour on 1 February 2007. The court refused a claim by the Seventh-day Adventist Church to force the islanders to vacate the land on which they had been living for seventy years.[35] Indian indenture system
Indian indenture system
in Fiji[edit] Main articles: Indian indenture system, Indian indenture ships to Fiji, and Repatriation of indentured Indians from Fiji Between 1879 and 1916, tens of thousands of Indians moved to Fiji
Fiji
to work as indentured labourers, especially on sugarcane plantations. A total of 42 ships made 87 voyages, carrying Indian indentured labourers to Fiji. Initially the ships brought labourers from Calcutta, but from 1903 all ships except two also brought labourers from Madras
Madras
and Mumbai. A total of 60,965 passengers left India
India
but only 60,553 (including births at sea) arrived in Fiji. A total of 45,439 boarded ships in Calcutta
Calcutta
and 15,114 in Madras. Sailing ships took, on average, seventy-three days for the trip while steamers took 30 days. The shipping companies associated with the labour trade were Nourse Line and British- India
India
Steam Navigation Company. Repatriation of indentured Indians from Fiji
Fiji
began on 3 May 1892, when the British Peer brought 464 repatriated Indians to Calcutta. Various ships made similar journeys to Calcutta
Calcutta
and Madras, concluding with Sirsa's 1951 voyage. In 1955 and 1956, three ships brought Indian labourers from Fiji
Fiji
to Sydney, from where the labourers flew to Bombay. Indentured Indians wishing to return to India
India
were given two options. One was travel at their own expense and the other free of charge but subject to certain conditions. To obtain free passage back to India, labourers had to have been above age twelve upon arrival, completed at least five years of service and lived in Fiji
Fiji
for a total of ten consecutive years. A child born to these labourers in Fiji could accompany his or her parents or guardian back to India
India
if he or she was under twelve. Due to the high cost of returning at their own expense, most indentured immigrants returning to India
India
left Fiji around ten to twelve years after arrival. Indeed, just over twelve years passed between the voyage of the first ship carrying indentured Indians to Fiji
Fiji
(the Leonidas, in 1879) and the first ship to take Indians back (the British Peer, in 1892). Given the steady influx of ships carrying indentured Indians to Fiji
Fiji
up until 1916, repatriated Indians generally boarded these same ships on their return voyage. The total number of repatriates under the Fiji
Fiji
indenture system is recorded as 39,261, while the number of arrivals is said to have been 60,553. Because the return figure includes children born in Fiji, many of the indentured Indians never returned to India. Direct return voyages by ship ceased after 1951. Instead, arrangements were made for flights from Sydney to Bombay, the first of which departed in July 1955. Labourers still travelled to Sydney by ship. Fiji
Fiji
in World War I[edit] Fiji
Fiji
was only peripherally involved in World War I. One memorable incident occurred in September 1917 when Count
Count
Felix von Luckner arrived at Wakaya Island, off the eastern coast of Viti Levu, after his raider, the Seeadler, had run aground in the Cook Islands following the shelling of Papeete
Papeete
in the French territory of Tahiti. On 21 September, the district police inspector took a number of Fijians
Fijians
to Wakaya, and von Luckner, not realizing that they were unarmed, unwittingly surrendered. Citing unwillingness to exploit the Fijian people, the colonial authorities did not permit Fijians
Fijians
to enlist. One Fijian of chiefly rank, a greatgrandson of Cakobau's, did join the French Foreign Legion, however, and received France's highest military decoration, the Croix de Guerre. After going on to complete a Law degree at Oxford University, this same chief returned to Fiji
Fiji
in 1921 as both a war hero and the country's first-ever university graduate. In the years that followed, Ratu
Ratu
Sir Lala Sukuna, as he was later known, established himself as the most powerful chief in Fiji
Fiji
and forged embryonic institutions for what would later become the modern Fijian nation.

Flag of Fiji
Fiji
1924-1970

Fiji
Fiji
in World War II[edit] Main article: British Empire
British Empire
in World War II By the time of World War II, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
had reversed its policy of not enlisting natives, and many thousands of Fijians volunteered for the Fiji
Fiji
Infantry Regiment, which was under the command of Ratu
Ratu
Sir Edward Cakobau, another greatgrandson of Seru Epenisa Cakobau. The regiment was attached to New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australian army units during the war. The Empire of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, on 8 December 1941 (Fiji time), marked the beginning of the Pacific War. Japanese submarines launched seaplanes that flew over Fiji; Japanese submarine I-25
Japanese submarine I-25
on 17 March 1942 and Japanese submarine I-10
Japanese submarine I-10
on 30 November 1941. Because of its central location, Fiji
Fiji
was selected as a training base for the Allies. An airstrip was built at Nadi
Nadi
(later to become an international airport), and gun emplacements studded the coast. Fijians
Fijians
gained a reputation for bravery in the Solomon Islands campaign, with one war correspondent describing their ambush tactics as "death with velvet gloves." Corporal Sefanaia Sukanaivalu, of Yucata, was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross, as a result of his bravery in the Battle of Bougainville. Indo-Fijians, however, generally refused to enlist,[citation needed] after their demand for equal treatment to Europeans was refused.[36] They disbanded a platoon they had organized, and contributed nothing more than one officer and 70 enlisted men in a reserve transport section, on condition that they not be sent overseas. The refusal of Indo- Fijians
Fijians
to play an active role in the war efforts become part of the ideological construction employed by Fijian ethno-nationalists to justify interethnic tensions in the post-war years. The development of political institutions[edit] A Legislative Council, initially with advisory powers, had existed as an appointed body since 1874, but in 1904 it was made a partly elective body, with European male settlers empowered to elect 6 of the 19 Councillors. 2 members were appointed by the colonial Governor from a list of 6 candidates submitted by the Great Council of Chiefs; a further 8 "official" members were appointed by the Governor at his own discretion. The Governor himself was the 19th member. The first nominated Indian member was appointed in 1916; this position was made elective from 1929. A four-member Executive Council had also been established in 1904; this was not a "Cabinet" in the modern sense, as its members were not responsible to the Legislative Council. After World War II, Fiji
Fiji
began to take its first steps towards internal self-government. The Legislative Council was expanded to 32 members in 1953, 15 of them elected and divided equally among the three major ethnic constituencies (indigenous Fijians, Indo-Fijians, and Europeans). Indo-Fijian and European electors voted directly for 3 of the 5 members allocated to them (the other two were appointed by the Governor); the 5 indigenous Fijian members were all nominated by the Great Council of Chiefs. Ratu
Ratu
Sukuna was chosen as the first Speaker. Although the Legislative Council still had few of the powers of the modern Parliament, it brought native Fijians
Fijians
and Indo-Fijians into the official political structure for the first time, and fostered the beginning of a modern political culture in Fiji. These steps towards self-rule were welcomed by the Indo-Fijian community, which by that time had come to outnumber the native Fijian population. Fearing Indo-Fijian domination, many Fijian chiefs saw the benevolent rule of the British as preferable to Indo-Fijian control, and resisted British moves towards autonomy. By this time, however, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
had apparently decided to divest itself of its colonial empire, and pressed ahead with reforms. The Fijian people as a whole were enfranchised for the first time in 1963, when the legislature was made a wholly elective body, except for 2 members out of 36 nominated by the Great Council of Chiefs. 1964 saw the first step towards responsible government, with the introduction of the Member system. Specific portfolios were given to certain elected members of the Legislative Council. They did not constitute a Cabinet in the Westminster sense of the term, as they were officially advisers to the colonial Governor rather than ministers with executive authority, and were responsible only to the Governor, not to the legislature. Nevertheless, over the ensuing three year, the then Governor, Sir Derek Jakeway, treated the Members more and more like ministers, to prepare them for the advent of responsible government. Responsible government[edit]

Kamisese Mara

A constitutional conference was held in London
London
in July 1965, to discuss constitutional changes with a view to introducing responsible government. Indo-Fijians, led by A. D. Patel, demanded the immediate introduction of full self-government, with a fully elected legislature, to be elected by universal suffrage on a common voters' roll. These demands were vigorously rejected by the ethnic Fijian delegation, who still feared loss of control over natively owned land and resources should an Indo-Fijian dominated government come to power. The British made it clear, however, that they were determined to bring Fiji
Fiji
to self-government and eventual independence. Realizing that they had no choice, Fiji's chiefs decided to negotiate for the best deal they could get. A series of compromises led to the establishment of a cabinet system of government in 1967, with Ratu
Ratu
Kamisese Mara
Kamisese Mara
as the first Chief Minister. Ongoing negotiations between Mara and Sidiq Koya, who had taken over the leadership of the mainly Indo-Fijian National Federation Party on Patel's death in 1969, led to a second constitutional conference in London, in April 1970, at which Fiji's Legislative Council agreed on a compromise electoral formula and a timetable for independence as a fully sovereign and independent nation with the Commonwealth. The Legislative Council would be replaced with a bicameral Parliament, with a Senate dominated by Fijian chiefs and a popularly elected House of Representatives. In the 52-member House, Native Fijians
Fijians
and Indo- Fijians
Fijians
would each be allocated 22 seats, of which 12 would represent Communal constituencies
Communal constituencies
comprising voters registered on strictly ethnic roles, and another 10 representing National constituencies
National constituencies
to which members were allocated by ethnicity but elected by universal suffrage. A further 8 seats were reserved for "General electors" - Europeans, Chinese, Banaban Islanders, and other minorities; 3 of these were "communal" and 5 "national." With this compromise, Fiji
Fiji
became independent on 10 October 1970. Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
visited Fiji
Fiji
before its independence in 1953, 1963 and March 1970, and after independence in 1973, 1977 and 1982. Independent Fiji[edit]

Coat of arms of Fiji

Main article: Dominion of Fiji In April 1970, a constitutional conference in London
London
agreed that Fiji should become a fully sovereign and independent nation within the Commonwealth of Nations.The Dominion of Fiji
Dominion of Fiji
became independent on 10 October of that year. One of the main issues that has fuelled Fijian politics over the years is land tenure. Indigenous Fijian communities very closely identify themselves with their land. In 1909 near the peak of the inflow of indentured Indian labourers, the land ownership pattern was frozen and further sales prohibited. Today over 80% of the land is held by indigenous Fijians, under the collective ownership of the traditional Fijian clans. Indo- Fijians
Fijians
produce over 90% of the sugar crop but must lease the land they work from its ethnic Fijian owners instead of being able to buy it outright. The leases have been generally for 10 years, although they are usually renewed for two 10‑year extensions. Many Indo- Fijians
Fijians
argue that these terms do not provide them with adequate security and have pressed for renewable 30‑year leases, while many ethnic Fijians
Fijians
fear that an Indo-Fijian government would erode their control over the land. The Indo-Fijian parties' major voting bloc is made up of sugarcane farmers. The farmers' main tool of influence has been their ability to galvanise widespread boycotts of the sugar industry, thereby crippling the economy. Post-independence politics came to be dominated by Ratu
Ratu
Sir Kamisese Mara and the Alliance Party, which commanded the support of the traditional Fijian chiefs, along with leading elements of the European and part-European communities, and some Indo-Fijians. The main parliamentary opposition, the National Federation Party, represented mainly rural Indo-Fijians. Intercommunal relations were managed without serious confrontation. A short-lived constitutional crisis developed after the parliamentary election of March 1977, when the Indian-led National Federation Party (NFP) won a narrow majority of seats in the House of Representatives, but failed to form a government due to internal leadership problems, as well as concerns among some of its members that indigenous Fijians
Fijians
would not accept Indo-Fijian leadership. The NFP splintered in a leadership brawl three days after the election; in a controversial move, the governor-general, Ratu
Ratu
Sir George Cakobau, called on the defeated Mara to form an interim government, pending a second election to resolve the impasse. This was held in September that year, and saw Mara's Alliance Party returned with a record majority of 36 parliamentary seats out of 52. The majority of the Alliance Party was reduced in the election of 1982, but with 28 seats out of 52, Mara retained power. Mara proposed a "government of national unity" – a grand coalition between his Alliance Party and the NFP, but the NFP leader, Jai Ram Reddy, rejected this. 1987 coups[edit]

Sitiveni Rabuka

Main article: 1987 Fijian coups d'état Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 precipitated by a growing perception that the government was dominated by the Indo-Fijian (Indian) community. The second 1987 coup saw both the Fijian monarchy and the Governor General replaced by a non-executive president and the name of the country changed from Dominion of Fiji
Dominion of Fiji
to Republic of Fiji
Fiji
and then in 1997 to Republic of the Fiji
Fiji
Islands. The two coups and the accompanying civil unrest contributed to heavy Indo-Fijian emigration; the resulting population loss resulted in economic difficulties and ensured that Melanesians became the majority.[37] In April 1987, a coalition led by Timoci Bavadra, an ethnic Fijian who was nevertheless supported mostly by the Indo-Fijian community, won the general election and formed Fiji's first majority Indian government, with Bavadra serving as Prime Minister. After less than a month, on 14 May 1987 Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka
Sitiveni Rabuka
(who had had previously served with the United Nations peacekeeping forces in Lebanon[38]) forcibly deposed Bavadra. At first, Rabuka expressed loyalty to Queen Elizabeth II. However, Governor-General Ratu
Ratu
Sir Penaia Ganilau, in an effort to uphold Fiji's constitution, refused to swear in the new (self-appointed) government headed by Rabuka. After a period of continued jockeying and negotiation, Rabuka staged a second coup on 25 September 1987. The military government revoked the constitution and declared Fiji
Fiji
a republic on 10 October, the seventeenth anniversary of Fiji's independence from the United Kingdom. This action, coupled with protests by the government of India, led to Fiji's expulsion from the Commonwealth and official non-recognition of the Rabuka regime by foreign governments, including Australia
Australia
and New Zealand. On 6 December, Rabuka resigned as Head of State, and the former Governor-General, Ratu
Ratu
Sir Penaia Ganilau, was appointed the first President of the Fijian Republic. Mara was reappointed Prime Minister, and Rabuka became Minister of home affairs. The 1990 Constitution[edit] In 1990, the new Constitution institutionalised ethnic Fijian domination of the political system. The Group Against Racial Discrimination (GARD) was formed to oppose the unilaterally imposed constitution and to restore the 1970 constitution. In 1992 Sitiveni Rabuka, the Lieutenant Colonel who had carried out the 1987 coup, became Prime Minister following elections held under the new constitution. Three years later, Rabuka established the Constitutional Review Commission, which in 1997 wrote a new constitution which was supported by most leaders of the indigenous Fijian and Indo-Fijian communities. Fiji
Fiji
was re-admitted to the Commonwealth of Nations. The new government drafted a new Constitution that went into force in July 1990. Under its terms, majorities were reserved for ethnic Fijians
Fijians
in both houses of the legislature. Previously, in 1989, the government had released statistical information showing that for the first time since 1946, ethnic Fijians
Fijians
were a majority of the population. More than 12,000 Indo- Fijians
Fijians
and other minorities had left the country in the two years following the 1987 coups. After resigning from the military, Rabuka became Prime Minister under the new constitution in 1992. Ethnic tensions simmered in 1995–1996 over the renewal of Indo-Fijian land leases and political manoeuvring surrounding the mandated 7‑year review of the 1990 constitution. The Constitutional Review Commission produced a draft constitution which slightly expanded the size of the legislature, lowered the proportion of seats reserved by ethnic group, reserved the presidency for ethnic Fijians but opened the position of Prime Minister to all races[clarification needed]. Prime Minister Rabuka and President Mara supported the proposal, while the nationalist indigenous Fijian parties opposed it. The reformed constitution was approved in July 1997. Fiji
Fiji
was readmitted to the Commonwealth in October. The first legislative elections held under the new 1997 Constitution took place in May 1999. Rabuka's coalition was defeated by an alliance of Indo-Fijian parties led by Mahendra Chaudhry, who became Fiji's first Indo-Fijian Prime Minister. The 2000 coup and Qarase government[edit]

Mahendra Chaudhry

Main articles: 2000 Fijian coup d'état
2000 Fijian coup d'état
and Removal of Ratu
Ratu
Mara, 2000 The year 2000 brought along another coup, instigated by George Speight, which effectively toppled the government of Mahendra Chaudhry, who in 1997 had become the country's first Indo-Fijian Prime Minister following the adoption of the new constitution. Commodore Frank Bainimarama
Frank Bainimarama
assumed executive power after the resignation, possibly forced, of President Ratu
Ratu
Sir Kamisese Mara. Later in 2000, Fiji
Fiji
was rocked by two mutinies when rebel soldiers went on a rampage at Suva's Queen Elizabeth Barracks. The High Court ordered the reinstatement of the constitution, and in September 2001, to restore democracy, a general election was held which was won by interim Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase's Soqosoqo Duavata ni Lewenivanua
Soqosoqo Duavata ni Lewenivanua
party.[39] Chaudhry's government was short-lived. After barely a year in office, Chaudhry and most other members of parliament were taken hostage in the House of Representatives by gunmen led by ethnic Fijian nationalist George Speight, on 19 May 2000. The standoff dragged on for 8 weeks – during which time Chaudhry was removed from office by the then-President Ratu
Ratu
Sir Kamisese Mara
Kamisese Mara
because of his inability to govern – before the Fijian military seized power and brokered a negotiated end to the situation, then arrested Speight when he violated its terms. Former banker Laisenia Qarase
Laisenia Qarase
was named interim Prime Minister and head of the interim civilian government by the military and the Great Council of Chiefs
Great Council of Chiefs
in July. A court order restored the constitution early in 2001, and a subsequent election confirmed Qarase as Prime Minister. In 2005, the Qarase government amid much controversy proposed a Reconciliation and Unity Commission with power to recommend compensation for victims of the 2000 coup and amnesty for its perpetrators. However, the military, especially the nation's top military commander, Frank Bainimarama, strongly opposed this bill. Bainimarama agreed with detractors who said that to grant amnesty to supporters of the present government who had played a role in the violent coup was a sham. His attack on the legislation, which continued unremittingly throughout May and into June and July, further strained his already tense relationship with the government. The 2006 coup[edit]

Frank Bainimarama

Main article: 2006 Fijian coup d'État In late November and early December 2006, Bainimarama was instrumental in the 2006 Fijian coup d'état. Bainimarama handed down a list of demands to Qarase after a bill was put forward to parliament, part of which would have offered pardons to participants in the 2000 coup attempt. He gave Qarase an ultimatum date of 4 December to accede to these demands or to resign from his post. Qarase adamantly refused either to concede or resign, and on 5 December the president, Ratu Josefa Iloilo, was said to have signed a legal order dissolving the parliament after meeting with Bainimarama. Disgruntled by two bills before the Fijian Parliament, one offering amnesty for the leaders of the 2000 coup, the military leader Commodore Frank Bainimarama
Frank Bainimarama
asked Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase
Laisenia Qarase
to resign in mid‑October 2006. The Prime Minister attempted to sack Bainimarama without success. Australian and New Zealand
New Zealand
governments expressed concerns about a possible coup. On 4 November 2006, Qarase dropped the controversial amnesty measures from the bill. [40] On 29 November New Zealand
New Zealand
foreign Minister Winston Peters
Winston Peters
organised talks in Wellington
Wellington
between Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase
Laisenia Qarase
and Commodore Bainimarama. Peters reported the talks as "positive" but after returning to Fiji
Fiji
Commodore Bainimarama announced that the military were to take over most of Suva
Suva
and fire into the harbour "in anticipation of any foreign intervention". [5] Bainimarama announced on 3 December 2006 that he had taken control of Fiji. [41] Bainimarama restored the presidency to Ratu
Ratu
Josefa Iloilo on 4 January 2007,[42][43] and in turn was formally appointed interim Prime Minister by Iloilo the next day.[44][45] Main article: 2009 Fijian constitutional crisis In April 2009, the Fiji
Fiji
Court of Appeal ruled that the 2006 coup had been illegal. This began the 2009 Fijian constitutional crisis. President Iloilo abrogated the constitution, removed all office holders under the constitution including all judges and the governor of the Central Bank. He then reappointed Bainimarama under his "New Order" as interim Prime Minister and imposed a "Public Emergency Regulation" limiting internal travel and allowing press censorship. On 10 April 2009, Fijian President
Fijian President
Ratu
Ratu
Josefa Iloilo announced on a nationwide radio broadcast that he had abrogated the Constitution of Fiji, dismissed the Court of Appeal and all other branches of the Judiciary, and assumed all governance in the country after the court ruled that the current government was illegal.[46] The next day, he reinstated Bainimarama, who announced that there would be no elections until 2014. A new Constitution was promulgated by the regime in September 2013, and a general election was held in September 2014. It was won by Bainimarama's FijiFirst Party. Multiple citizenship, previously prohibited under the 1997 constitution (abrogated April 2009), has been permitted since the April 2009 Citizenship Decree[47][48] and established as a right under Section 5(4) of the September 2013 Constitution.[49][50] As already proposed in the 2008 People's Charter for Change, Peace and Progress, the Fijian Affairs [Amendment] Decree 2010 replaced the word Fijian or indigenous or indigenous Fijian with the word iTaukei in all written laws, and all official documentation when referring to the original and native settlers of Fiji. All citizens of Fiji
Fiji
are now called Fijians[51][52][53] Role of the military[edit] Main article: Military–church relations in Fiji For a country of its size, Fiji
Fiji
has fairly large armed forces, and has been a major contributor to UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
missions in various parts of the world. In addition, a significant number of former military personnel have served in the lucrative security sector in Iraq following the 2003 US-led invasion.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Timeline of Fijian history Politics of Fiji

Notes[edit]

^ " Fiji
Fiji
Geography". fijidiscovery.com. 2005. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2010.  ^ "Fiji: History". infoplease.com. 2005. Retrieved 15 September 2010.  ^ "Fiji's president takes over power". BBC. 10 April 2009. Archived from the original on 13 April 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2010.  ^ Perry, Nick; Pita, Ligaiula (29 September 2014). "Int'l monitors endorse Fiji
Fiji
election as credible". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-01. Retrieved 2009-02-11.  Dr Patrick D. Nunn ^ Gravelle, Kim (1983). Fiji's Times. Suva: Fiji
Fiji
Times.  ^ Brewster, Adolph (1922). The hill tribes of Fiji. London: Seeley.  ^ Banivanua-Mar, Tracey (2010). " Cannibalism
Cannibalism
and Colonialism: Charting colonies and frontiers in 19th century Fiji". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 52 (2): 255–281. Retrieved 7 April 2018.  ^ Sanday, Peggy Reeves (1986) Divine hunger: cannibalism as a cultural system, Cambridge University Press, p. 166, IBNS 0521311144. ^ Scarr, Daryck. A Short History of Fijiyear=1984. p. 3.  ^ Scarr, page 19 ^ "Pacific Peoples, Melanesia/Micronesia/Polynesia". Archived from the original on 1 March 2005. Retrieved 1 March 2005. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) , Central Queensland
Queensland
University. ^ Arens, William (1980). The Man-Eating Myth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ^ Gordon, A.H. (1879). Letters and Notes written during the disturbances in the highlands of Viti Levu, Fiji, 1876. Vol. 2. Edinburgh: R&R Clark. p. 174.  ^ Abel Janszoon Tasman Biography, www.answers.com. ^ Gravelle, Kim (1983). Fiji's Times. Suva: Fiji
Fiji
Times. pp. 29–42.  ^ Wilkes, Charles (1849). Narrative of the United States
United States
Exploring Expedition. Vol. 3. Philadelphia. p. 220.  ^ Gravelle, Kim (1983). Fiji's Times. pp. 47–50.  ^ Wilkes, Charles (1849). Narrative of the United States
United States
Exploring Expedition Vol. 3. p. 155.  ^ Brewster, Adolph (1922). Hill Tribes of Fiji. London: Seeley. p. 25.  ^ Wilkes, Charles (1849). Narrative of the United States
United States
Exploring Expedition Vol 3. p. 278.  ^ Gravelle, Kim (1983). Fiji's Times. pp. 67–80.  ^ Gravelle, Kim (1983). Fiji's Times. pp. 76–97.  ^ Gravelle, Kim (1983). Fiji's Times. pp. 98–102.  ^ Gravelle, pg.102 ^ Gravelle, pp.102-107 ^ "FIJI". Sydney Mail. IX, (429). New South Wales, Australia. 19 September 1868. p. 11. Retrieved 9 April 2018 – via National Library of Australia.  ^ “Historical Time line” Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Fiji
Fiji
government. ^ “Timeline: Fiji”. BBC News. ^ “World Battlefronts: Yanks in the Cannibal Isles”. Time. 26 October 1942. ^ Jane Resture. "The Story of Blackbirding
Blackbirding
in the South Seas – Part 2". Janesoceania.com. Retrieved 9 December 2013.  ^ a b c R. G. Elmslie, 'The Colonial Career of James Patrick Murray', Australian and New Zealand
New Zealand
Journal of Surgery, (1979) 49(1):154-62 ^ James A. Michener & A. Grove Day, "Bully Hayes, South Sea Buccaneer", in Rascals in Paradise, London: Secker & Warburg 1957 ^ Sydney Morning Herald, 20–23 Nov 1872, 1 March 1873 ^ "Solomon Islands descendants win land case". Fijitimes.com. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2011.  ^ Kaplan, Martha; Kelly, John (2001). Represented communities: Fiji and world decolonization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  ^ Lal, Brij V (April 2003). " Fiji
Fiji
Islands: From Immigration to Emigration". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 14 June 2009.  ^ Politics, Professionalism, and Peacekeeping: An Analysis of the 1987 Military Coup in Fiji, Andrew Scobell, Comparative Politics, vol. 26, no. 2. (Jan. 1994), pp. 187–201. ^ In George Speight's Shadow: Fiji
Fiji
General Elections of 2001 Jstor.org. Retrieved 23 March 2016. ^ Williams, Peter (5 November 2006). " Fiji
Fiji
PM drops controversial bill". The New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald. AAP. Retrieved 3 November 2011.  ^ Phil Taylor and Nicola Shepheard (3 December 2006). "Fiji's military leader rules out further talks – report". The New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald. Retrieved 3 November 2011.  ^ Fiji
Fiji
Village, 04-01-07, 'Commander hands back Executive Authority to Ratu
Ratu
Iloilo ' [1] ^ Fiji
Fiji
Live, 04-01-07, 'I support army takeover: Iloilo' [2] ^ Fiji
Fiji
Village, 05-01-07, 'Commander Bainimarama sworn in' [3] ^ Fiji
Fiji
Live, 05-01-07, 'President swears in interim PM' [4] ^ " Fijian President
Fijian President
Ratu
Ratu
Josefa Iloilo abolishes constitution, sacks judiciary and assumes power". Australian Associated Press. The Australian. 10 April 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2009.  ^ "Citizenship". Fiji
Fiji
Department of Immigration. Retrieved 25 October 2013.  ^ "2009 Citizenship Decree (PDF)" (PDF). Fiji
Fiji
Department of Immigration. Retrieved 25 October 2013.  ^ "2013 Constitution". Elections Fiji. Retrieved 25 October 2013.  ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Fiji
Fiji
(PDF)" (PDF). Elections Fiji. Retrieved 25 October 2013.  ^ "The Name “Fijian” Belongs to Indigenous – Qarase", FijiVillage, 8 August 2008 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.  ^ Constitution of Fiji
Fiji
2013

External links[edit]

"Background Note: Fiji". state.gov. United States
United States
Department of State. October 2008.  "History of Fiji
Fiji
Islands and Fiji
Fiji
Bank Notes – 1872 to date". fijibure.com.  "Fiji: In Depth: History". Frommer's. Wiley Publishing.  Great Council of Chiefs
Great Council of Chiefs
- A Colonial Legacy Created to Protect The Supremacy of Bau url= http://fijisun.com.fj/2015/09/29/the-politics-of-fiji-a-way-forward-for-itaukei-people/

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