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The Hejaz
Hejaz
(Arabic: اَلْـحِـجَـاز‎, Al-Ḥijāz, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. The region is so called as it separates the land of the Najd in the east from the land of Tihamah
Tihamah
in the west. It is also known as the "Western Province."[1] It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by Jordan, on the east by the Najd, and on the south by 'Asir Region.[2] Its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better known for the Islamic holy cities of Mecca[3] and Medina.[4][5] As the site of the two holiest sites in Islam, the Hejaz
Hejaz
has significance in the Arab
Arab
and Islamic historical and political landscape. Historically, the Hejaz
Hejaz
has always seen itself as separate from the rest of Saudi Arabia.[6] The Hejaz
Hejaz
is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia;[7] 35% of all Saudis live there.[8] Hejazi Arabic
Hejazi Arabic
is the most widely spoken dialect in the region. Saudi Hejazis are of ethnically diverse origins.[9] The Hejaz
Hejaz
is the most cosmopolitan region in the Arabian Peninsula.[9] People of Hejaz
Hejaz
have the most strongly articulated identity of any regional grouping in Saudi Arabia. Their place of origin alienates them from the Saudi state, which invokes different narratives of the history of the Arabian Peninsula. Thus, Hejazis experienced tensions with people of Najd.[10]

Contents

1 Timeline

1.1 Prehistoric or ancient times

1.1.1 Al-Hijr Archaeological Site 1.1.2 Era of Abraham
Abraham
and Ishmael 1.1.3 Era of Muhammad

1.2 Subsequent history

1.2.1 Brief independence 1.2.2 In modern Saudi Arabia

1.3 Flags of entities that have dominated the Hejaz

2 Cities 3 Geography 4 International standard resort 5 People of the Hejaz 6 Gallery 7 Notable Hijazis

7.1 Al-Abwa' 7.2 Mecca

7.2.1 Pre-6th century ACE

7.2.1.1 Men 7.2.1.2 Women

7.2.2 6th–7th centuries CE

7.2.2.1 Men 7.2.2.2 Women

7.3 Medina

7.3.1 Pre-6th century CE 7.3.2 6th–7th centuries CE

7.3.2.1 Men 7.3.2.2 Women

7.3.3 8th century CE

7.3.3.1 Men 7.3.3.2 Women

7.3.4 9th Century CE

7.4 Ta'if

7.4.1 6th–7th centuries CE 7.4.2 Post-7th century CE

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Timeline[edit] Prehistoric or ancient times[edit]

The city of Al-`Ula
Al-`Ula
(Arabic: الـعُـلَا‎), 2012. The city's archaeological sector is in the foreground.

One or possibly two megalithic dolmen have been found in the Hijaz.[11] The Hejaz
Hejaz
includes both the Mahd adh-Dhahab
Mahd adh-Dhahab
(Arabic: مَـهْـد الـذَّهَـب‎, "Cradle of (the) Gold") (23°30′12.96″N 40°51′34.92″E / 23.5036000°N 40.8597000°E / 23.5036000; 40.8597000) and a water source, now dried out, that used to flow 600 miles (970 km) north east to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
via the Wadi Al-Rummah
Wadi Al-Rummah
and Wadi Al-Batin
Wadi Al-Batin
system. Archaeological research led by of Boston University
Boston University
and the University of Qassim indicates that the river system was active in 8000  BCE[citation needed] and 2500–3000 BCE.[12] The northern part of the Hejaz
Hejaz
was part of the Roman province
Roman province
of Arabia Petraea.[13] Al-Hijr Archaeological Site[edit] Main article: Mada'in Saleh

Al-Ḥijr (Arabic: الـحِـجْـر‎) or Madâ’in Ṣâliḥ (Arabic: مَـدَائِـن صَـالِـح‎, "Cities of Salih"), 2012

Saudi Arabia's first World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
that was recognized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
is that of Al-Hijr. The name "Al-Ḥijr" (Arabic: الْـحِـجْـر‎, "The Land of Stones" or "The Rocky Place") occurs in the Quran,[14] and the site is known for having structures carved into rocks, similar to Petra.[6][15] Construction of the structures is credited to the people of Thamud. The location is also called "Madā’in Ṣāliḥ" (Arabic: مَـدَائِـن صَـالِـح‎, "Cities of Saleh"),[16][17][18][19][20][21] as it is speculated to be the city in which Islamic Prophet Salih
Salih
was sent to the people of Thamud. After the disappearance of Thamud from Mada'in Saleh, it came under the influence of other people, such as the Nabataeans, whose capital was Petra. Later, it would lie in a route used by Muslim
Muslim
Pilgrims going to Mecca.[13][22][23][24] Era of Abraham
Abraham
and Ishmael[edit] Further information: Abraham
Abraham
in Islam, Hagar
Hagar
in Islam, and Ishmael
Ishmael
in Islam According to Islamic sources, the civilization of Mecca
Mecca
started after Ibrāhīm (Arabic: إِبـرَاهِـيـم‎, Abraham) brought his son Ismā‘īl (Arabic: إِسـمَـاعِـيـل‎, Ishmael) and wife Hājar (Arabic: هَـاجَـر‎, Hagar) here, for the latter two to stay. Some people from the Tribe of Jurhum settled with them, and Isma'il reportedly married two women, one after divorcing another, at least one of them from this tribe, and helped his father to construct or re-construct the Ka‘bah
Ka‘bah
(Arabic: كَـعـبَـة‎),[25][26][27] which would have social, religious, political and historical implications for the site and region.[28][29] For example, in Arab
Arab
or Islamic belief, a tribe called 'Quraysh' (Arabic: قُـرَيـش‎) would descend from Isma'il ibn Ibrahim, be based in the vicinity of the Ka'bah,[30] and include Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib
Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib
ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf. From the Period of Jāhiliyyah (Arabic: جَـاهِـلِـيَّـة‎, 'Ignorance') to the days of Muhammad, the often-warring Arab
Arab
tribes would cease their hostilities during the time of Pilgrimage, and go on pilgrimage to Mecca, as inspired by Ibrahim.[27] It was during such an occasion that Muhammad
Muhammad
met some Medinans who would allow him to migrate to Medina, to escape persecution by his opponents in Mecca.[31][32][33][34][35][36] Era of Muhammad[edit] Main article: Muhammad
Muhammad
in Islam

Muhammad's Mosque
Mosque
in Medina, his place-of-residence after the Hijrah (Arabic: هِـجْـرَة‎, Migration) from Mecca, 2010

As the land of Mecca[3] and Medina,[4][5] the Hijaz was where Muhammad was born, and where he founded a Monotheistic Ummah
Ummah
(Arabic: أُمَّـة‎, Community) of followers, bore patience with his foes or struggled against them, migrated from one place to another, preached or implemented his beliefs, lived and died. Given that he had both followers and enemies here, a number of battles or expeditions were carried out in this area, like those of al-Aḥzāb (Arabic: الأَحـزَاب‎, "the Confederates"), Badr[37] and Ḥunayn (Arabic: حُـنَـيـن‎). They involved both Meccan companions, such as Hamzah ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Ubaydah ibn al-Harith and Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, and Medinan companions.[4][35][36][38][39] The Hijaz fell under Muhammad's influence as he emerged victorious over his opponents, and was thus a part of his empire.[28][31][33][34][40][41][42] Subsequent history[edit] Due to the presence of the two holy cities in the Hijaz, the region went under numerous empires. The Hijaz was at the center of the Rashidun Caliphate, in particular whilst its capital was Medina
Medina
from 632 to 656 ACE. The region was then under the control of regional powers such as Egypt
Egypt
and the Ottoman Empire, throughout much of its later history. Brief independence[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Hejaz In 1916, Sharif Hussein ibn Ali proclaimed himself King of an independent Hejaz, as a result of the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence. The ensuing Arab
Arab
Revolt overthrew the Ottoman Empire. In 1924, however, Ibn Ali's authority was replaced by that of Ibn Saud of the Najd. In modern Saudi Arabia[edit] Main article: Regions of Saudi Arabia At first, Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
ruled the two as separate units, though they became known as the Kingdom of Hejaz
Kingdom of Hejaz
and Nejd. Later they were formally combined as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Flags of entities that have dominated the Hejaz[edit]

Flag of the Ayyubid dynasty
Ayyubid dynasty
(1171–1254)

Flag of the Mamluk Sultanate (1254–1517)

Flag of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1517–1916)

Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz
Kingdom of Hejaz
(1916–1925)

Flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(1925–present)

Cities[edit]

Workers laying tracks for the Hejaz Railway
Hejaz Railway
near Tabuk, 1906

Al Bahah Region:

Al-Bāḥah
Al-Bāḥah
(Arabic: الـبَـاحَـة‎)[43]

Al Madinah Region:

Al-Madīnah Al-Munawwarah (Arabic: الـمَـدِيـنَـة الـمُـنَـوَّرَة‎, Medina)[2] Badr (Arabic: بَـدر‎)[44] Yanbu‘ al-Baḥr (Arabic: يَـنـبُـع الـبَـحـر‎, Yanbu)[2]

Makkah Province:

Aṭ-Ṭā’if
Aṭ-Ṭā’if
(Arabic: الـطَّـائِـف‎)[45] Jiddah
Jiddah
(Arabic: جِـدَّة‎)[2] Makkah (Arabic: مَـكَّـة‎, Mecca)[2] Rābigh
Rābigh
(Arabic: رَابِـغ‎)[46][47]

Tabuk Region:

Ṫabūk (Arabic: تَـبُـوك‎)[48]

Geography[edit]

Mountains near Ta'if, 2012

The region is located along the Red Sea
Red Sea
Rift. It is also known for its darker, more volcanic sand. Depending on the previous definition, the Hejaz
Hejaz
includes the high mountains of Sarawat, which topographically separate the Najd
Najd
from Tehamah. Bdellium
Bdellium
plants are also abundant in the Hijaz. International standard resort[edit] As a component of Saudi Vision 2030, a beach resort is proposed to be built on the Red Sea
Red Sea
between the towns of Umluj
Umluj
(25°03′00″N 37°15′54″E / 25.0500064°N 37.2651084°E / 25.0500064; 37.2651084) and Al-Wajh
Al-Wajh
(26°14′12″N 36°28′08″E / 26.2366058°N 36.4688958°E / 26.2366058; 36.4688958), in the northern section of the Hejazi coast. The resort project will involve "50 islands and 34,000 square kilometers in a global upmarket tourism and leisure mega-development,"[49][50] and will be "governed by laws on par with international standards."[51][52] People of the Hejaz[edit] People of Hejaz, who feel particularly connected to the holy places of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina, have probably the most strongly articulated identity of any regional grouping in Saudi Arabia.[10] The people of Hejaz
Hejaz
have never fully accommodated to Saudi rule and their Wahhabi
Wahhabi
religion. They continue to be Sunni
Sunni
of Maliki
Maliki
rite with a Shia
Shia
minority in the cities of Medina, Mecca
Mecca
and Jeddah. Many consider themselves more cosmopolitan because Hejaz
Hejaz
was for centuries a part of the great empires of Islam
Islam
from the Umayyads
Umayyads
to the Ottomans.[53] Gallery[edit]

Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām
Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām
(Arabic: الـمَـسْـجِـد الـحَـرَام‎, The Sacred Mosque), which surrounds the Ka'bah
Ka'bah
(middle), in Mecca, land of Muhammad's birth and ancestry, and an annual point of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims, 2010

Mount Arafat
Mount Arafat
in the outskirts of Mecca. This is one of the places where Muslim
Muslim
pilgrims gather for Hajj.

A packed encampment on the outskirts of Mina during Hajj

Al-Hijr Archaeological Site

Al-Bahah
Al-Bahah
City

Skyline of Jeddah
Jeddah
on the coast of the Red Sea

Notable Hijazis[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Salih
Salih
of Thamud[6][16][17][18][19][20][21]

Al-Abwa'[edit]

Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
ibn Ja‘far al-Sadiq, descendant of Muhammad[54]

Mecca[edit] Pre-6th century ACE[edit]

Men[edit]

Qusai ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b
Murrah ibn Ka'b
ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadr ibn Kinanah[55] ibn Khuzaymah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Ma'ad ibn Adnan the descendant of Isma'il ibn Ibrahim ibn Azar ibn Nahor ibn Serug ibn Reu
Reu
ibn Peleg
Peleg
ibn Eber
Eber
ibn Shelakh,[56][57] Chief of the Tribe of Quraysh, and an ancestor of Muhammad[58] Qusai's son Abd-al-Dar the father of Uthman the father of Abdul-Uzza the father of Barrah the maternal grandmother of Muhammad Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, paternal ancestor of Muhammad[59] Abdul-Uzza, son of Qusai, and an ancestor of Barrah bint Abdul-Uzza Hashim, son of Abd Manaf, paternal great-grandfather of Muhammad, and the progenitor of Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
in the Tribe of Quraysh

Women[edit]

Hubbah bint Hulail ibn Hubshiyyah ibn Salul ibn Ka‘b ibn Amr al-Khuza'i, wife of Qusai, and an ancestor of Muhammad Atikah bint Murrah
Atikah bint Murrah
ibn Hilal ibn Falij ibn Dhakwan, wife of Abd Manaf, and an ancestor of Muhammad[59]

6th–7th centuries CE[edit]

Men[edit]

Abu al-Qasim Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib[35][36] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Abdullah ibn Uthman Abu Quhafah ibn Amir ibn Amr ibn Ka'b ibn Sa'd ibn Taym ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b, father-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab
Umar ibn Al-Khattab
ibn Nufayl ibn Abdul-Uzza the descendant of Adi ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy, father-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph Hamzah, son of Abdul-Muttalib, and a paternal uncle of Muhammad, and other Muhajirun or Meccan followers of Muhammad, including Ubaydah and Sa'd Abu Talib, son of Abdul-Muttalib, Chief of Banu Hashim, paternal uncle of Muhammad, and the father of Ali Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim, Chief of Bani Hashim, and the paternal grandfather of Muhammad

Women[edit]

Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
ibn Asad ibn Abdul-Uzza ibn Qusai, and other Meccan wives of Muhammad Fatimah,[60] other daughters of Muhammad, and other Muhajir women Umm Ammar Sumayyah bint Khayyat, wife of Yasir ibn Amir
Yasir ibn Amir
ibn Malik al-Ansi, believed to be the first martyr from the followers of Muhammad Daughters of Abu Talib, and other female followers of Muhammad Aminah
Aminah
bint Wahb ibn Abd Manaf
Wahb ibn Abd Manaf
ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilab ibn Murrah, wife of Abdullah, and the mother of Muhammad Wives of Abd al-Muttalib

Medina[edit] Pre-6th century CE[edit]

Salmah, daughter of Amr, wife of Hashim, and a great-grandmother of Muhammad[59]

6th–7th centuries CE[edit]

Men[edit]

Caliph
Caliph
Hasan, and other sons of Ali and grandsons of Muhammad
Muhammad
born in Medina Caliph
Caliph
Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Marwan ibn Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As ibn Umayyah ibn Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, great-grandson of Umar ibn Al-Khattab Ansari men Hasan of Basra Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir ibn Ali Zaynul-Abidin, grandson of Hasan and Husayn the grandsons of Muhammad Zayd ibn Ali
Zayd ibn Ali
Zaynul-Abidin ibn Husayn ibn Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Muhammad, half-brother of Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir

Women[edit]

Medinan wives of Muhammad Ansari women

8th century CE[edit]

Men[edit]

Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Sons of Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
born in Medina Malik the son of Anas ibn Malik
Anas ibn Malik
ibn Abi Amir al-Asbahi (not Anas the companion of Muhammad) Ali al-Ridha
Ali al-Ridha
ibn Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq

Women[edit]

Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Musa ibn Ja'far, sister of Ali al-Ridha

9th Century CE[edit]

Abu Ali Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Jawad ibn Ali al-Ridha

Ta'if[edit] 6th–7th centuries CE[edit]

Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
ibn Abu al-'As ibn Umayyah ibn Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf, son-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph Urwah ibn Mas'ud, Chief of Banu Thaqif Nafi ibn al-Harith, Physician

Post-7th century CE[edit]

Sharif Ali ibn Ajlan ibn Rumaithah ibn Muhammad, son-in-law and successor of Sultan Ahmad of Brunei, father of Sultan Sulaiman, and a descendant of Muhammad[61]

See also[edit]

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
portal Archaeology portal Ancient Near East portal Middle East
Middle East
portal

Al Baydha Project Desert of Paran Hejaz
Hejaz
Railway Hejaz
Hejaz
Vilayet Hejazi accent Hejazi turban Hijazi script Hijaz mountains Hijaz scale Midian Mizmar (dance) Relationship between the Hijaz, Shaam and Yemen Sharifate of Mecca

References[edit]

^ Mackey, p. 101. “The Western Province, or the Hijaz[...] ^ a b c d e Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. 2001. p. 479. ISBN 0 87779 546 0. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  ^ a b Quran 48:22–29 ^ a b c Quran 9:25–129 ^ a b Quran 33:09–73 ^ a b c Butler, J. W. S.; Schulte-Peevers, A.; Shearer, I. (2010-10-01). Oman, UAE & Arabian Peninsula. Lonely Planet. pp. 316–333.  ^ "Mecca: Islam's cosmopolitan heart". The Hijaz is the largest, most populated, and most culturally and religiously diverse region of Saudi Arabia, in large part because it was the traditional host area of all the pilgrims to Mecca, many of whom settled and intermarried there.  ^ " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Population Statistics 2011 (Arabic)" (PDF). p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 15, 2013.  ^ a b Britain and Saudi Arabia, 1925-1939: The Imperial Oasis. p. 12.  ^ a b Beranek, Ondrej (January 2009). "Divided We Survive: A Landscape of Fragmentation in Saudi Arabia" (PDF). Middle East
Middle East
Brief. 33: 1–7. Retrieved April 15, 2012.  ^ Gajus Scheltema (2008). Megalithic Jordan: an introduction and field guide. ACOR. ISBN 978-9957-8543-3-1. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ Sullivan, Walter (1993-03-30). "SCIENCE WATCH; Signs of Ancient River". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-06-25.  ^ a b Kesting, Piney. "Saudi Aramco World (May/June 2001): Well of Good Fortune". Retrieved 2014-04-07.  ^ Quran 15:80–84 ^ " Al-Hijr Archaeological Site
Al-Hijr Archaeological Site
(Madâin Sâlih)". UNESCO. Retrieved 2014-04-07.  ^ a b Quran 7:73–79 ^ a b Quran 11:61–69 ^ a b Quran 26:141–158 ^ a b Quran 54:23–31 ^ a b Quran 89:6–13 ^ a b Quran 91:11–15 ^ Hizon, Danny. "Madain Saleh: Arabia's Hidden Treasure – Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 2009-09-17.  ^ "ICOMOS Evaluation of Al-Hijr Archaeological Site
Al-Hijr Archaeological Site
(Madâin Sâlih) World Heritage Nomination" (PDF). World Heritage Center. Retrieved 2009-09-16.  ^ "Information at nabataea.net". Retrieved 2009-09-17.  ^ Quran 2:127 (Translated by Yusuf Ali) ^ Quran 3:96 (Translated by Yusuf Ali) ^ a b Quran 22:25–37 ^ a b Mecca: From Before Genesis Until Now, M. Lings, pg. 39, Archetype ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, C. Glasse, Kaaba, Suhail Academy ^ Quran 106:1–4 ^ a b Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1955). Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah – The Life of Muhammad
Muhammad
Translated by A. Guillaume. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 88–9. ISBN 9780196360331.  ^ Karen Armstrong (2002). Islam: A Short History. p. 11. ISBN 0-8129-6618-X.  ^ a b Firestone, Reuven (1990). Journeys in Holy Lands: The Evolution of the Abraham- Ishmael
Ishmael
Legends in Islamic Exegesis. Albany, NY: State University of NY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0331-0.  ^ a b al-Tabari (1987). Brinner, William M., ed. The History of al-Tabari Vol. 2: Prophets and Patriarchs. Albany, NY: State University of NY Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-921-6.  ^ a b c Al Mubarakpuri, Safi ur Rahman (2002). Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar): Biography of the Noble Prophet. Darussalam. pp. 127–147. ISBN 9960-899-55-1. Retrieved 2014-10-06.  ^ a b c Haykal, Husayn (1976), The Life of Muhammad, Islamic Book Trust, pp. 217–218, ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7  ^ Quran 3:110–128 ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:57:74 ^ Witness Pioneer "Pre-Badr Missions and Invasions" ^ "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
and the Muslim
Muslim
world ^ Holt (1977), p. 57 ^ Lapidus (2002), pp. 31–32 ^ "Al-Baha City Profile". The Saudi Network. Retrieved 2012-10-02.  ^ بـتـصـرف عـن مـجـلـة الأمـانـة الـعـدد عـشـرون شـوال 1419 تـصـدر عـن أمـانـة الـمـديـنـة الـمـنـورة إمـارة مـنـطـقـة الـمـديـنـة الـمـنـورة ^ "Brief about Ta'if
Ta'if
City". Ta'if
Ta'if
City (in Arabic). Taif Municipality. Retrieved 2016-04-26. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ "Rābigh". GeoNames. Retrieved 2017-11-28.  ^ "Al-Juhfah Hajj
Hajj
& Umrah
Umrah
Planner". hajjumrahplanner.com. Retrieved 2017-04-10.  ^ "Tabouk City Profile, Saudi Arabia". The Saudi Network. Retrieved 2017-05-04.  ^ " Red Sea
Red Sea
resort an essential element of Saudi Vision 2030". 2 August 2017. Retrieved 2017-08-14.  ^ "Bikini-clad women in Saudi Arabia? Yes, really..." 2 August 2017. Retrieved 2017-08-14.  ^ " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to allow women in bikinis at new beach resort". 4 August 2017. Retrieved 2017-08-14.  ^ "Women to be allowed to wear bikinis at Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
beach resort". 5 August 2017. Retrieved 2017-08-14.  ^ Riedel, Bruce (2011). "Brezhnev in the Hejaz" (PDF). The National Interest. 115. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 15, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2012.  ^ "The Infallibles Taken from Kitab al Irshad By Sheikh al Mufid". al-islam.org. Retrieved 2008-11-20.  ^ Maqsood, Ruqaiyyah Waris. "The Prophet's Line Family No 3 – Qusayy, Hubbah, and Banu Nadr to Quraysh". Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood Dawah. Retrieved 2013-07-01.  ^ Book
Book
of Genesis, Chapters 10, 11, 16, 17, 21 and 25 ^ 1 Chronicles, Chapter 1 ^ Ibn Hisham. The Life of the Prophet Muhammad. 1. p. 181.  ^ a b c Maqsood, Ruqaiyyah Waris. "The Prophet's Family Line No. 4 – Amr (Hashim), the Founder of the Hashimites". Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood Dawah. Retrieved 3 August 2011.  ^ Chittick, William C. (1981). A Shi'ite Anthology. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-510-2.  ^ "Pusat Sejarah Brunei" (in Bahasa Melayu). www.history-centre.gov.bn. Archived from the original on April 15, 2015. Retrieved August 23, 2016. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)

Further reading[edit]

Mackey, Sandra. The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom. Updated Edition. Norton Paperback. W.W. Norton and Company, New York. 2002 (first edition: 1987). ISBN 0-393-32417-6 pbk.

External links[edit]

 "Hejaz". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hejaz.

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Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency
(central bank) Supreme Economic Council Tadawul
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(stock exchange) Telecommunications Tourism Transport

Society

Censorship Crime Demographics Education

List of universities

Health care Human trafficking Obesity Prostitution Religion Terrorism

Response to ISIL

Water supply and sanitation

Culture

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television

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Outline Index

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Middle Eastern megaliths

Lebanon

Sands of Beirut Hermel Kouachra Tlail Wadi Boura

Syria

Stone circles, lines and tombs near the Monastery of Saint Moses the Abyssinian

Saudi Arabia

Hejaz Tihamah

Israel

Atlit Yam Dan (ancient city)

Jordan

Johfiyeh Amman

Turkey

Göbekli Tepe

Egypt

Nabta Playa

Iran

Kharg Island

Iraq

Barda Balka

General articles

Standing stone Dolmen Henge Menhir Stone circle Stone row Concentric stone circle Recumbent stone circle Chambered cairn Harrespil Photographs of stone circles European megaliths

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Regions of the world

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Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab
Arab
world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic
Arabic
is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan
Jordan
Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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