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A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked. The term harbor is often used interchangeably with port, which is a man-made facility built for loading and unloading vessels and dropping off and picking up passengers. Ports usually include one or more harbors. Alexandria Port
Port
in Egypt
Egypt
is an example of a port with two harbors. Harbors may be natural or artificial. An artificial harbor can have deliberately constructed breakwaters, sea walls, or jettys or they can be constructed by dredging, which requires maintenance by further periodic dredging. An example of an artificial harbor is Long Beach Harbor, California, United States
United States
which was an array of salt marshes and tidal flats too shallow for modern merchant ships before it was first dredged in the early 20th century.[1] In contrast, a natural harbor is surrounded on several sides by prominences of land. Examples of natural harbors include Sydney
Sydney
Harbour, Australia
Australia
and Trincomalee Harbour in Sri Lanka.

Contents

1 Artificial harbors 2 Natural harbors 3 Ice-free harbors 4 Important harbors 5 See also 6 Notes 7 External links

Artificial harbors[edit] Artificial harbors are frequently built for use as ports. The oldest artificial harbor known is the Ancient Egyptian site at Wadi al-Jarf, on the Red Sea coast, which is at least 4500 years old (ca. 2600-2550 BC, reign of King Khufu). The largest artificially created harbor is Jebel Ali
Jebel Ali
in Dubai.[2] Other large and busy artificial harbors include:

Port
Port
of Rotterdam, Netherlands; Port
Port
of Houston, Texas, United States; Port
Port
of Savannah, Georgia, United States; Port
Port
of Long Beach, California, United States; Port
Port
of Los Angeles in San Pedro, California, United States.

The Ancient Carthaginians constructed fortified, artificial harbors called cothons. Natural harbors[edit]

A natural harbor in Vizhinjam, India

Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
Natural Harbor

A natural harbor is a landform where a part of a body of water is protected and deep enough to furnish anchorage. Many such harbors are rias. Natural harbors have long been of great strategic naval and economic importance, and many great cities of the world are located on them. Having a protected harbor reduces or eliminates the need for breakwaters as it will result in calmer waves inside the harbor. Some examples are:

Port
Port
Hercule in Principality of Monaco; Pago Pago Harbor
Pago Pago Harbor
in American Samoa; New York Harbor
New York Harbor
in the United States; Boston Harbor
Boston Harbor
in Massachusetts, United States Poole Harbour
Poole Harbour
in England, United Kingdom; Kingston Harbour
Kingston Harbour
in Jamaica; Grand Harbour
Grand Harbour
in Malta; Marsamxett Harbour
Marsamxett Harbour
in Malta; Subic Bay
Subic Bay
in Zambales, the Philippines; Scapa Flow
Scapa Flow
in Scotland, United Kingdom; Sydney Harbour
Sydney Harbour
in Australia; technically a ria Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
in Hawaii, United States; Trincomalee Harbour
Trincomalee Harbour
in Sri Lanka; San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
in California, United States; Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
Harbour in India; Killybegs
Killybegs
in County Donegal, Ireland; Halifax Harbour
Halifax Harbour
in Nova Scotia, Canada; Hamilton Harbour
Hamilton Harbour
in Ontario, Canada; Burrard Inlet
Burrard Inlet
in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Cork Harbour, Ireland; Waitematā Harbour
Waitematā Harbour
in Auckland, New Zealand; Port
Port
of Tobruk
Tobruk
in Tobruk, Libya; Victoria Harbour
Victoria Harbour
in Hong Kong.

Ice-free harbors[edit] For harbors near the North and South Poles, being ice-free is an important advantage, especially when it is year-round. Examples of these include:

Murmansk, Russia; Pechenga, Russia; Liinakhamari, Russia; Hammerfest, Norway; Vardø, Norway; Vostochny Port; Nakhodka
Nakhodka
in Nakhodka
Nakhodka
Bay, Russia; Prince Rupert Harbour, Canada.

The world's southmost harbor, located at Antarctica's Winter Quarters Bay (77° 50′ South), is potentially ice-free, depending on the summertime pack ice conditions.[3] Important harbors[edit]

The tiny harbor at the village of Clovelly, Devon, England

Old Harbor
Harbor
in Lüneburg, Germany.

The harbor of Piraeus
Piraeus
in Greece.

Port
Port
Jackson, Sydney.

The harbor of Gorey, Jersey
Gorey, Jersey
falls dry at low tide.

Punta del Este's harbor – nicknamed the Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
of South America[4][5][6]

Port
Port
of Kaohsiung

The harbor in Aberystwyth, painted c. 1850

Although the world's busiest port is a hotly contested title, in 2006 the world's busiest harbor by cargo tonnage was the Port
Port
of Shanghai.[7][needs update] The following are large natural harbors:

Algeciras, Spain Amsterdam, Port
Port
of Amsterdam, Netherlands Antwerp, Port
Port
of Antwerp, Flanders, Belgium Baltimore's Inner Harbor, Maryland, United States Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, United States Bremerhaven, Germany Buenos Aires, Argentina Burrard Inlet, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Busan, Korea Cartagena, Colombia Charleston, South Carolina, United States Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Port
Port
of Chittagong, Chittagong
Chittagong
City, Bangladesh Cork Harbour, Ireland Dnipro, Ukraine Duluth–Superior harbor, Duluth, Minnesota, United States Durban, South Africa Falmouth, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom Freetown
Freetown
Harbour, Sierra Leone Golden Horn, Istanbul, Turkey Gothenburg, Sweden Grand Harbour, Malta Gwangyang, Korea Hai Phong Port, Haiphong, Vietnam Hakodate, Japan Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada Hamburg Harbour, Germany Hampton Roads, Norfolk, Virginia, United States Havana Harbor Helsinki, Finland Incheon, Korea Izmir, Turkey Port
Port
of Jakarta
Jakarta
(Tanjung Priok), Jakarta, Indonesia Kaliningrad, Russia Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan Kerch
Kerch
and Port
Port
Krym to Port
Port
Kavkaz, Russia Kiev, Ukraine Kingston, Jamaica Kobe
Kobe
Harbour, Kobe, Japan Port
Port
of Kolkata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India Lisbon, Portugal Lushunkou, Dalian, China Mahón, Menorca, Spain Manila Bay, Philippines Maputo, Mozambique Milford Haven, Wales, United Kingdom Milwaukee, Wisconsin Montevideo, Uruguay Mumbai, India Nassau, Bahamas New York Harbor, United States Nikolaev, Ukraine Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk
and Anapa, Russia Odessa, Ukraine Osaka, Japan Oslofjord
Oslofjord
and Oslo, Norway Parnu, Estonia Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States Piraeus, Attiki, Greece Plymouth Sound, Devon, England, United Kingdom Poole Harbour, Dorset, England, United Kingdom Port
Port
Jackson, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Port
Port
of Portland, Casco Bay, Maine, United States Port
Port
of Sevastopol, Sevastopol, Russia Port
Port
Phillip, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Provincetown Harbor, Provincetown, Massachusetts, United States Punta del Este, Uruguay Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara Bay, Brazil Rostov-on-Don, Russia Rotterdam, Port
Port
of Rotterdam, Netherlands Salvador, All Saint's Bay, Brazil San Antonio, Chile San Diego Bay, San Diego, California, United States San Francisco Bay, California, United States Sankt Petersburg, Russia Sochi
Sochi
and Adlersky City District, Russia Stockholm, Sweden Subic Bay, Zambales, Philippines Tallinn, Estonia Tanger-Med, Tangier, Morocco Tauranga
Tauranga
Harbour, Tauranga, New Zealand Tokyo
Tokyo
Bay, Tokyo, Japan Trincomalee, Sri Lanka Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India Port
Port
of Tyne, Tyne & Wear, United Kingdom Ulsan, Korea Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong Victoria Harbour
Victoria Harbour
(British Columbia) & Esquimalt Harbour, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
Port, Andhra Pradesh, India Vizhinjam, Trivandrum, India Vladivostok, Russia Vyborg, Russia Waitematā Harbour, Auckland, New Zealand Willemstad, Curaçao Wellington Harbour, New Zealand Yevpatoria, Russia Zaporozhe, Ukraine

Port
Port
of Szczecin, Poland

Valparaiso, Chile.

Other notable harbors include:

Belém, Brazil Port
Port
of Bruges-Zeebrugge, Flanders, Belgium Port
Port
of Genoa, Italy Port
Port
of Gdańsk, Poland Kaipara Harbour, New Zealand Kaohsiung, Taiwan Keelung, Taiwan Keppel Harbour, Singapore Kilindini Harbour, Kenya Lagos Port
Port
Complex Harbour, Nigeria Manukau Harbour, Auckland, New Zealand New Haven Harbor, Connecticut, United States Portland Harbour, Dorset, England, United Kingdom Rades, Tunisia Rio Grande, Brazil San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom Sydney
Sydney
Harbour, Australia Port
Port
of Szczecin, Poland Trondheim, Norway Valparaiso, Chile

See also[edit]

Boyd's Automatic tide signalling apparatus Dock Ice pier Inland harbor Mandracchio Marina, List of Marinas Mulberry harbour Port Quay Roadstead Seaport, List of seaports Shipyard Wharf

Notes[edit]

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-23. Retrieved 2014-01-21.  ^ Hattendorf, John B. (2007), The Oxford encyclopedia of maritime history, Oxford University Press, p. 590, ISBN 978-0-19-513075-1  ^ U.S. Polar Programs National Science Foundation FY2000. ^ "Circuit Guide Punta del Este, Uruguay". FIA Formula E. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ "Formula E reveals circuit for Punta del Este
Punta del Este
ePrix". FIA Formula E. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ "Formula E unveils Punta del Este
Punta del Este
circuit in Uruguay". autosport.com. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ "AAPA World Port
Port
Rankings 2006". Archived from the original on 2008-12-21. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harbors.

Look up harbor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Harbor
Harbor
Maintenance Finance and Funding Congressional Research Service  "Harbor". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

v t e

Ports and harbors

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Home port Fuelling station Inland harbor Inland port Landing Outport Port
Port
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Individual sites

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Rankings

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Port
Port
management

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Port
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Port
state control Harbour engineer Port
Port
operator Security Ship
Ship
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Port
operations simulator Terminal Operating System

Conventions

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Organizations

Port
Port
operating companies Port
Port
workers' trade unions

Category Commons Wiktionary "Port" Wiktionary "Ha