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Hamburg
Hamburg
(English: /ˈhæmbɜːrɡ/, German: [ˈhambʊɐ̯k] (listen); Low Saxon: Hamborg), officially the Free and Hanseatic City
City
of Hamburg
Hamburg
(German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg; Low Saxon: Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),[6] is the second-largest city in Germany
Germany
and 8th largest city in the European Union
European Union
with a population of over 1.8 million. One of Germany's 16 federal states, it is surrounded by Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
to the north and Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
to the south. The city's metropolitan region is home to more than five million people. Hamburg
Hamburg
lies on the River Elbe
River Elbe
and two of its tributaries, the River Alster
Alster
and the River Bille. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
and a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign city state, and before 1919 formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, North Sea
North Sea
flood of 1962 and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids, the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Hamburg
Hamburg
is Europe's third-largest port. Major regional broadcaster NDR, the printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr and the newspapers Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
and Die Zeit
Die Zeit
are based in the city. Hamburg
Hamburg
is the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Aurubis, Beiersdorf, and Unilever. The city hosts specialists in world economics and international law, including consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe
Europe
and China
China
and the G20. Both former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt
Helmut Schmidt
and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016.[7] The Speicherstadt
Speicherstadt
and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 2015.[8] Hamburg
Hamburg
is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the Elbphilharmonie
Elbphilharmonie
and Laeiszhalle
Laeiszhalle
concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg
Hamburg
is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's Reeperbahn
Reeperbahn
is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Climate

2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Medieval Hamburg 2.3 Modern times 2.4 Second World War 2.5 Post-war history

3 Demographics

3.1 Foreign citizens in Hamburg 3.2 Language 3.3 Religion

4 Government

4.1 Boroughs

5 Cityscape

5.1 Architecture 5.2 Parks and gardens

6 Culture and contemporary life

6.1 Theatres 6.2 Museums 6.3 Music 6.4 Festivals and regular events 6.5 Cuisine 6.6 Main sights 6.7 Alternative culture 6.8 British culture 6.9 Memorials

7 Economy

7.1 Banking 7.2 Port 7.3 Industrial production 7.4 HafenCity 7.5 Tourism 7.6 Media

8 Infrastructure

8.1 Health systems 8.2 Transport 8.3 Public transport

8.3.1 Public transportation statistics

8.4 Utilities

9 Sport 10 Education 11 Twin towns and sister cities 12 People from Hamburg 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Geography[edit] Hamburg
Hamburg
is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe
Continental Europe
to the south and Scandinavia
Scandinavia
to the north, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the west and the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to the northeast. It is on the River Elbe
River Elbe
at its confluence with the Alster
Alster
and Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster ("Inner Alster") and Außenalster
Außenalster
("Outer Alster"), both formed by damming the River Alster
River Alster
to create lakes. The islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn, and Nigehörn, 100 kilometres (60 mi) away in the Hamburg
Hamburg
Wadden Sea National Park, are also part of the city of Hamburg.[9] The neighborhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz, Francop
Francop
and Finkenwerder
Finkenwerder
are part of the Altes Land
Altes Land
(old land) region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek
Neugraben-Fischbek
has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack
Hasselbrack
at 116.2 metres (381 ft) AMSL.[10] Hamburg
Hamburg
borders the states of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
and Lower Saxony.

Climate[edit] Hamburg
Hamburg
has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. The location in the north of Germany
Germany
provides extremes greater than typically marine climates, but definitely in the category due to the mastery of the western standards.[11] Nearby wetlands also enjoy a maritime temperate climate. The amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: while in the late 1970s and early 1980s, at times heavy snowfall occurred,[12] the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall only on a few days per year.[13][14] The warmest months are June, July, and August, with high temperatures of 20.1 to 22.5 °C (68.2 to 72.5 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with low temperatures of −0.3 to 1.0 °C (31.5 to 33.8 °F).[15]

Climate data for Hamburg-Fuhlsbuttel ( Hamburg
Hamburg
Airport), elevation: 15 m, 1981-2010 normals

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Record high °C (°F)

14.4(57.9)

17.2(63.0)

23.0(73.4)

29.7(85.5)

33.5(92.3)

34.6(94.3)

36.9(98.4)

37.3(99.1)

32.3(90.1)

26.1(79.0)

20.2(68.4)

15.7(60.3)

37.3(99.1)

Average high °C (°F)

3.5(38.3)

4.4(39.9)

8.0(46.4)

12.3(54.1)

17.5(63.5)

19.9(67.8)

22.1(71.8)

22.2(72.0)

17.9(64.2)

13.0(55.4)

7.5(45.5)

4.6(40.3)

13.2(55.8)

Daily mean °C (°F)

1.0(33.8)

1.6(34.9)

4.6(40.3)

7.8(46.0)

12.5(54.5)

15.2(59.4)

17.4(63.3)

17.4(63.3)

13.7(56.7)

9.5(49.1)

4.9(40.8)

2.3(36.1)

9.0(48.2)

Average low °C (°F)

−1.4(29.5)

−1.2(29.8)

1.1(34.0)

3.3(37.9)

7.4(45.3)

10.5(50.9)

12.7(54.9)

12.5(54.5)

9.6(49.3)

6.0(42.8)

2.4(36.3)

0.0(32.0)

6.2(43.2)

Record low °C (°F)

−22.8(−9.0)

−29.1(−20.4)

−15.3(4.5)

−7.1(19.2)

−5.0(23.0)

0.6(33.1)

3.4(38.1)

1.8(35.2)

−1.2(29.8)

−7.1(19.2)

−15.4(4.3)

−18.5(−1.3)

−29.1(−20.4)

Average rainfall mm (inches)

67.8(2.67)

49.9(1.96)

67.7(2.67)

43.0(1.69)

57.4(2.26)

78.6(3.09)

76.7(3.02)

78.9(3.11)

67.4(2.65)

67.0(2.64)

69.2(2.72)

68.9(2.71)

792.6(31.20)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)

12.1

9.2

11.3

8.9

9.6

11.3

11.4

10.2

10.8

10.5

11.7

12.4

129.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours

46.9

69.0

108.8

171.6

223.4

198.7

217.5

203.1

144.6

107.9

53.0

37.4

1,581.9

Average ultraviolet index

0

1

2

4

5

6

6

5

4

2

1

0

3

Source: WMO (UN),[15] DWD[16] and Weather Atlas[17] View climate chart 1986-2016 or 1960-1990

Climate data for Hamburg-Fuhlsbuttel ( Hamburg
Hamburg
Airport), elevation: 15 m, 1961-1990 normals and extremes

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Record high °C (°F)

12.8(55.0)

16.7(62.1)

23.0(73.4)

29.7(85.5)

29.2(84.6)

32.7(90.9)

33.2(91.8)

34.8(94.6)

30.3(86.5)

24.0(75.2)

20.2(68.4)

15.7(60.3)

34.8(94.6)

Average high °C (°F)

2.7(36.9)

3.8(38.8)

7.2(45.0)

11.9(53.4)

17.0(62.6)

20.2(68.4)

21.4(70.5)

21.6(70.9)

18.0(64.4)

13.3(55.9)

7.6(45.7)

4.0(39.2)

12.4(54.3)

Daily mean °C (°F)

0.5(32.9)

1.1(34.0)

3.7(38.7)

7.3(45.1)

12.2(54.0)

15.5(59.9)

16.8(62.2)

16.6(61.9)

13.5(56.3)

9.7(49.5)

5.1(41.2)

1.9(35.4)

8.7(47.6)

Average low °C (°F)

−2.2(28.0)

−1.8(28.8)

0.4(32.7)

3.0(37.4)

7.2(45.0)

10.4(50.7)

12.2(54.0)

11.9(53.4)

9.4(48.9)

6.3(43.3)

2.5(36.5)

−0.7(30.7)

4.9(40.8)

Record low °C (°F)

−20.8(−5.4)

−18.7(−1.7)

−13.8(7.2)

−6.5(20.3)

−2.2(28.0)

0.6(33.1)

4.2(39.6)

1.8(35.2)

−0.6(30.9)

−3.3(26.1)

−15.4(4.3)

−18.5(−1.3)

−20.8(−5.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches)

61.0(2.40)

41.0(1.61)

56.0(2.20)

51.0(2.01)

57.0(2.24)

74.0(2.91)

82.0(3.23)

70.0(2.76)

70.0(2.76)

63.0(2.48)

71.0(2.80)

72.0(2.83)

768(30.23)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)

12.0

9.0

11.0

10.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

11.0

11.0

10.0

12.0

12.0

131

Mean monthly sunshine hours

42.2

67.0

104.7

160.7

216.8

221.8

206.7

207.3

141.1

100.7

53.0

35.2

1,557.2

Source: NOAA[18]

History[edit] Main articles: History of Hamburg
History of Hamburg
and Timeline of Hamburg The Limes Saxoniae
Limes Saxoniae
border between the Saxons
Saxons
and the Slavic Obotrites, established about 810. Hamburg
Hamburg
in 1150 Origins[edit] Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy
(2nd century AD) reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva.[19] The name Hamburg
Hamburg
comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne
Charlemagne
ordered constructed in AD 808. It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster
River Alster
and the River Elbe
River Elbe
as a defence against Slavic incursion, and acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort. The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain,[20] as does the exact location of the castle.[21]

Medieval Hamburg[edit] In 834, Hamburg
Hamburg
was designated as the seat of a bishopric. The first bishop, Ansgar, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years later, Hamburg
Hamburg
was united with Bremen
Bremen
as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen.[22] Hamburg
Hamburg
was destroyed and occupied several times. In 845, 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe
River Elbe
and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants.[22] In 1030, King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland
Poland
burned down the city. Valdemar II of Denmark
Valdemar II of Denmark
raided and occupied Hamburg
Hamburg
in 1201 and in 1214. The Black Death
Black Death
killed at least 60% of the population in 1350.[23] Hamburg
Hamburg
experienced several great fires in the medieval period.[citation needed]

Seal of 1241 (Replica) Hamburg
Hamburg
in 1320 Hamburg
Hamburg
depicted on a 1679 Half-portugalöser (5 ducats) Hamburg
Hamburg
ca. 1600 Hamburg
Hamburg
in 1811 In 1189, by imperial charter, Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of a Free Imperial City
City
and tax-free access (or free-trade zone) up the Lower Elbe
Elbe
into the North Sea. In 1265, an allegedly forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg.[24] This charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea
North Sea
and Baltic Sea, quickly made it a major port in Northern Europe. Its trade alliance with Lübeck
Lübeck
in 1241 marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
of trading cities. On 8 November 1266, a contract between Henry III and Hamburg's traders allowed them to establish a hanse in London. This was the first time in history that the word hanse was used for the trading guild of the Hanseatic League.[25] In 1270, the solicitor of the senate of Hamburg, Jordan von Boitzenburg, wrote the first description of civil, criminal and procedural law for a city in Germany
Germany
in the German language, the Ordeelbook (Ordeel: sentence).[26] On 10 August 1410, civil unrest forced a compromise (German: Rezeß, literally meaning: withdrawal). This is considered the first constitution of Hamburg.[27]

Modern times[edit] In 1529, the city embraced Lutheranism, and it received Reformed refugees from the Netherlands
Netherlands
and France. When Jan van Valckenborgh
Jan van Valckenborgh
introduced a second layer to the fortifications to protect against the Thirty Years War
Thirty Years War
in the seventeenth century, he extended Hamburg
Hamburg
and created a "New Town" (Neustadt) whose street names still date from the grid system of roads he introduced.[28] Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1806, the Free Imperial City
City
of Hamburg
Hamburg
was not incorporated into a larger administrative area while retaining special privileges (mediatised), but became a sovereign state with the official title of the Free and Hanseatic City
City
of Hamburg. Hamburg
Hamburg
was briefly annexed by Napoleon I to the First French Empire
First French Empire
(1804–1814/1815). Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in 1814. Hamburg
Hamburg
re-assumed its pre-1811 status as a city-state in 1814. The Vienna Congress of 1815 confirmed Hamburg's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation
German Confederation
(1815–1866). In 1842, about a quarter of the inner city was destroyed in the "Great Fire". The fire started on the night of 4 May and was not extinguished until 8 May. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings, killing 51 people and leaving an estimated 20,000 homeless. Reconstruction took more than 40 years. After periodic political unrest, particularly in 1848, Hamburg
Hamburg
adopted in 1860 a semidemocratic constitution that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males. Other innovations included the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association. Hamburg
Hamburg
became a member of the North German Confederation (1866–1871) and of the German Empire
German Empire
(1871–1918), and maintained its self-ruling status during the Weimar Republic (1919–1933). Hamburg
Hamburg
acceded to the German Customs Union or Zollverein in 1888, the last (along with Bremen) of the German states to join. The city experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's second-largest port.[29] The Hamburg-America Line, with Albert Ballin
Albert Ballin
as its director, became the world's largest transatlantic shipping company around the start of the 20th century. Shipping companies sailing to South America, Africa, India
India
and East Asia were based in the city. Hamburg
Hamburg
was the departure port for many Germans and Eastern Europeans to emigrate to the United States
United States
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Trading communities from all over the world established themselves there. A major outbreak of cholera in 1892 was badly handled by the city government, which retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city. About 8,600 died in the largest German epidemic of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in a major city of the Western world.

Second World War[edit] Hamburg
Hamburg
after the 1943 bombing Flakturm on the Heiligengeistfeld in Hamburg
Hamburg
– one of four enormous fortress-like bunkers which were built of reinforced concrete between 1942 and 1944 and equipped with anti-aircraft artillery for air defense In Nazi Germany
Germany
(1933–1945), Hamburg
Hamburg
was a Gau from 1934 until 1945. During the Second World War, Hamburg
Hamburg
suffered a series of Allied air raids which devastated much of the city and the harbour. On 23 July 1943, Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) firebombing created a firestorm which spread from the Hauptbahnhof (main railway station) and quickly moved south-east, completely destroying entire boroughs such as Hammerbrook, Billbrook
Billbrook
and Hamm
Hamm
South. Thousands of people perished in these densely populated working class boroughs. The raids, codenamed Operation Gomorrah
Operation Gomorrah
by the RAF, killed at least 42,600 civilians; the precise number is not known. About one million civilians were evacuated in the aftermath of the raids. While some of the boroughs destroyed were rebuilt as residential districts after the war, others such as Hammerbrook
Hammerbrook
were entirely developed into office, retail and limited residential or industrial districts. The Hamburg Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery
Hamburg Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery
is in the greater Ohlsdorf Cemetery
Ohlsdorf Cemetery
in the north of Hamburg. At least 42,900 people are thought to have perished[30] in the Neuengamme concentration camp
Neuengamme concentration camp
(about 25 km (16 mi) outside the city in the marshlands), mostly from epidemics and in the bombing of Kriegsmarine evacuation vessels by the RAF at the end of the war. Hamburg
Hamburg
had the greatest concentration of Jews in Germany. Systematic deportations of Jewish
Jewish
Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish
Jewish
descent started on 18 October 1941. These were all directed to Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe
Europe
or to concentration camps. Most deported persons perished in the Holocaust. By the end of 1942 the Jüdischer Religionsverband in Hamburg
Hamburg
was dissolved as an independent legal entity and its remaining assets and staff were assumed by the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (District Northwest). On 10 June 1943 the Reichssicherheitshauptamt
Reichssicherheitshauptamt
dissolved the Reichsvereinigung by a decree.[31] The few remaining employees not somewhat protected by a mixed marriage were deported from Hamburg on 23 June to Theresienstadt, where most of them perished.

Post-war history[edit] Hamburg
Hamburg
surrendered to British Forces on 3 May 1945,[32] three days after Adolf Hitler's death. After the Second World War, Hamburg formed part of the British Zone of Occupation; it became a state of the then Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
in 1949. From 1960 to 1962, the Beatles launched their career by playing in various music clubs like the Star Club in the city. On 16 February 1962, a North Sea
North Sea
flood caused the Elbe
Elbe
to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg
Hamburg
and killing more than 300 people. The Inner German border
Inner German border
– only 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of Hamburg
Hamburg
– separated the city from most of its hinterland and reduced Hamburg's global trade. Since German reunification
German reunification
in 1990, and the accession of several Central European and Baltic states
Baltic states
into the European Union
European Union
in 2004, the Port of Hamburg
Port of Hamburg
has restarted ambitions for regaining its position as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre.

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Hamburg Historical populationYearPop.±%950500—    143016,000+3100.0%1840136,956+756.0%1900705,738+415.3%1910931,035+31.9%19201,026,989+10.3%19301,145,124+11.5%19401,725,500+50.7%19501,605,606−6.9%19611,840,543+14.6%19701,793,640−2.5%19801,645,095−8.3%19901,652,363+0.4%20001,715,392+3.8%20101,786,448+4.1%2012 (census)1,734,272−2.9%20131,746,342+0.7%20141,762,791+0.9%20151,787,408+1.4%20161,860,759+4.1%Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions.

Largest groups of foreign residents[33][34][35]

Nationality Population (31.12.2018)

 Turkey 44,239

 Poland 29,058

 Afghanistan 19,831

 Syria 15,763

 Romania 11,925

 Bulgaria 10,547

 Portugal 10,541

 Russia 9,335

 Italy 8,806

 Iran 8,282

 Spain 7,197

 Croatia 7,095

 Greece 7,085

 Serbia 7,057

 North Macedonia 6,883

 Ghana 6,194

 Philippines 5,847

 France 5,439

 China 5,369

 Iraq 5,031

 Austria 4,583

 India 4,411

On 31 December 2016, there were 1,860,759 people registered as living in Hamburg
Hamburg
in an area of 755.3 km2 (291.6 sq mi). The population density was 2,464/km2 (6,380/sq mi).[36] The metropolitan area of the Hamburg
Hamburg
region ( Hamburg
Hamburg
Metropolitan Region) is home to 5,107,429 living on 196/km2 (510/sq mi).[37] There were 915,319 women and 945,440 men in Hamburg. For every 1,000 females, there were 1,033 males. In 2015, there were 19,768 births in Hamburg
Hamburg
(of which 38.3% were to unmarried women); 6422 marriages and 3190 divorces, and 17,565 deaths. In the city, the population was spread out with 16.1% under the age of 18, and 18.3% were 65 years of age or older. 356 People in Hamburg
Hamburg
were over the age of 100.[38] According to the Statistical Office for Hamburg
Hamburg
and Schleswig Holstein, the number of people with a migrant background is at 34% (631,246).[39] Immigrants come from 200 different countries. 5,891 people have acquired German cititzenship in 2016.[40] In 2016, there were 1,021,666 households, of which 17.8% had children under the age of 18; 54.4% of all households were made up of singles. 25.6% of all households were single parent households. The average household size was 1.8.[41]

Foreign citizens in Hamburg[edit] Hamburg
Hamburg
residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December 2016 is as follows[40]

Citizenship

Number

%

Total 288,338 100%

Europe 193,812 67.2%

European Union 109,496 38%

Asian 59,292 20.6%

African 18,996 6.6%

American 11,315 3.9%

Australian
Australian
and Oceanian 1,234 0.4%

Language[edit] See also: Hamburgisch dialect Like elsewhere in Germany, Standard German
Standard German
is spoken in Hamburg, but as typical for northern Germany, the original language of Hamburg
Hamburg
is Low German, usually referred to as Hamborger Platt (German Hamburger Platt) or Hamborgsch. Since large-scale standardization of the German language beginning in earnest in the 18th century, various Low German-colored dialects have developed (contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates). Originally, there was a range of such Missingsch varieties, the best-known being the low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more bourgeois Hanseatendeutsch (Hanseatic German), although the term is used in appreciation.[42] All of these are now moribund due to the influences of Standard German
Standard German
used by education and media. However, the former importance of Low German
Low German
is indicated by several songs, such as the famous sea shanty Hamborger Veermaster, written in the 19th century when Low German
Low German
was used more frequently. Many toponyms and street names reflect Low Saxon vocabulary, partially even in Low Saxon spelling, which is not standardised, and to some part in forms adapted to Standard German.[43]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Hamburg
Hamburg
– 2015

religion

percent

EKD Protestants   27%

Roman Catholics   11%

Others   7%

None   55%

Less than half of the residents of Hamburg
Hamburg
are members of an organized religious group. In late 2015, 27.0% of the population belonged to the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church, the largest religious body, and 10.7% to the Roman Catholic Church.[44] An additional 55% stated they had no religion. According to the publication "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland" (Muslim life in Germany) estimated 141,900 Muslim migrants (counting in nearly 50 countries of origin) lived in Hamburg
Hamburg
in 2008.[45] About three years later (May 2011) calculations based on census data for 21 countries of origin resulted in the number of about 143,200 Muslim migrants in Hamburg, making up 8.4% percent of the population.[46] Hamburg
Hamburg
is seat of one of the three bishops of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany
Germany
and seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg. There are several mosques, including the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
run Fazle Omar Mosque, which is the oldest in the city,[47] the Islamic Centre Hamburg, and a Jewish community.[48]

Government[edit] Further information: Government of Hamburg
Government of Hamburg
and List of mayors of Hamburg Hamburg
Hamburg
City
City
Hall (front view) The city of Hamburg
Hamburg
is one of 16 German states, therefore the Mayor of Hamburg's office corresponds more to the role of a minister-president than to the one of a city mayor. As a German state government, it is responsible for public education, correctional institutions and public safety; as a municipality, it is additionally responsible for libraries, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services. Since 1897, the seat of the government has been the Hamburg
Hamburg
Rathaus ( Hamburg
Hamburg
City
City
Hall), with the office of the mayor, the meeting room for the Senate and the floor for the Hamburg
Hamburg
Parliament.[49] From 2001 until 2010, the mayor of Hamburg
Hamburg
was Ole von Beust,[50] who governed in Germany's first statewide "black-green" coalition, consisting of the conservative CDU and the alternative GAL, which are Hamburg's regional wing of the Alliance 90/The Greens party.[51] Von Beust was briefly succeeded by Christoph Ahlhaus
Christoph Ahlhaus
in 2010, but the coalition broke apart on November, 28. 2010.[52] On 7 March 2011 Olaf Scholz
Olaf Scholz
(SPD) became mayor. After the 2015 election the SPD
SPD
and the Alliance 90/The Greens formed a coalition.

Boroughs[edit] Main article: Boroughs and quarters of Hamburg The 7 boroughs and 104 quarters of Hamburg Hamburg
Hamburg
is made up of seven boroughs (German: Bezirke) and subdivided into 104 quarters (German: Stadtteile). There are 181 localities (German: Ortsteile). The urban organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg
Constitution of Hamburg
and several laws.[6][53] Most of the quarters were former independent cities, towns or villages annexed into Hamburg
Hamburg
proper. The last large annexation was done through the Greater Hamburg Act
Greater Hamburg Act
of 1937, when the cities Altona, Harburg and Wandsbek
Wandsbek
were merged into the state of Hamburg.[54] The Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic city of Hamburg
Hamburg
established Hamburg
Hamburg
as a state and a municipality.[55] Some of the boroughs and quarters have been rearranged several times. Each borough is governed by a Borough Council (German: Bezirksversammlung) and administered by a Municipal Administrator (German: Bezirksamtsleiter). The boroughs are not independent municipalities: their power is limited and subordinate to the Senate of Hamburg. The borough administrator is elected by the Borough Council and thereafter requires confirmation and appointment by Hamburg's Senate.[53] The quarters have no governing bodies of their own.

The part of the North Sea
North Sea
in this aerial picture is called the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
and belongs administratively to the borough of Hamburg-Mitte. Some 39 people live here on the island Neuwerk
Neuwerk
(visible just above the centre). In 2008, the boroughs were Hamburg-Mitte, Altona, Eimsbüttel, Hamburg-Nord, Wandsbek, Bergedorf
Bergedorf
and Harburg.[56] Hamburg-Mitte
Hamburg-Mitte
(" Hamburg
Hamburg
Centre") covers mostly the urban centre of the city and consists of the quarters Billbrook, Billstedt, Borgfelde, Finkenwerder, HafenCity, Hamm, Hammerbrook, Horn, Kleiner Grasbrook, Neuwerk, Rothenburgsort, St. Georg, St. Pauli, Steinwerder, Veddel, Waltershof
Waltershof
and Wilhelmsburg.[56] The quarters Hamburg-Altstadt ("old town") and Neustadt ("new town") are the historical origin of Hamburg. Altona is the westernmost urban borough, on the right bank of the Elbe river. From 1640 to 1864, Altona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy. Altona was an independent city until 1937. Politically, the following quarters are part of Altona: Altona-Altstadt, Altona-Nord, Bahrenfeld, Ottensen, Othmarschen, Groß Flottbek, Osdorf, Lurup, Nienstedten, Blankenese, Iserbrook, Sülldorf, Rissen, Sternschanze.[56] Bergedorf
Bergedorf
consists of the quarters Allermöhe, Altengamme, Bergedorf—the centre of the former independent town, Billwerder, Curslack, Kirchwerder, Lohbrügge, Moorfleet, Neuengamme, Neuallermöhe, Ochsenwerder, Reitbrook, Spadenland
Spadenland
and Tatenberg.[56] Eimsbüttel
Eimsbüttel
is split into nine quarters: Eidelstedt, Eimsbüttel, Harvestehude, Hoheluft-West, Lokstedt, Niendorf, Rotherbaum, Schnelsen and Stellingen.[56] Located within this borough is former Jewish
Jewish
neighbourhood Grindel. Hamburg-Nord
Hamburg-Nord
contains the quarters Alsterdorf, Barmbek-Nord, Barmbek-Süd, Dulsberg, Eppendorf, Fuhlsbüttel, Groß Borstel, Hoheluft-Ost, Hohenfelde, Langenhorn, Ohlsdorf
Ohlsdorf
with Ohlsdorf
Ohlsdorf
cemetery, Uhlenhorst
Uhlenhorst
and Winterhude.[56] Harburg lies on the southern shores of the river Elbe
Elbe
and covers parts of the port of Hamburg, residential and rural areas, and some research institutes. The quarters are Altenwerder, Cranz, Eißendorf, Francop, Gut Moor, Harburg, Hausbruch, Heimfeld, Langenbek, Marmstorf, Moorburg, Neuenfelde, Neugraben-Fischbek, Neuland, Rönneburg, Sinstorf and Wilstorf.[56] Wandsbek
Wandsbek
is divided into the quarters Bergstedt, Bramfeld, Duvenstedt, Eilbek, Farmsen-Berne, Hummelsbüttel, Jenfeld, Lemsahl-Mellingstedt, Marienthal, Poppenbüttel, Rahlstedt, Sasel, Steilshoop, Tonndorf, Volksdorf, Wandsbek, Wellingsbüttel
Wellingsbüttel
and Wohldorf-Ohlstedt.[56]

Cityscape[edit] A panoramic view of the Hamburg
Hamburg
skyline of the Binnenalster
Binnenalster
taken from Lombardsbrücke. Architecture[edit] Historicist Palmaille, Altona Marco-Polo-Centre (left) and Unilever
Unilever
HQ Germany Hamburg
Hamburg
has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles and no skyscrapers (see List of tallest buildings in Hamburg). Churches are important landmarks, such as St Nicholas', which for a short time in the 19th century was the world's tallest building. The skyline features the tall spires of the most important churches (Hauptkirchen) St Michael's (nicknamed "Michel"), St Peter's, St James's (St. Jacobi) and St. Catherine's covered with copper plates, and the Heinrich-Hertz-Turm, the radio and television tower (no longer publicly accessible).

The Chilehaus
Chilehaus
with a typical brick expressionist façade. The many streams, rivers and canals are crossed by some 2,500 bridges, more than London, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and Venice
Venice
put together.[57] Hamburg
Hamburg
has more bridges inside its city limits than any other city in the world.[58] The Köhlbrandbrücke, Freihafen Elbbrücken, and Lombardsbrücke
Lombardsbrücke
and Kennedybrücke dividing Binnenalster
Binnenalster
from Aussenalster are important roadways. The town hall is a richly decorated Neo-Renaissance building finished in 1897. The tower is 112 metres (367 ft) high. Its façade, 111 m (364 ft) long, depicts the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, since Hamburg
Hamburg
was, as a Free Imperial City, only under the sovereignty of the emperor.[59] The Chilehaus, a brick expressionist office building built in 1922 and designed by architect Fritz Höger, is shaped like an ocean liner. Europe's largest urban development since 2008, the HafenCity, will house about 10,000 inhabitants and 15,000 workers. The plan includes designs by Rem Koolhaas
Rem Koolhaas
and Renzo Piano. The Elbphilharmonie
Elbphilharmonie
(Elbe Philharmonic Hall), opened in January 2017, houses concerts in a sail-shaped building on top of an old warehouse, designed by architects Herzog & de Meuron.[60][61] The many parks are distributed over the whole city, which makes Hamburg
Hamburg
a very verdant city. The biggest parks are the Stadtpark, the Ohlsdorf Cemetery
Ohlsdorf Cemetery
and Planten un Blomen. The Stadtpark, Hamburg's "Central Park", has a great lawn and a huge water tower, which houses one of Europe's biggest planetaria. The park and its buildings were designed by Fritz Schumacher in the 1910s.

Parks and gardens[edit] See also: List of parks and gardens in Hamburg Water-light concert at Planten un Blomen
Planten un Blomen
park The lavish and spacious Planten un Blomen
Planten un Blomen
park ( Low German
Low German
dialect for "plants and flowers") located in the centre of Hamburg
Hamburg
is the green heart of the city. Within the park are various thematic gardens, the biggest Japanese garden in Germany, and the Alter Botanischer Garten Hamburg, which is a historic botanical garden that now consists primarily of greenhouses. The Botanischer Garten Hamburg
Botanischer Garten Hamburg
is a modern botanical garden maintained by the University of Hamburg. Besides these, there are many more parks of various sizes. In 2014 Hamburg
Hamburg
celebrated a birthday of park culture, where many parks were reconstructed and cleaned up. Moreover, every year there are the famous water-light-concerts in the Planten un Blomen park from May to early October.

Culture and contemporary life[edit] Hamburg
Hamburg
has more than 40 theatres, 60 museums and 100 music venues and clubs. In 2005, more than 18 million people visited concerts, exhibitions, theatres, cinemas, museums, and cultural events. More than 8,552 taxable companies (average size 3.16 employees) were engaged in the culture sector, which includes music, performing arts and literature. There are five companies in the creative sector per thousand residents (as compared to three in Berlin
Berlin
and 37 in London).[62] Hamburg
Hamburg
has entered the European Green Capital Award
European Green Capital Award
scheme, and was awarded the title of European Green Capital for 2011.

Theatres[edit] See also: List of theatres in Hamburg Deutsches Schauspielhaus
Deutsches Schauspielhaus
in the St. Georg quarter The 110-metre-high (361-foot) Elbphilharmonie
Elbphilharmonie
concert hall The state-owned Deutsches Schauspielhaus, the Thalia Theatre, Ohnsorg Theatre, "Schmidts Tivoli" and the Kampnagel
Kampnagel
are well-known theatres.[63] The English Theatre of Hamburg[64] near U3 Mundsburg station was established in 1976 and is the oldest professional English-speaking theatre in Germany, and has exclusively English native-speaking actors in its company.

Museums[edit] See also: List of museums in Hamburg Hamburg
Hamburg
has several large museums and galleries showing classical and contemporary art, for example the Kunsthalle Hamburg
Kunsthalle Hamburg
with its contemporary art gallery (Galerie der Gegenwart), the Museum
Museum
for Art and Industry ( Museum
Museum
für Kunst und Gewerbe) and the Deichtorhallen/House of Photography. The Internationales Maritimes Museum
Museum
Hamburg
Hamburg
opened in the Hafen City
City
quarter in 2008. There are various specialised museums in Hamburg, such as the Archaeological Museum
Museum
Hamburg
Hamburg
(Archäologisches Museum
Museum
Hamburg) in Hamburg-Harburg, the Hamburg Museum of Work
Hamburg Museum of Work
( Museum
Museum
der Arbeit), and several museums of local history, for example the Kiekeberg
Kiekeberg
Open Air Museum (Freilichtmuseum am Kiekeberg). Two museum ships near Landungsbrücken bear witness to the freight ship (Cap San Diego) and cargo sailing ship era (Rickmer Rickmers).[65] The world's largest model railway museum Miniatur Wunderland
Miniatur Wunderland
with 15.4 km (9.57 mi) total railway length is also situated near Landungsbrücken
Landungsbrücken
in a former warehouse. BallinStadt
BallinStadt
(Emigration City) is dedicated to the millions of Europeans who emigrated to North and South America
South America
between 1850 and 1939. Visitors descending from those overseas emigrants may search for their ancestors at computer terminals.

Music[edit] The iconic Elbphilharmonie
Elbphilharmonie
in Hafen-City, seen from the Speicherstadt. Hamburg State Opera
Hamburg State Opera
is a leading opera company. Its orchestra is the Philharmoniker Hamburg. The city's other well-known orchestra is the NDR Elbphilharmonie
Elbphilharmonie
Orchestra. The main concert venue is the new concert hall Elbphilharmonie. Before it was the Laeiszhalle, Musikhalle Hamburg. The Laeiszhalle
Laeiszhalle
also houses a third orchestra, the Hamburger
Hamburger
Symphoniker. György Ligeti
György Ligeti
and Alfred Schnittke
Alfred Schnittke
taught at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg.[66][67] Hamburg
Hamburg
is the birthplace of Johannes Brahms, who spent his formative early years in the city, and the birthplace and home of the famous waltz composer Oscar Fetrás, who wrote the well-known "Mondnacht auf der Alster" waltz. Since the German premiere of Cats in 1986, there have always been musicals running, including The Phantom of the Opera, The Lion King, Dirty Dancing and Dance of the Vampires (musical). This density, the highest in Germany, is partly due to the major musical production company Stage Entertainment
Stage Entertainment
being based in the city. The city was a major centre for rock music in the early 1960s. The Beatles lived and played in Hamburg
Hamburg
during a period from August 1960 to December 1962. They proved popular and gained local acclaim.[68] Prior to the group's initial recording and widespread fame, Hamburg
Hamburg
provided residency and performing venues for the Beatles from 1960 to 1962. Hamburg
Hamburg
has nurtured a number of other pop musicians. Identical twins Bill Kaulitz
Bill Kaulitz
and Tom Kaulitz from the rock band Tokio Hotel
Tokio Hotel
live and maintain a recording studio in Hamburg, where they recorded their second and third albums, Zimmer 483
Zimmer 483
and Humanoid. Singer Nena
Nena
also lives in Hamburg. There are German hip hop acts, such as Fünf Sterne deluxe, Samy Deluxe, Beginner and Fettes Brot. There is a substantial alternative and punk scene, which gathers around the Rote Flora, a squatted former theatre located in the Sternschanze. Hamburg
Hamburg
is famous for an original kind of German alternative music called Hamburger Schule (" Hamburg
Hamburg
School"), a term used for bands like Tocotronic, Blumfeld, Tomte or Kante. The city was a major centre for heavy metal music in the 1980s. Helloween, Gamma Ray, Running Wild and Grave Digger started in Hamburg.[69] The industrial rock band KMFDM
KMFDM
was also formed in Hamburg, initially as a performance art project. The influences of these and other bands from the area helped establish the subgenre of power metal. Hamburg
Hamburg
has a vibrant psychedelic trance community, with record labels such as Spirit Zone.[70]

Festivals and regular events[edit] Annual Hafengeburtstag
Hafengeburtstag
(Port Anniversary) Hamburg
Hamburg
is noted for several festivals and regular events. Some of them are street festivals, such as the gay pride Hamburg
Hamburg
Pride festival[71] or the Alster
Alster
fair (German: Alstervergnügen),[72] held at the Binnenalster. The Hamburger DOM is northern Germany's biggest funfair, held three times a year.[73] Hafengeburtstag
Hafengeburtstag
is a funfair to honour the birthday of the port of Hamburg
Hamburg
with a party and a ship parade.[74] The annual biker's service in Saint Michael's Church attracts tens of thousands of bikers.[75] Christmas markets in December are held at the Hamburg Rathaus
Hamburg Rathaus
square, among other places.[76] The long night of museums (German: Lange Nacht der Museen) offers one entrance fee for about 40 museums until midnight.[77] The sixth Festival of Cultures was held in September 2008, celebrating multi-cultural life.[78] The Filmfest Hamburg
Filmfest Hamburg
— a film festival originating from the 1950s Film Days (German: Film Tage) — presents a wide range of films.[79] The Hamburg
Hamburg
Messe and Congress offers a venue for trade shows, such hanseboot, an international boat show, or Du und deine Welt, a large consumer products show.[80] Regular sports events—some open to pro and amateur participants—are the cycling competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, the Hamburg
Hamburg
Marathon, the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin,[81] the tennis tournament Hamburg
Hamburg
Masters and equestrian events like the Deutsches Derby. Since 2007, Hamburg
Hamburg
has the Dockville
Dockville
music and art festival. It takes place every year in summer in Wilhelmsburg.[82]

Cuisine[edit] Fried plaice, Finkenwerder
Finkenwerder
style Main article: Cuisine of Hamburg Original Hamburg
Hamburg
dishes are Birnen, Bohnen und Speck
Birnen, Bohnen und Speck
(green beans cooked with pears and bacon),[83] Aalsuppe (Hamburgisch Oolsupp) is often mistaken to be German for "eel soup" (Aal/Ool translated ‘eel’), but the name probably comes from the Low Saxon allns [aˑlns], meaning "all", "everything and the kitchen sink", not necessarily eel. Today eel is often included to meet the expectations of unsuspecting diners.[84] There is Bratkartoffeln (pan-fried potato slices), Finkenwerder
Finkenwerder
Scholle (Low Saxon Finkwarder Scholl, pan-fried plaice), Pannfisch (pan-fried fish with mustard sauce),[85] Rote Grütze (Low Saxon Rode Grütt, related to Danish rødgrød, a type of summer pudding made mostly from berries and usually served with cream, like Danish rødgrød med fløde)[86] and Labskaus
Labskaus
(a mixture of corned beef, mashed potatoes and beetroot, a cousin of the Norwegian lapskaus and Liverpool's lobscouse, all offshoots off an old-time one-pot meal that used to be the main component of the common sailor's humdrum diet on the high seas).[87] Alsterwasser (in reference to the city's river, the Alster) is the local name for a type of shandy, a concoction of equal parts of beer and carbonated lemonade (Zitronenlimonade), the lemonade being added to the beer.[88] There is the curious regional dessert pastry called Franzbrötchen. Looking rather like a flattened croissant, it is similar in preparation but includes a cinnamon and sugar filling, often with raisins or brown sugar streusel. The name may also reflect to the roll's croissant-like appearance – franz appears to be a shortening of französisch, meaning "French", which would make a Franzbrötchen
Franzbrötchen
a "French roll". Ordinary bread rolls tend to be oval-shaped and of the French bread variety. The local name is Schrippe (scored lengthways) for the oval kind and, for the round kind, Rundstück ("round piece" rather than mainstream German Brötchen, diminutive form of Brot "bread"),[89] a relative of Denmark's rundstykke. In fact, while by no means identical, the cuisines of Hamburg
Hamburg
and Denmark, especially of Copenhagen, have a lot in common. This also includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts, especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled fish. The American hamburger may have developed from Hamburg's Frikadeller: a pan-fried patty (usually larger and thicker than its American counterpart) made from a mixture of ground beef, soaked stale bread, egg, chopped onion, salt and pepper, usually served with potatoes and vegetables like any other piece of meat, not usually on a bun. The Oxford Dictionary defined a Hamburger
Hamburger
steak in 1802: a sometimes-smoked and -salted piece of meat, that, according to some sources, came from Hamburg
Hamburg
to America.[90] The name and food, "hamburger", has entered all English-speaking countries, and derivative words in non-English speaking countries. There are restaurants which offer most of these dishes, especially in the HafenCity.

Main sights[edit]

Elbphilharmonie
Elbphilharmonie
("Elphi")

Port of Hamburg

St. Pauli
St. Pauli
Piers and cruise ship

Speicherstadt
Speicherstadt
(Warehouse district)

Hamburg Rathaus
Hamburg Rathaus
( City
City
Hall)

St. Michael's Church ("Michel")

Reeperbahn, nightlife district of St. Pauli

Spielbudenplatz at Reeperbahn

Große Freiheit
Große Freiheit
("Great Freedom")

Nikolai Memorial

HafenCity

Dockland at night

View over frozen Alster
Alster
towards Radisson Hotel and Hertz-Turm

Planten un Blomen
Planten un Blomen
park

Jungfernstieg
Jungfernstieg
Boulevard

Hills and mansions in Blankenese

Laeiszhalle
Laeiszhalle
concert venue

Hamburg
Hamburg
Hauptbahnhof, busiest railway station in Germany

Hanseatisches Oberlandesgericht ("HansOLG"), upper court

Highrises in St. Pauli
St. Pauli
("Hafenkrone")

Köhlbrand Bridge

TV Tower

Traditional sailing ships at Sandtorkai in HafenCity

View over Hamburg
Hamburg
and the Alster

Rote Flora
Rote Flora
in the Sternschanze
Sternschanze
neighbourhood, Hamburg Alternative culture[edit] Hamburg
Hamburg
has long been a centre of alternative music and counter-culture movements. The boroughs of St. Pauli, Sternschanze
Sternschanze
and Altona are known for being home to many radical left-wing and anarchist groups, culminating every year during the traditional May Day demonstrations.[91] The Rote Flora
Rote Flora
is a former theatre, which was squatted in 1989 in the wake of redevelopment plans for that area. Since then, the Rote Flora has become one of the most well-known strongholds against gentrification and a place for radical culture throughout Germany
Germany
and Europe. Especially during the 33rd G8 summit
33rd G8 summit
in nearby Heiligendamm, the Rote Flora
Rote Flora
served as an important venue for organising the counter-protests that were taking place back then.[92] During the 2017 G20 summit, which took place in Hamburg
Hamburg
from 7–8 July that year, protestors clashed violently with the police in the Sternschanze
Sternschanze
area and particularly around the Rote Flora. On 7 July, several cars were set on fire and street barricades were erected to prevent the police from entering the area. In response to that, the police made heavy use of water cannons and tear gas in order to scatter the protestors. However, this was met with strong resistance by protestors, resulting in a total of 160 injured police and 75 arrested participants in the protests.[93] After the summit, however, the Rote Flora
Rote Flora
issued a statement, in which it condemns the arbitrary acts of violence that were committed by some of the protestors whilst generally defending the right to use violence as a means of self-defence against police oppression. In particular, the spokesperson of the Rote Flora
Rote Flora
said that the autonomous cultural centre had a traditionally good relationship with its neighbours and local residents, since they were united in their fight against gentrification in that neighbourhood.[94]

British culture[edit] English Theatre of Hamburg
Hamburg
at Lerchenfeld 14 There are several English-speaking communities, such as the Caledonian Society of Hamburg, The British Club Hamburg, British and Commonwealth Luncheon Club, Anglo-German Club e.V.,[95] Professional Women's Forum,[96] The British Decorative and Fine Arts Society, The English Speaking Union of the Commonwealth, The Scottish Country Dancers of Hamburg, The Hamburg
Hamburg
Players e.V. English Language Theatre Group, The Hamburg
Hamburg
Exiles Rugby Club, several cricket clubs, and The Morris Minor Register of Hamburg. Furthermore, the Anglo-Hanseatic Lodge No. 850[97] within the Grand Lodge of British Freemasons of Germany[98] under the United Grand Lodges of Germany[99] works in Hamburg, and has a diverse expat membership. There is also a 400-year-old Anglican church community worshipping at St Thomas Becket Church.[100] American and international English-speaking organisations include The American Club of Hamburg
Hamburg
e.V.,[101] the American Women's Club of Hamburg,[102] the English Speaking Union, the German-American Women's Club,[103] and The International Women's Club of Hamburg
Hamburg
e.V. The American Chamber of Commerce handles matters related to business affairs.[104] The International School of Hamburg
Hamburg
serves school children. William Wordsworth, Dorothy Wordsworth
Dorothy Wordsworth
and Samuel Taylor Coleridge spent the last two weeks of September 1798 at Hamburg. Dorothy wrote a detailed journal of their stay, labelled "The Hamburg Journal (1798) by noted Wordsworth scholar Edward de Selincourt.[105] A Hamburg
Hamburg
saying, referring to its anglophile nature, is: "Wenn es in London
London
anfängt zu regnen, spannen die Hamburger
Hamburger
den Schirm auf." ... "When it starts raining in London, people in Hamburg
Hamburg
open their umbrellas."

Memorials[edit] A memorial for successful English engineer William Lindley, who reorganized, beginning in 1842, the drinking water and sewage system and thus helped to fight against cholera, is near Baumwall train station in Vorsetzen street. In 2009, more than 2,500 "stumbling blocks" (Stolpersteine) were laid, engraved with the names of deported and murdered citizens. Inserted into the pavement in front of their former houses, the blocks draw attention to the victims of Nazi persecution.[106]

Economy[edit] It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Economy of Hamburg. (Discuss) (November 2017) The 2016 gross domestic product (GDP) totaled €110.7 billion. The city has a relatively high employment rate, at 88 percent of the working-age population, employed in over 160,000 businesses. The average income in 2016 of employees was €49,332.[107] The unemployment rate stood at 6.1% in October 2018 and was higher than the German average.[108]

Year[109]

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Unemployment rate in %

8.9

8.3

9.0

9.9

9.7

11.3

11.0

9.1

8.1

8.6

8.2

7.8

7.5

7.4

7.6

7.4

7.1

6.8

Hamburg
Hamburg
Stock Exchange Banking[edit] Hamburg
Hamburg
has for centuries been a commercial centre of Northern Europe, and is the most important banking city of Northern Germany. The city is the seat of Germany's oldest bank, the Berenberg Bank, M.M.Warburg & CO and HSH Nordbank. The Hamburg Stock Exchange
Hamburg Stock Exchange
is the oldest of its kind in Germany.

Port[edit] Main article: Port of Hamburg Queen Mary 2 at the Port of Hamburg The most significant economic unit is the Port of Hamburg, which ranks third to Rotterdam
Rotterdam
and Antwerpen in Europe
Europe
and 17th-largest worldwide with transshipments of 8.9 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of cargo and 138.2 million tons of goods in 2016.[110] International trade is also the reason for the large number of consulates in the city. Although situated 68 miles (110 km) up the Elbe, it is considered a sea port due to its ability to handle large ocean-going vessels.[111]

Industrial production[edit] Heavy industry of Hamburg
Hamburg
includes the making of steel, aluminium, copper and various large shipyards such as Blohm + Voss.[112] Hamburg, along with Seattle
Seattle
and Toulouse, is an important location of the civil aerospace industry. Airbus, which has an assembly plant in Finkenwerder, employs over 13,000 people.[113]

HafenCity[edit] Western Hafen City
City
area and Speicherstadt
Speicherstadt
( UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage) The Hafen City
City
is Europe's largest urban development project and is located in the Hamburg-Mitte
Hamburg-Mitte
district. It consists of the area of the Great Grasbrook, the northern part of the former Elbe
Elbe
island Grasbrook, and the warehouse district on the former Elbe
Elbe
island Kehrwieder and Wandrahm. It is bordered to the north, separated by the customs channel to Hamburg's city center, west and south by the Elbe and to the east, bounded by the upper harbor, Rothenburgsort. The district is full of rivers and streams and is surrounded by channels, and has a total area of about 2.2 square-kilometers. Hafen City
City
has 155 hectares in the area formerly belonging to the free port north of the Great Grasbrook. Residential units for up to 12,000 people are planned to be built on the site by around the mid-2020s, and jobs for up to 40,000 people, mainly in the office sector, should be created. It is the largest ongoing urban development project in Hamburg. Construction work started in 2003, and in 2009 the first part of the urban development project was finished with the completion of the Dalmannkai / Sandtorkai neighborhood – which is the first stage of the Hafen City
City
project. According to the person responsible for the development and commercialization of HafenCity, Hafen City
City
Hamburg GmbH, half of the master plan underlying structural construction is already completed, whereas the other half is either under construction or is in the construction preparation stages. Many companies operating in E-Commerce have moved into Hafen City
City
or started there. In addition to cruise agents, many start-up companies that have no direct connection to the port or ships can be found in HafenCity.

Tourism[edit] Hamburg
Hamburg
city logo Neuer Wall, one of Europe's most luxurious shopping streets In 2017, more than 6,783,000 visitors with 13,822,000 overnight stays visited the city.[114] The tourism sector employs more than 175,000 people full-time and brings in revenue of almost €9 billion, making the tourism industry a major economic force in the Hamburg
Hamburg
Metropolitan Region. Hamburg
Hamburg
has one of the fastest-growing tourism industries in Germany. From 2001 to 2007, the overnight stays in the city increased by 55.2% ( Berlin
Berlin
+52.7%, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
+33%).[115] A typical Hamburg
Hamburg
visit includes a tour of the city hall and the grand church St. Michaelis (called the Michel), and visiting the old warehouse district (Speicherstadt) and the harbour promenade (Landungsbrücken). Sightseeing buses connect these points of interest. As Hamburg
Hamburg
is one of the world's largest harbours many visitors take one of the harbour and/or canal boat tours (Große Hafenrundfahrt, Fleetfahrt) which start from the Landungsbrücken. Major destinations also include museums. The area of Reeperbahn
Reeperbahn
in the quarter St. Pauli
St. Pauli
is Europe's largest red light district and home of strip clubs, brothels, bars and nightclubs. The singer and actor Hans Albers
Hans Albers
is strongly associated with St. Pauli, and wrote the neighbourhood's unofficial anthem, "Auf der Reeperbahn
Reeperbahn
Nachts um Halb Eins" ("On the Reeperbahn
Reeperbahn
at Half Past Midnight") in the 1940s. The Beatles
The Beatles
had stints on the Reeperbahn early in their careers. Others prefer the laid-back neighbourhood Schanze with its street cafés, or a barbecue on one of the beaches along the river Elbe. Hamburg's famous zoo, the Tierpark Hagenbeck, was founded in 1907 by Carl Hagenbeck
Carl Hagenbeck
as the first zoo with moated, barless enclosures.[116] In 2016, the average visitor spent two nights in Hamburg.[117] The majority of visitors come from Germany. Most foreigners are European, especially from Denmark
Denmark
(395,681 overnight stays), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(301,000 overnight stays), Switzerland
Switzerland
(340,156 overnight stays), Austria
Austria
(about 252,397 overnight stays) and the Netherlands
Netherlands
(about 182,610 overnight stays).[117] The largest group from outside Europe
Europe
comes from the United States
United States
(206,614 overnight stays).[117] The Queen Mary 2 has docked regularly since 2004, and there were six departures planned from 2010 onwards.[118]

Media[edit] Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
headquarters Media businesses employ over 70,000 people.[119] The Norddeutscher Rundfunk
Norddeutscher Rundfunk
which includes the television station NDR Fernsehen is based in Hamburg, including the very popular news program Tagesschau, as are the commercial television station Hamburg
Hamburg
1, the Christian television station Bibel TV
Bibel TV
and the civil media outlet Tide TV. There are regional radio stations such as Radio Hamburg. Some of Germany's largest publishing companies, Axel Springer AG, Gruner + Jahr, Bauer Media Group
Bauer Media Group
are located in the city. Many national newspapers and magazines such as Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
and Die Zeit
Die Zeit
are produced in Hamburg, as well as some special-interest newspapers such as Financial Times Deutschland. Hamburger
Hamburger
Abendblatt and Hamburger Morgenpost are daily regional newspapers with a large circulation. There are music publishers, such as Warner Bros. Records
Warner Bros. Records
Germany, and ICT firms such as Adobe Systems
Adobe Systems
and Google
Google
Germany. Hamburg
Hamburg
was one of the locations for the James Bond series film Tomorrow Never Dies. The Reeperbahn
Reeperbahn
has been the location for many scenes, including the 1994 Beatles film Backbeat.[120] The film A Most Wanted Man was set in and filmed in Hamburg. Hamburg
Hamburg
was also shown in An American Tail
An American Tail
where Fievel Mousekewitz and his family immigrate to America in the hopes to escape cats.

Infrastructure[edit] Health systems[edit] Hamburg
Hamburg
has 54 hospitals. The University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, with about 1,736 beds, houses a large medical school. There are also smaller private hospitals. On 1 January 2011 there were about 12,507 hospital beds.[121] The city had 5,663 physicians in private practice and 456 pharmacies in 2010.[122]

Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Hamburg The Port of Hamburg
Port of Hamburg
on the river Elbe Baumwall station of Hamburg
Hamburg
U-Bahn Neue and Freihafen-Elbbrücke Hamburg
Hamburg
is a major transportation hub, connected to four Autobahnen (motorways) and the most important railway junction on the route to Scandinavia. Bridges and tunnels connect the northern and southern parts of the city, such as the old Elbe
Elbe
Tunnel (Alter Elbtunnel) or St. Pauli Elbtunnel (official name) which opened in 1911, now is major tourist sight, and the Elbe
Elbe
Tunnel (Elbtunnel) the crossing of a motorway.[123] Hamburg Airport
Hamburg Airport
is the oldest airport in Germany
Germany
still in operation.[124][125] There is also the smaller Hamburg Finkenwerder
Finkenwerder
Airport, used only as a company airport for Airbus. Some airlines market Lübeck
Lübeck
Airport in Lübeck
Lübeck
as serving Hamburg.[126] Hamburg's licence plate prefix was "HH" (Hansestadt Hamburg; English: Hanseatic City
City
of Hamburg) between 1906 and 1945 and from 1956 onwards, rather than the single letter normally used for large cities since the federal registration reform in 1956, such as B for Berlin
Berlin
or M for Munich. "H" was Hamburg's prefix in the years between 1945 and 1947 (used by Hanover
Hanover
since 1956);[127]

Public transport[edit] Public transport
Public transport
by rail, bus and ship is organised by the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund (" Hamburg
Hamburg
transit authority") (HVV). Tickets sold by one company are valid on all other HVV companies' services. The HVV was the first organisation of this kind worldwide.[128] 33 mass transit rail lines across the city are the backbone of public transport.[129] The S-Bahn (heavy railway system) comprises six lines and the U-Bahn four lines – U-Bahn is short for Untergrundbahn (underground railway). Approximately 41 km (25 mi) of 101 km (63 mi) of the U-Bahn is underground; most is on embankments or viaduct or at ground level. Older residents still speak of the system as Hochbahn (elevated railway), also because the operating company of the subway is the Hamburger
Hamburger
Hochbahn. The AKN railway connects satellite towns in Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
to the city. On some routes regional trains of Germany's major railway company Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
AG and the regional metronom trains may be used with an HVV ticket. Except at the four bigger stations of the city, Hauptbahnhof, Dammtor, Altona and Harburg regional trains do not stop inside the city. The tram system was opened in 1866 and shut down in 1978.[130] Gaps in the rail network are filled by more than 669 bus routes, operated by single-deck two-, three- and four-axle diesel buses.[129] Hamburg
Hamburg
has no trams or trolleybuses, but has hydrogen-fueled buses. The buses run frequently during working hours, with buses on some so-called MetroBus routes as often as every 2 minutes.[citation needed] On special weekday night lines the intervals can be 30 minutes or longer, on normal days (Monday-Friday) the normal buses stop running at night. (MetroBuses run all around the clock, every day at the year at least every half-hour.) There are eight ferry lines along the River Elbe, operated by HADAG, that fall under the aegis of the HVV. While mainly used by citizens and dock workers, they can also be used for sightseeing tours.[131]

An Airbus
Airbus
A321 on final assembly line 3 in the Airbus
Airbus
plant at Hamburg
Hamburg
Finkenwerder
Finkenwerder
Airport. The international airport at Hamburg
Hamburg
Fuhlsbüttel, official name Hamburg Airport
Hamburg Airport
„Helmut Schmidt“ (IATA: HAM, ICAO: EDDH) is the fifth biggest and oldest airport in Germany, having been established in 1912 and located about 5 miles (8 kilometres) from the city centre. About 60 airlines provide service to 125 destination airports, including some long distance destinations like Newark, New Jersey
Newark, New Jersey
on United Airlines, Dubai
Dubai
on Emirates, and Tehran
Tehran
on Iran
Iran
Air; Lufthansa is the hub carrier, with the most flights and operates one of its biggest maintenance facilities at the Hamburg
Hamburg
airport (Lufthansa Technik). The second airport is located in Hamburg-Finkenwerder, official name Hamburg
Hamburg
Finkenwerder
Finkenwerder
Airport (IATA: XFW, ICAO: EDHI). It is about 10 km (6 mi) from the city centre and is a nonpublic airport for the Airbus
Airbus
plant. It is the second biggest Airbus
Airbus
plant, after Toulouse, and the third biggest aviation manufacturing plant after Seattle
Seattle
and Toulouse; the plant houses the final assembly lines for A318, A319, A320, A321 and A380 aircraft.[132]

Public transportation statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Hamburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 58 min. 16% of public transit riders, ride for more than two hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 11% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8.9 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[133]

Utilities[edit] Electricity for Hamburg
Hamburg
and Northern Germany
Germany
is largely provided by Vattenfall
Vattenfall
Europe, formerly the state-owned Hamburgische Electricitäts-Werke. Vattenfall
Vattenfall
Europe
Europe
used to operate the Brunsbüttel Nuclear Power Plant
Brunsbüttel Nuclear Power Plant
and Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant, both taken out of service as part of the nuclear power phase-out. In addition, E.ON
E.ON
operates the Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant
Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant
near Hamburg. There are also the coal-fired Wedel, Tiefstack and Moorburg CHP Plant, and the fuel-cell power plant in the Hafen City
City
quarter. VERA Klärschlammverbrennung uses the biosolids of the Hamburg
Hamburg
wastewater treatment plant; the Pumpspeicherwerk Geesthacht is a pump storage power plant and a solid waste combustion power station is Müllverwertung Borsigstraße.[134]

Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Hamburg Hamburg
Hamburg
City
City
Man 2007 at the Binnenalster Barclaycard Arena Volksparkstadion Hamburg
Hamburg
is sometimes called Germany's capital of sport since no other city has more first-league teams and international sports events. Hamburger
Hamburger
SV is a football team playing in the 2. Bundesliga
2. Bundesliga
(as of 2018). The HSV was the oldest team of the Bundesliga, playing in the league since its beginning in 1963 until a change of results saw them relegated from the Bundesliga
Bundesliga
in 2018. HSV is a six-time German champion, a three-time German cup winner and triumphed in the European Cup in 1983, and has played in the group stages of the Champions League twice: in 2000–01 and in 2006–07. They play at the Volksparkstadion
Volksparkstadion
(average attendance in the 12–13 season was 52,916). In addition, FC St. Pauli
St. Pauli
was a second division football club that came in second place in the 2009–10 season and qualified to play alongside Hamburger
Hamburger
SV in the first division for the first time since the 2001–02 season. St. Pauli's home games take place at the Millerntor-Stadion. The Hamburg Freezers
Hamburg Freezers
represented Hamburg
Hamburg
until 2016 in the DEL, the premier ice hockey league in Germany. HSV Handball represented Hamburg
Hamburg
until 2016 in the German handball league. In 2007, HSV Handball won the European Cupwinners Cup. The Club won the league in the 2010–11 season and had an average attendance of 10.690 in the O2 World Hamburg
O2 World Hamburg
the same year. The most recent success for the team was the EHF Champions League win in 2013. Since 2014, the club has suffered from economic problems and was almost not allowed the playing licence for the 2014–15 season. But due to economic support from the former club president/sponsor Andreas Rudolf the club was allowed the licence in the last minute. On 20 January 2016 however, their licence was removed due to violations following the continued economic struggles. In 2016–17, they were not allowed to play in the first or second league. The team lives on through their former second team (now their main team) in the third division (2016-2018) and in second division (since 2018). The BCJ Hamburg
Hamburg
played in the Basketball Bundesliga
Bundesliga
from 1999 to 2001. Since then, teams from Hamburg
Hamburg
have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. The recently founded Hamburg Towers
Hamburg Towers
have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA
ProA
and aim to take on the heritage of the BCJ Hamburg. The Towers play their home games at the Inselparkhalle in Wilhelmsburg. Hamburg
Hamburg
is the nation's field hockey capital and dominates the men's as well as the women's Bundesliga. Hamburg
Hamburg
hosts many top teams such as Uhlenhorster Hockey Club, Harvesterhuder Hockey Club and Club An Der Alster. The Hamburg
Hamburg
Warriors are one of Germany's top lacrosse clubs.[135] The club has grown immensely in the last several years and includes at least one youth team, three men's, and two women's teams. The team participates in the Deutsch Lacrosse Verein. The Hamburg
Hamburg
Warriors are part of the Harvestehuder Tennis- und Hockey-Club e.V (HTHC).[136] There are also the Hamburg
Hamburg
Dockers, an Australian
Australian
rules football club.[137] The FC St. Pauli
St. Pauli
team dominates women's rugby in Germany. Other first-league teams include VT Aurubis
Aurubis
Hamburg (Volleyball), Hamburger
Hamburger
Polo Club, and Hamburg Blue Devils
Hamburg Blue Devils
(American Football).[138] There are also several minority sports clubs, including four cricket clubs.

Am Rothenbaum
Am Rothenbaum
is the main tennis stadium of the International German Open The Centre Court of the Tennis Am Rothenbaum
Am Rothenbaum
venue, with a capacity of 13,200 people, is the largest in Germany.[139] Hamburg
Hamburg
also hosts equestrian events at Reitstadion Klein Flottbek ( Deutsches Derby
Deutsches Derby
in jumping and dressage) and Horner Rennbahn ( Deutsches Derby
Deutsches Derby
flat racing).[140] Besides Hamburg
Hamburg
owns the famous harness racing track "Trabrennbahn Bahrenfeld". The Hamburg Marathon
Marathon
is the biggest marathon in Germany
Germany
after Berlin's. In 2008 23,230 participants were registered.[141] World Cup events in cycling, the UCI ProTour competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, and the triathlon ITU World Cup event Hamburg
Hamburg
City
City
Man are also held in here.[142] Volksparkstadion
Volksparkstadion
was used as a site for the 2006 World Cup. In 2010 UEFA held the final of the UEFA Europa League
UEFA Europa League
in the arena.[143] Hamburg
Hamburg
made a bid for the 2024 Olympic Games, but 51.7 percent of those city residents participating in a referendum in November 2015 voted against continuing Hamburg's bid to host the games. Meanwhile, Hamburg's partner city Kiel
Kiel
voted in favour of hosting the event, with almost 66 percent of all participants supporting the bid. Opponents of the bid had argued that hosting the 33rd Olympic Games would cost the city too much in public funds.

Education[edit] See also: Education in Hamburg
Education in Hamburg
and Education in Germany University of Hamburg
University of Hamburg
main building University of Music and Theatre The school system is managed by the Ministry of Schools and Vocational Training (Behörde für Schule und Berufsbildung). The system had approximately 191,148 students in 221 primary schools and 188 secondary schools in 2016.[144] There are 32 public libraries in Hamburg.[145] Nineteen universities are located in Hamburg, with about 100,589 university students in total, including 9,000 resident students.[146] Six universities are public, including the largest, the University of Hamburg
University of Hamburg
(Universität Hamburg) with the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, the University of Music and Theatre, the Hamburg
Hamburg
University of Applied Sciences, the HafenCity University Hamburg
Hamburg
and the Hamburg
Hamburg
University of Technology. Seven universities are private, like the Bucerius Law School
Bucerius Law School
and the HSBA Hamburg
Hamburg
School of Business Administration. The city has also smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as the Helmut Schmidt
Helmut Schmidt
University (formerly the University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg).[147] Hamburg
Hamburg
is home to one of the oldest international schools in Germany, the International School of Hamburg.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Hamburg
Hamburg
has nine twin towns and sister cities around the world. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Tanzania
became its newest sister city in 2010.[148]

St. Petersburg, Russia, (then Leningrad, Soviet Union), since 1957 Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France, since 1958 Shanghai, China, since 1986 Dresden, Saxony, Germany
Germany
(then East Germany), since 1987[149] Tegucigalpa, Honduras, since 1989

Osaka, Japan, since 1989 Prague, Czech Republic, since 1990[150] Chicago, Illinois, United States, since 1994 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, since 2010[151]

People from Hamburg[edit] See also: Category:People from Hamburg .mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 In Hamburg
Hamburg
it's hard to find a native Hamburger. A hurried and superficial search turns up only crayfish, people from Pinneberg, and those from Bergedorf. One accompanies the contented little kippers of a striving society; mackerels from Stade, sole from Finkenwerder, herrings from Cuxhaven
Cuxhaven
swim in expectant throngs through the streets of my city and lobsters patrol the stock exchange with open claws.... The first so-called unguarded glance always lands on the bottom of the sea and falls into twilight of the aquarium. Heinrich Heine
Heinrich Heine
must have had the same experience when he tried, with his cultivated scorn and gifted melancholy, to find the people of Hamburg.— Siegfried Lenz, in Leute von Hamburg
Hamburg
(People of Hamburg) .mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em ISBN 978-3-423-11538-4.[152]

See also[edit]

Hamburg
Hamburg
portal Germany
Germany
portal Novo Hamburgo Outline of Germany References[edit]

^ "State population". Portal
Portal
of the Land Statistics Office Hamburg. Retrieved 15 November 2017.

^ "Hamburger". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

^ "Bruttoinlandsprodukt – in jeweiligen Preisen – in Deutschland 1991 bis 2016 nach Bundesländern (WZ 2008) – VGR dL". www.vgrdl.de.

^ "Bruttoinlandsprodukt – in jeweiligen Preisen – in Deutschland 1991 bis 2017 nach Bundesländern (WZ 2008) – VGR dL". www.statistik-bw.de.

^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.

^ a b Constitution of Hamburg),Verfassung der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg
Hamburg
(in German) (11th ed.), 6 June 1952, archived from the original on 10 June 2007, retrieved 21 September 2008

^ "2015 Quality of Living survey". Mercer.com. Retrieved 21 July 2015.

^ Media release on the website of Hamburg
Hamburg
Marketing, retrieved on 19 March 2016.

^ Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Act Gesetz über den Nationalpark Hamburgisches Wattenmeer (in German), 9 April 1990, retrieved 26 February 2011

^ Geologisches Landesamt Hamburg
Hamburg
( Hamburg
Hamburg
State Geological Department) (2007), Statistisches Jahrbuch 2007/2008 (in German), Hamburg: Statistisches Amt für Hamburg
Hamburg
und Schleswig-Holstein, ISSN 1614-8045

^ "Hamburg, Germany
Germany
Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 7 February 2019.

^ Report on the snowfall disaster of 1978/1979 in northern Germany, retrieved on 20 July 2016.

^ Article on the winters in Germany, retrieved on 20 July 2016.

^ Comparison Archived 7 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
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^ a b "World Weather Information Service – Hamburg". Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 6 April 2012.

^ "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". Retrieved 24 June 2014.

^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Hamburg, Germany
Germany
- Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2 July 2019.

^ "Hamburg- Fuhlsbüttel
Fuhlsbüttel
(10147) - WMO Weather Station". NOAA. Retrieved 7 February 2019.

^ Schulz, Matthias (1 October 2010). "Mapping Ancient Germania: Berlin Researchers Crack the Ptolemy Code" – via Spiegel Online.

^ Verg, Erich; Verg, Martin (2007), Das Abenteuer das Hamburg
Hamburg
heißt (in German) (4th ed.), Hamburg: Ellert&Richter, p. 8, ISBN 978-3-8319-0137-1

^ "Hammaburg – der große Irrtum" (in German). Hamburg
Hamburg
Abendblatt. 12 December 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2008.

^ a b Verg (2007), p.15

^ Snell, Melissa (2006), The Great Mortality, Historymedren.about.com, retrieved 19 April 2009

^ Verg (2007), p. 26

^ Verg (2007), p. 30

^ Clark, David S. (1987), "The Medieval Origins of Modern Legal Education: Between Church and State", The American Journal of Comparative Law, American Society of Comparative Law, Vol. 35, No. 4 (4): 653–719, doi:10.2307/840129, JSTOR 840129

^ Verg (2007), p. 39

^ History of the area Archived 6 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 3 November 2012

^ "World Port Ranking 2011" (PDF). American Association of Port Authorities. aapa-ports.org.

^ "Gedenkstätte Konzentrationslager Neuengamme". Kz-gedenkstaette-neuengamme.de. Retrieved 14 September 2013.

^ Cf. 'Schreiben der Geheimen Staatspolizei – Staatspolizeileitstelle Hamburg
Hamburg
– an den Oberfinanzpräsidenten, Vermögensverwaltungsstelle vom 1. Juni 1943', Staatsarchiv Hamburg, Bestand Oberfinanzpräsident, Arb. Sign. 31/1 A, here after: Vierhundert Jahre Juden in Hamburg: eine Ausstellung des Museums für Hamburgische Geschichte vom 8. November 1991 bis 29. März 1992, Ulrich Bauche (ed.), Hamburg: Dölling und Galitz, 1991, (Die Geschichte der Juden in Hamburg; vol. 1), p. 492, ISBN 3-926174-31-5

^ Ortwin Pelc, Kriegsende in Hamburg, Hamburg
Hamburg
2005

^ [1]

^ "Fußball-Underdog WM-Finale am Sonntag: So sind wir Kroaten". Retrieved 14 July 2018.

^ "Statistische Berichte: Ausländische Bevölkerung in Hamburg" (PDF). Retrieved 21 June 2018.

^ Staff (2016), Hamburger
Hamburger
Melderegister (PDF) (in German), Statistical office Hamburg
Hamburg
and Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
(Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig-Holstein)

^ Hamburg
Hamburg
Metropolitan Area fact sheet (PDF), Office of Statistics for Hamburg
Hamburg
and Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
(Statistisches Amt für Hamburg
Hamburg
und Schleswig-Holstein), retrieved 25 July 2017

^ https://www.statistik-nord.de/fileadmin/Dokumente/Statistische_Berichte/bevoelkerung/A_I_S_1_j_H/A_I_S1_j16.pdf

^ https://www.statistik-nord.de/fileadmin/Dokumente/Statistik_informiert_SPEZIAL/SI_SPEZIAL_V_2017_Korrektur.pdf

^ a b https://www.statistik-nord.de/fileadmin/Dokumente/Jahrb%C3%BCcher/Hamburg/JB16HH_Gesamt_Internet_min.pdf

^ Selectable data base: Source: Residents registration office, Regionalergebnisse (PDF) (in German), Statistical office Hamburg
Hamburg
and Schleswig-Holstein, retrieved 25 July 2016

^ Bausch, Karl-Heinz (2007), "Die deutsche Sprache—eine Dialektlandschaft", Nationalatlas Bundesrepublik Deutschland (PDF) (in German), Leipzig: Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde, pp. 94–95, ISBN 3-8274-0947-0, archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2011, retrieved 24 September 2008

^ Several places are named ...brook (Billbrook, Brooktor, Grasbrook, Hammerbrook, Hellbrook, Iserbrook) rather than Standard German ...bruch (neutr.; =brook riverscape), Bullenhusen rather than Bullenhausen, Lohbrügge
Lohbrügge
rather than Lohbrücke, several localities starting with Nien... (Niendorf, Nienstedten) rather than Neuen..., or ending ...hude (Dockenhuden, Harvestehude, Winterhude) rather than ...hut[ung] (fem.; =pasture), Uhlenhorst
Uhlenhorst
rather than Eulenhorst, several places and water bodies are named ...bek (Barmbek, Eilbek, Fischbek, Flottbek, Goldbek, Isebek, Kirchsteinbek, Langenbek, Osterbek, Pepermölenbek, Wandsbek) rather than ...bach, several places and water bodies are called ...fleet (Alsterfleet, Bleichenfleet, Moorfleet) rather than ...fließ (=brook, stream). Further toponyms with no close Standard German
Standard German
correspondents appear, such as ...büttel (=inhabited place; Eimsbüttel, Fuhlsbüttel, Hummelsbüttel, Poppenbüttel, Wellingsbüttel) or Twiete (=alley wedged between buildings). Like in other parts of Northern Germany ...stedt (Bergstedt, Billstedt, Duvenstedt, Eidelstedt, Lokstedt, Mellingstedt, Nienstedten, Ohlstedt, Rahlstedt) prevails over ...stadt (=town, originally simply stead).

^ Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland - Kirchemitgliederzahlen Stand 31.12.2015 EKD Januar 2017

^ Sonja Haug et al.: Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland, Nuremberg, 2009

^ "Kartenseite: Muslime in den Landkreisen beim Zensus 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 30 April 2017.

^ "Deutschlands älteste Moschee wurde 50". 19 June 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2014.

^ Zaklikowski, Dovid (30 August 2007), Jewish
Jewish
School Returns to Hamburg
Hamburg
Building Left Judenrein by Nazis, chabad.org, retrieved 11 August 2008

^ Kleiner Rathausführer (in German), Hamburg: State Chancellery, 2006

^ German conservatives win most votes, USA today, 24 February 2008, retrieved 13 August 2008

^ Kopp, Martin (2007), Geheime Absprachen zwischen CDU und Grünen (in German), Hamburg: Die Welt, archived from the original on 29 June 2009, retrieved 13 August 2008

^ Schwarz-Grün in Hamburg
Hamburg
am Ende in Die Zeit
Die Zeit
– online, revisited on November, 28. 2010.

^ a b Borough Administration Act Bezirksverwaltungsgesetz (BezVG) (in German), 6 July 2006, archived from the original on 13 August 2007, retrieved 21 September 2008

^ Greater Hamburg Act
Greater Hamburg Act
Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz (in German), 26 January 1937, retrieved 24 September 2008

^ Reich Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic city of Hamburg
Hamburg
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^ other prefixes used between 1945 and 1956 were "MGH" (Military Government, Hamburg: 1945 only), "HG" (1947 only) and "BH" (British Zone, Hamburg) between 1948 and 1956.

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^ Jenkins, Jennifer (2003), Provincial modernity: local culture and liberal politics in fin-de-siècle Hamburg, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-4025-4

External links[edit] SHORT FILM "HAMBURG LIFE"

Hamburgat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity

Official website Hamburg
Hamburg
at Curlie Geographic data related to Hamburg
Hamburg
at OpenStreetMap Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). " Hamburg
Hamburg
(city)" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Panoramas and Virtual Tours of Hamburg Hamburg-Wedel-Elbe-Web-Cams Hamburg-Cruise-Center + Elbphilharmonie
Elbphilharmonie
Hamburg- Elbe-Harbour-Web-Cams Hamburg
Hamburg
Portal
Portal
City
City
Guide Hamburg
Hamburg
Panorama-View vtePlaces adjacent to Hamburg Cuxhaven Kiel Lübeck

Bremerhaven, Stade

Hamburg

Schwerin

Bremen Hanover Lüneburg, Berlin

vte Free and Hanseatic City
City
of HamburgFreie und Hansestadt HamburgGovernment and Symbols Parliament Constitution Subdivisions Elections Flag Coat of arms Police History and Culture Timeline Hamburg
Hamburg
culture Hanseatic League Hanseaten Demographics Dialect Education Sport Museums Theatres Cuisine Economy and Transport Hamburg
Hamburg
Metropolitan Region Chamber of Commerce Airport Port Bridges Hamburg S-Bahn
Hamburg S-Bahn
stations Hamburg U-Bahn
Hamburg U-Bahn
stations

.mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal Lists Mayors Honorary citizens Diplomatic missions Rivers Parks and gardens Churches Libraries Museums Theatres Castles Railway stations

vteBoroughs and quarters of the Free and Hanseatic City
City
of HamburgBoroughs Altona Bergedorf Eimsbüttel Hamburg-Mitte Hamburg-Nord Harburg Wandsbek Quarters Allermöhe Alsterdorf Altengamme Altenwerder Altona-Altstadt Altona-Nord Altstadt Bahrenfeld Barmbek-Nord Barmbek-Süd Bergedorf Bergstedt Billbrook Billwerder Billstedt Blankenese Borgfelde Bramfeld Cranz Curslack Dulsberg Duvenstedt Eidelstedt Eilbek Eimsbüttel Eißendorf Eppendorf Farmsen-Berne Finkenwerder Francop Fuhlsbüttel Groß Borstel Groß Flottbek Gut Moor HafenCity Hamm Hammerbrook Harburg Harvestehude Hausbruch Heimfeld Hoheluft-Ost Hoheluft-West Hohenfelde Horn Hummelsbüttel Iserbrook Jenfeld Kirchwerder Kleiner Grasbrook Langenbek Langenhorn Lemsahl-Mellingstedt Lohbrügge Lokstedt Lurup Marienthal Marmstorf Moorburg Moorfleet Neuallermöhe Neuenfelde Neuengamme Neugraben-Fischbek Neuland Neustadt Neuwerk Niendorf Nienstedten Ochsenwerder Ohlsdorf Osdorf Othmarschen Ottensen Poppenbüttel Rahlstedt Reitbrook Rissen Rönneburg Rothenburgsort Rotherbaum Sasel Schnelsen Sinstorf Spadenland St. Georg St. Pauli Steilshoop Steinwerder Stellingen Sternschanze Sülldorf Tatenberg Tonndorf Uhlenhorst Veddel Volksdorf Wandsbek Waltershof Wellingsbüttel Wilhelmsburg Wilstorf Winterhude Wohldorf-Ohlstedt

Links to related articles vte States of the Federal Republic of GermanyStates    Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
(since 1952)    Bavaria
Bavaria
(since 1949)    Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(since 1990)    Hesse
Hesse
(since 1949)    Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
(since 1949)    Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
(since 1990)    North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
(since 1949)    Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
(since 1949)    Saarland
Saarland
(since 1957)    Saxony
Saxony
(since 1990)    Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
(since 1990)    Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
(since 1949)    Thuringia
Thuringia
(since 1990) City-states    Berlin
Berlin
(since 1990)    Bremen
Bremen
(since 1949)    Hamburg
Hamburg
(since 1949) Former states    South Baden
South Baden
(1949–1952)    Württemberg-Baden
Württemberg-Baden
(1949–1952)    Württemberg-Hohenzollern
Württemberg-Hohenzollern
(1949–1952)

vte Capitals of states of the Federal Republic of GermanyCapitals of area states Dresden
Dresden
(Saxony) Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
(North Rhine-Westphalia) Erfurt
Erfurt
(Thuringia) Hanover
Hanover
(Lower Saxony) Kiel
Kiel
(Schleswig-Holstein) Magdeburg
Magdeburg
(Saxony-Anhalt) Mainz
Mainz
(Rhineland-Palatinate) Munich
Munich
(Bavaria) Potsdam
Potsdam
(Brandenburg) Saarbrücken
Saarbrücken
(Saarland) Schwerin
Schwerin
(Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Stuttgart
Stuttgart
(Baden-Württemberg) Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
(Hesse) City-states1 Berlin City
City
of Bremen
Bremen
(State of Bremen) Hamburg Capitals of former states Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau
(South Baden, 1949–1952) Stuttgart
Stuttgart
(Württemberg-Baden, 1949–1952) Tübingen
Tübingen
(Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 1949–1952)

1 Unlike the mono-city states Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg, the State of Bremen consists of two cities, thus state and capital are not identical.

vteCities in Germany
Germany
by population1,000,000+ Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich 500,000–999,999 Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart 200,000–499,999 Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kassel Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal 100,000–199,999 Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

Complete list Municipalities Metropolitan regions Cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

vteRapid transit and commuter rail in Hamburg Hamburger
Hamburger
Verkehrsverbund (HVV) Public transport
Public transport
rail systems and operators in the Hamburg Metropolitan RegionSystems Hamburg U-Bahn
Hamburg U-Bahn
(lines: U1 · U2 · U3 · U4 · U5) Hamburg
Hamburg
S-Bahn Hamburg
Hamburg
A-Bahn Hamburg
Hamburg
R-Bahn Operators U-Bahn: Hamburger
Hamburger
Hochbahn S-Bahn: DB Regio
DB Regio
· S-Bahn Hamburg
Hamburg
GmbH A-Bahn: AKN Eisenbahn R-Bahn: Erixx
Erixx
· Eisenbahnen und Verkehrsbetriebe Elbe-Weser
Eisenbahnen und Verkehrsbetriebe Elbe-Weser
· Metronom Eisenbahngesellschaft
Metronom Eisenbahngesellschaft
· Nordbahn Eisenbahngesellschaft
Nordbahn Eisenbahngesellschaft
· Nord-Ostsee-Bahn Long distance railway stations: Hamburg Hauptbahnhof
Hamburg Hauptbahnhof
· Hamburg-Altona · Hamburg
Hamburg
Dammtor · Hamburg-Harburg
Hamburg-Harburg
List of Hamburg U-Bahn
Hamburg U-Bahn
stations · List of Hamburg S-Bahn
Hamburg S-Bahn
stations Hamburg
Hamburg
in history vteMembers of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by quarterChief cities shown in .mw-parser-output .smallcaps font-variant:small-caps smallcaps.Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.WendishLübeck Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar SaxonBrunswickMagdeburg Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt
Frankfurt
an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen BalticDanzig(Gdańsk) Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń) Westphalian Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1 Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest KontorePrincipal Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor Bruges Antwerp2  Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod) Subsidiary Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov Other cities Bristol Boston Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle 1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times.2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel. vteFree imperial cities of the Holy Roman EmpireBy 1792 Aachen Aalen Augsburg Biberach Bopfingen BremenH Buchau Buchhorn CologneH Dinkelsbühl DortmundH Eßlingen Frankfurt Friedberg Gengenbach Giengen GoslarH HamburgH Heilbronn Isny Kaufbeuren Kempten Kessenich Leutkirch Lindau LübeckH Memmingen Mühlhausen MülhausenD, S Nordhausen Nördlingen Nuremberg Offenburg Pfullendorf Ravensburg Regensburg Reutlingen Rothenburg RottweilS Schwäbisch Gmünd Schwäbisch Hall Schweinfurt Speyer Überlingen Ulm Wangen Weil Weißenburg in Bayern Wetzlar Wimpfen Windsheim Worms Zell Free Imperial Cities as of 1648Lost imperial immediacy or no longer part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
by 1792 BaselS BernS Besançon Brakel Cambrai Diessenhofen Donauwörth Duisburg Düren Gelnhausen HagenauD Herford KaysersbergD KolmarD Konstanz LandauD Lemgo LucerneS Mainz Metz MunsterD ObernaiD Pfeddersheim Rheinfelden RosheimD St. GallenS Sarrebourg SchaffhausenS Schmalkalden SchlettstadtD SeltzD SoestH SolothurnS Straßburg Toul TurckheimD Verden Verdun Warburg Weißenburg in ElsaßD ZürichS

D Member of the Décapole H Member of the Hanseatic League S Member or associate of the Swiss Confederacy

vte Lower Saxon Circle
Lower Saxon Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman EmpireEcclesiastical Bremen1 Halberstadt1 Hildesheim Lübeck Magdeburg1 Ratzeburg2 Schwerin1 Secular Bremen3 Brunswick and Lunenburg Blankenburg4 Calenberg5 Celle5 Grubenhagen6 Hanover7 Wolfenbüttel Holstein Glückstadt Gottorp8 Pinneberg9 Mecklenburg Güstrow10 Schwerin Strelitz11 Rantzau12 Regenstein Saxe-Lauenburg5 Cities Bremen Goslar Hamburg Lübeck Mühlhausen Nordhausen 1 until 1648.   2 until 1701.   3 from 1648.   4 until 1731.   5 until 1705.   6 until 1596.   7 from 1708.   8 until 1773.   9 until 1640.   10 until 1695.   11 from 1701.   12 until 1734. Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) SaxonCircles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories vte States of the German Confederation
German Confederation
(1815–66)Empires Austria1 Kingdoms Prussia1 Bavaria Saxony Hanover Württemberg Electorates Hesse-Kassel Grand Duchies Baden Hesse-Darmstadt Luxembourg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Duchies Anhalt Bernburg2 Dessau2 Köthen3 Brunswick Holstein Limburg4 Nassau Saxe-Lauenburg Ernestine Altenburg5 Coburg-Saalfeld6 Coburg-Gotha5 Gotha-Altenburg6 Hildburghausen6 Meiningen Principalities Hesse-Homburg Hohenzollern Hechingen7 Sigmaringen7 Liechtenstein Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg Rudolstadt Sondershausen Waldeck and Pyrmont City-states Bremen Frankfurt Hamburg Lübeck

1 w/o areas listed under other territories 2 Merged with Anhalt from 1863 3 until 1847 4 from 1839 5 from 1826 6 until 1826 7 until 1850 8 1849–60 9 as of 1849 10 until 1837 11 until 1829 12 until 1848/57 13 until 1848 14 as of 1848 15 as of 1829 16 as of 1864

vte States of the North German Confederation
German Confederation
(1867–71)Kingdoms Prussia Saxony Grand Duchies Hesse-Darmstadt Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Duchies Anhalt Brunswick Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Lauenburg Saxe-Meiningen Principalities Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg Rudolstadt Sondershausen Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Waldeck and Pyrmont City-states Bremen Hamburg Lübeck

vte States of the German Empire
German Empire
(1871–1918)Kingdoms Bavaria Prussia Saxony Württemberg Grand Duchies Baden Hesse-Darmstadt Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Duchies Anhalt Brunswick Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Lauenburg
Saxe-Lauenburg
(until 1876) Saxe-Meiningen Principalities Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Waldeck and Pyrmont City-states Bremen Hamburg Lübeck Imperial Territories Alsace-Lorraine Other German colonial empire Mittelafrika Mitteleuropa

vte States of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
(1919–33)States Anhalt Baden Bavaria Brunswick Hesse Lippe Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Prussia Saxony Schaumburg-Lippe Thuringia
Thuringia
(from 1920) Waldeck (until 1929) Württemberg City-states Bremen Hamburg Lübeck Until 1920Ernest Altenburg Coburg Gotha Meiningen Weimar-Eisenach Reuss Reuss-Greiz Reuss-Gera Schwarzburg Rudolstadt Sondershausen Unrecognizedseparatist movements Bavarian Soviet Republic Bremen
Bremen
Soviet Republic Bottleneck People's State of Bavaria Rhenish Republic

vteAdministrative divisions in Nazi Germany
Germany
and German occupationsAdministrativedivisionsofNazi GermanyCivil Administration Areas Alsace Bialystok area Carinthia and Carniola Danzig Lower Styria Luxembourg Government district Zichenau Territory of the Chief of Civil Administration
Chief of Civil Administration
of Lorraine Districts Białystok Brussels Gaus Baden-Alsace Bayreuth Berlin Cologne–Aachen Düsseldorf Eastern Hanover East Prussia Electoral Hesse Essen Franconia Halle-Merseburg Hamburg Hesse-Nassau Lower Silesia Magdeburg-Anhalt Main Franconia March of Brandenburg Mecklenburg Moselland Munich–Upper Bavaria NSDAP/AO Pomerania Saxony Schleswig-Holstein Silesia Swabia Southern Hanover–Brunswick Thuringia Upper Silesia Weser-Ems Westphalia-North Westphalia-South Westmark Württemberg-Hohenzollern GeneralGovernments General Government Districts Galicia Kraków Lublin Radom Warsaw Urban districts Kielce Lviv Lublin Kraków Radom Tschenstochau Warsaw

Kreishauptmannschaften Garwolin Grójec Lowicz Mińsk Mazowiecki Ostrów Mazowiecka Siedlce Skierniewice Sochaczew Sokołów Podlaski-Węgrów Dębica Jarosław Jaslo Krakau-Land Krosno Miechow Nowy Targ Nowy Sącz Przemyśl Rzeszow Sanok Tarnów Biała Podlaska Bilgoraj Chelm Hrubieszow Janow Lubelski Krasnystaw Lublin-Land Pulawy Radzyn Zamość Busko-Zdrój Jedrzejow Kielce-Land Końskie Opatów Piotrków Trybunalski Radom-Land Radomsko Starachowice Tomaszów Mazowiecki Brzeżany Czortków Drohobycz Kamianka-Buzka Kolomyia Lemberg-Land Rava-Ruska Ivano-Frankivsk Sambir Stryj Tarnopol Zolochiv Kalush

Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia Reichsgaus Carinthia Lower Danube Upper Danube Danzig–West Prussia Flanders Salzburg Styria Sudetenland Tyrol–Vorarlberg Vienna Wallonia Wartheland GermanoccupationsGerman-occupied Africa French protectorate of Tunisia Kingdom of Egypt German-occupied Europe Albania Bailiwick of Guernsey Bailiwick of Jersey Second Czechoslovak Republic Third Czechoslovak Republic Federal State of Austria Free City
City
of Danzig French Republic Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Kingdom of Belgium Kingdom of Denmark Kingdom of Greece Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Italy Italian Islands of the Aegean Kingdom of Norway Kingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom of Yugoslavia Principality
Principality
of Monaco Republic of Finland Provisional Government of Lithuania Provisional Government of the French Republic Republic of Poland Republic of San Marino Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia Slovak Republic Territory of the Saar Basin Ukrainian National Government Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Military administrations Belgium and Northern France France German Zone of Protection in Slovakia Greece Luxembourg Poland Soviet Union Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia Operational Zones Adriatic Littoral Alpine Foothills Puppet states Albanian Kingdom Commissioner Government French State German occupied territory of Montenegro Government of National Salvation Hellenic State Independent State of Croatia Independent State of Macedonia Italian Social Republic Kingdom of Hungary Lepel Republic Lokot Autonomy National Government Slovak Republic ReichskommissariatsFounded Belgium and Northern France Netherlands Norway Ostland Ukraine Planned Caucasus Don–Volga Moscow Turkestan Related Areas annexed by Nazi Germany

vteWorld War II city bombing Area bombardment Aerial bombing of cities Firestorm Strategic bombing V-weapons

Acre Akita Aomori Augsburg Baedeker Bahrain Barrow-in-Furness Bath Bangkok Belfast Belgrade Berlin Birmingham Braunschweig Bremen Breslau Brighton Bristol Bucharest Caen Cardiff Chongqing Clydebank Cologne Coventry Darmstadt Darwin Dhahran Dietzenbach Dresden Dublin Duisburg Essen Exeter Frampol Frankfurt Frascati Freiburg Friedrichshafen Foggia Fort Lamy Fukui Fukuoka Gibraltar Gifu Gorky Greenock Haifa Hamamatsu Hamburg Hanau Hannover Heilbronn Helsinki Hildesheim Hiratsuka Hiroshima Hong Kong Honolulu Hull Innsbruck Jaffa Kassel Kobe Kōfu Königsberg Kuala Lumpur Kure Leeds Leipzig Leningrad Liverpool London Lübeck Malta Manchester Mandalay Mannheim Manila Milan Minsk Munich Nagaoka Nagasaki Nagoya Naha Nanjing Naples Nexø Nijmegen Norwich Nottingham Numazu Okazaki Osaka Pforzheim Ploiești Plymouth Podgorica Prague Rabaul Allied Rangoon Rome Rønne Rotterdam Schaffhausen Schwäbisch Hall Sendai Shanghai Sheffield Shizuoka Allied Singapore Axis Singapore Sofia Southampton Stalingrad Stuttgart Swansea Taipei Tallinn Tel Aviv Tokyo (Meetinghouse) Toyohashi Toyokawa Treviso Ulm Unalaska Utsunomiya Vienna Warsaw Wesel Wieluń Wilhelmshaven Wuppertal Würzburg Yawata Yokkaichi Zadar Zagreb

Authority control BNF: cb11864269d (data) GND: 4023118-5 ISNI: 0000 0004 0391 1264 LCCN: n81086822 MusicBrainz: 11a44e18-a2e5-43a9-bee9-aa4f7c83f967 NARA: 10044628 NDL: 00628973 NKC: ge134202 NLI: 000986517 SUDOC: 026385074 VIAF: 148855657 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
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