in Anatolia Artuqid
dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid
dynasty Zengid dynasty

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The Great Seljuq Empire
(Turkish Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu) or Great Seljuk State (Turkmen Beỳik Seljuk Döwleti), known by its endonym Āl-e Saljuq (Persian آلِ سلجوق‬ "The House (family/clan) of Seljuk") was a medieval Turko-Persian[14] Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.[15] The Seljuk Empire
controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to western Anatolia
and the Levant, and from Central Asia
Central Asia
to the Persian Gulf. From their homelands near the Aral Sea, the Seljuks advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia
before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. The Seljuk empire was founded by Tughril
Beg (1016–1063) in 1037. Tughril
was raised by his grandfather, Seljuk-Beg, who was in a high position in the Oghuz Yabgu State. Seljuk gave his name to both the Seljuk empire and the Seljuk dynasty. The Seljuks united the fractured political scene of the eastern Islamic world
Islamic world
and played a key role in the first and second crusades. Highly Persianized[16] in culture[17] and language,[18] the Seljuks also played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition,[19] even exporting Persian culture to Anatolia.[20][21] The settlement of Turkic tribes in the northwestern peripheral parts of the empire, for the strategic military purpose of fending off invasions from neighboring states, led to the progressive Turkicization
of those areas.[22]


1 Founder of the Dynasty 2 Expansion of the Empire

2.1 Tughril
and Chaghri 2.2 Alp Arslan 2.3 Malik Shah I

3 Governance 4 Division of empire 5 First Crusade 6 Second Crusade 7 Decline 8 Conquest by Khwarezm
and the Ayyubids 9 Legacy 10 List of sultans of the Great Seljuq Empire 11 Gallery 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Founder of the Dynasty[edit] Main article: Seljuk The apical ancestor of the Seljuqs was their beg, Seljuk, who was reputed to have served in the Khazar
army, under whom, circa 950, they migrated to Khwarezm, near the city of Jend, where they converted to Islam.[23] Expansion of the Empire[edit] Main articles: Seljuq dynasty, Persianate, and Turko-Persian Tradition The Seljuqs were allied with the Persian Samanid
shahs against the Qarakhanids. The Samanid
fell to the Qarakhanids
in Transoxania (992–999), however, whereafter the Ghaznavids
arose. The Seljuqs became involved in this power struggle in the region before establishing their own independent base. Tughril
and Chaghri[edit] Main article: Tughril Tughril
was the grandson of Seljuq and brother of Chaghri, under whom the Seljuks wrested an empire from the Ghaznavids. Initially the Seljuqs were repulsed by Mahmud and retired to Khwarezm, but Tughril and Chaghri
led them to capture Merv
and Nishapur
(1037).[24] Later they repeatedly raided and traded territory with his successors across Khorasan and Balkh
and even sacked Ghazni
in 1037.[25] In 1040 at the Battle of Dandanaqan, they decisively defeated Mas'ud I of the Ghaznavids, forcing him to abandon most of his western territories to the Seljuqs. In 1055, Tughril
captured Baghdad
from the Shi'a Buyids under a commission from the Abbasids. Alp Arslan[edit] Main article: Alp Arslan Alp Arslan, the son of Chaghri
Beg, expanded significantly upon Tughril's holdings by adding Armenia
and Georgia in 1064 and invading the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in 1068, from which he annexed almost all of Anatolia.[26] Arslan's decisive victory at the Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
in 1071 effectively neutralized the Byzantine resistance to the Turkish invasion of Anatolia.[27] He authorized his Turkmen generals to carve their own principalities out of formerly Byzantine Anatolia, as atabegs loyal to him. Within two years the Turkmens
had established control as far as the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
under numerous beghliks (modern Turkish beyliks): the Saltukids
in Northeastern Anatolia, the Shah-Armens
and the Mengujekids
in Eastern Anatolia, Artuqids
in Southeastern Anatolia, Danishmendis in Central Anatolia, Rum Seljuqs (Beghlik of Suleyman, which later moved to Central Anatolia) in Western Anatolia, and the Beylik of Tzachas of Smyrna
Tzachas of Smyrna
in İzmir (Smyrna). Malik Shah I[edit] Main article: Malik Shah I Under Alp Arslan's successor, Malik Shah, and his two Persian viziers,[28] Nizām al-Mulk and Tāj al-Mulk, the Seljuq state expanded in various directions, to the former Iranian border of the days before the Arab invasion, so that it soon bordered China
in the east and the Byzantines in the west. Malikshāh moved the capital from Rey to Isfahan
and it was during his reign that the Great Seljuk Empire
reached its zenith.[29] The Iqta military system and the Nizāmīyyah University at Baghdad
were established by Nizām al-Mulk, and the reign of Malikshāh was reckoned the golden age of "Great Seljuq". The Abbasid
titled him "The Sultan of the East and West" in 1087. The Assassins
(Hashshashin) of Hassan-i Sabāh started to become a force during his era, however, and they assassinated many leading figures in his administration; according to many sources these victims included Nizām al-Mulk. Governance[edit] Further information: Divan § Seljuqs The Seljuq power was indeed at its zenith under Malikshāh I, and both the Qarakhanids
and Ghaznavids
had to acknowledge the overlordship of the Seljuqs.[30] The Seljuq dominion was established over the ancient Sasanian
domains, in Iran
and Iraq, and included Anatolia
as well as parts of Central Asia
Central Asia
and modern Afghanistan.[30] The Seljuk rule was modelled after the tribal organization common in Turkic and Mongol nomads and resembled a 'family federation' or 'appanage state'.[30] Under this organization, the leading member of the paramount family assigned family members portions of his domains as autonomous appanages.[30] Division of empire[edit] See also: Sultanate
of Rum and Atabegs

The Seljuk Sultanate
of Rum in 1190

When Malikshāh I died in 1092, the empire split as his brother and four sons quarrelled over the apportioning of the empire among themselves. Malikshāh I was succeeded in Anatolia
by Kilij Arslan I, who founded the Sultanate
of Rum, and in Syria
by his brother Tutush I. In Persia
he was succeeded by his son Mahmud I, whose reign was contested by his other three brothers Barkiyaruq
in Iraq, Muhammad I in Baghdad, and Ahmad Sanjar
Ahmad Sanjar
in Khorasan. When Tutush I died, his sons Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo
and Damascus
respectively and contested with each other as well, further dividing Syria
amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other. In 1118, the third son Ahmad Sanjar
Ahmad Sanjar
took over the empire. His nephew, the son of Muhammad I, did not recognize his claim to the throne, and Mahmud II proclaimed himself Sultan and established a capital in Baghdad, until 1131 when he was finally officially deposed by Ahmad Sanjar. Elsewhere in nominal Seljuq territory were the Artuqids
in northeastern Syria
and northern Mesopotamia; they controlled Jerusalem until 1098. The Dānišmand dynasty founded a state in eastern Anatolia
and northern Syria
and contested land with the Sultanate
of Rum, and Kerbogha exercised independence as the atabeg of Mosul. First Crusade[edit] Main articles: First Crusade
First Crusade
and Georgian- Seljuk wars During the First Crusade, the fractured states of the Seljuqs were generally more concerned with consolidating their own territories and gaining control of their neighbours than with cooperating against the crusaders. The Seljuqs easily defeated the People's Crusade
People's Crusade
arriving in 1096, but they could not stop the progress of the army of the subsequent Princes' Crusade, which took important cities such as Nicaea
(İznik), Iconium
(Konya), Caesarea Mazaca
Caesarea Mazaca
(Kayseri), and Antioch
(Antakya) on its march to Jerusalem
(Al-Quds). In 1099 the crusaders finally captured the Holy Land
Holy Land
and set up the first Crusader states. The Seljuqs had already lost Palestine to the Fatimids, who had recaptured it just before its capture by the crusaders. In 1121 the Seljuk Empire
invaded Georgia with an army of 100,000-250,000 (modern estimate) or 400,000-800,000 (various Muslim, Christian chronicles), under command of Ilghazi.[31][32] David gathered 40,000 Georgian warriors, 15,000 South Caucasian Kipchaks, 300 Alans and 100 French Crusaders
to fight against Ilghazi's vast army. The Battle of Didgori
Battle of Didgori
(Georgian: დიდგორის ბრძოლა) was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia and the Seljuk Empire, 40 km west of Tbilisi, (the modern-day capital of Georgia), on August 12, 1121. The battle resulted in King David's decisive victory over a Seljuk invasion army under Ilghazi and the subsequent reconquest of a Muslim-held Tbilisi, which became a royal town.[33] The Seljuk sultan Rukn ad-Din Suleiman Shah decided to crush Georgia and invaded Georgia with an army of 150,000-400,000.[34] Queen Tamar's husband, David Soslan
David Soslan
gathered 80,000 warriors and moved to meet Suleiman.[34] The Battle of Basian
Battle of Basian
was fought in the Basian valley, Georgia.[34] Both the Rum Seljuk and Georgian armies suffered heavy casualties, but coordinated flanking attacks won the battle for the Georgians.[34] Second Crusade[edit] See also: Second Crusade, Zengi, and Nur ad-Din Zangi During this time conflict with the Crusader states
Crusader states
was also intermittent, and after the First Crusade
First Crusade
increasingly independent atabegs would frequently ally with the Crusader states
Crusader states
against other atabegs as they vied with each other for territory. At Mosul, Zengi succeeded Kerbogha as atabeg and successfully began the process of consolidating the atabegs of Syria. In 1144 Zengi captured Edessa, as the County of Edessa
County of Edessa
had allied itself with the Artuqids
against him. This event triggered the launch of the Second Crusade. Nur ad-Din, one of Zengi's sons who succeeded him as atabeg of Aleppo, created an alliance in the region to oppose the Second Crusade, which landed in 1147. Decline[edit] Ahmad Sanjar
Ahmad Sanjar
fought to contain the revolts by the Kara-Khanids in Transoxiana, Ghurids in Afghanistan
and Qarluks in modern Kyrghyzstan, as well as the nomadic invasion of the Kara-Khitais in the east. The advancing Kara-Khitais first defeated the Eastern Kara-Khanids, then followed up by crushing the Western Kara-Khanids, who were vassals of the Seljuqs at Khujand. The Kara-Khanids turned to their overlord the Seljuqs for assistance, to which Sanjar responded by personally leading an army against the Kara-Khitai. However Sanjar's army was decisively defeated by the host of Yelu Dashi
Yelu Dashi
at the Battle of Qatwan on September 9, 1141. While Sanjar managed to escape with his life, many of his close kin including his wife were taken captive in the battle's aftermath. As a result of Sanjar's failure to deal with the encroaching threat from the east, the Seljuq Empire
lost all its eastern provinces up to the river Syr Darya, and vassalage of the Western Kara-Khanids was usurped by the Kara-Khitai, otherwise known as the Western Liao in Chinese historiography.[35] Conquest by Khwarezm
and the Ayyubids[edit] See also: Saladin, Ayyubid, and Khwarezmid Empire In 1153, the Ghuzz
(Oghuz Turks) rebelled and captured Sanjar. He managed to escape after three years but died a year later. The atabegs, such as Zengids
and Artuqids, were only nominally under the Seljuk Sultan, and generally controlled Syria
independently. When Ahmad Sanjar
Ahmad Sanjar
died in 1157, this fractured the empire even further and rendered the atabegs effectively independent.

Khorasani Seljuqs in Khorasan and Transoxiana. Capital: Merv Kermani Seljuqs Sultanate
of Rum (or Seljuqs of Turkey). Capital: Iznik
(Nicaea), later Konya
(Iconium) Atabeghlik of the Salghurids
in Iran Atabeghlik of Eldiguzids
in Iraq
and Azerbaijan. Capital Hamadan Atabeghlik of Bori in Syria. Capital: Damascus Atabeghlik of Zangi in Al Jazira (Northern Mesopotamia). Capital: Mosul Turcoman Beghliks: Danishmendis, Artuqids, Saltuqids
and Mengujekids in Asia Minor

After the Second Crusade, Nur ad-Din's general Shirkuh, who had established himself in Egypt
on Fatimid
land, was succeeded by Saladin. In time, Saladin
rebelled against Nur ad-Din, and, upon his death, Saladin
married his widow and captured most of Syria
and created the Ayyubid
dynasty. On other fronts, the Kingdom of Georgia
Kingdom of Georgia
began to become a regional power and extended its borders at the expense of Great Seljuk. The same was true during the revival of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia under Leo II of Armenia
in Anatolia. The Abbasid
caliph An-Nasir
also began to reassert the authority of the caliph and allied himself with the Khwarezmshah Takash. For a brief period, Togrul III was the Sultan of all Seljuq except for Anatolia. In 1194, however, Togrul was defeated by Takash, the Shah of Khwarezmid Empire, and the Seljuq Empire
finally collapsed. Of the former Seljuq Empire, only the Sultanate
of Rûm in Anatolia
remained. As the dynasty declined in the middle of the thirteenth century, the Mongols invaded Anatolia
in the 1260s and divided it into small emirates called the Anatolian beyliks. Eventually one of these, the Ottoman, would rise to power and conquer the rest. Legacy[edit] The Seljuqs were educated in the service of Muslim courts as slaves or mercenaries. The dynasty brought revival, energy, and reunion to the Islamic civilization hitherto dominated by Arabs and Persians. The Seljuqs founded universities and were also patrons of art and literature. Their reign is characterized by Persian astronomers such as Omar Khayyám, and the Persian philosopher al-Ghazali. Under the Seljuqs, New Persian
New Persian
became the language for historical recording, while the center of Arabic language
Arabic language
culture shifted from Baghdad
to Cairo.[36] List of sultans of the Great Seljuq Empire[edit] Main article: List of sultans of the Seljuq Empire

# Laqab Throne name Reign Marriages Succession right

1 Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din رکن الدنیا والدین,‬ Toghrul-Beg 1037–1063 1) Altun Jan Khatun (2) Aka Khatun (3) Fulana Khatun (daughter of Abu Kalijar) (4) Seyyidah Khatun (daughter of Al-Qa'im, Abbasid
caliph) (5) Fulana Khatun (widow of Chaghri
Beg) son of Mikail (grandson of Seljuq)

2 Diya ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah ضياء الدنيا و الدين عضد الدولة‬ Alp Arslan 1063–1072 1) Aka Khatun (widow of Toghrul I) (2) Safariyya Khatun (daughter of Yusuf Qadir Khan, Khagan
of Kara-Khanid) (3) Fulana Khatun (daughter of Smbat Lorhi) (4) Fulana Khatun (daughter of Kurtchu bin Yunus bin Seljuk) son of Chaghri

3 Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Jalal ad-Dawlah معز الدین جلال الدولہ ‬ Malik-Shah I 1072–1092 1) Turkan Khatun (daughter of Ibrahim Tamghach Khan, Khagan
of Western Kara-Khanid) (2) Zubeida Khatun (daughter of Yaquti ibn Chaghri) (3) Safariyya Khatun (daughter of Isa Khan, Sultan of Samarkand) (4) Fulana Khatun (daughter of Romanos IV Diogenes) son of Alp Arslan

4 Nasir ad-Dunya wa ad-Din ناصر الدنیا والدین‬ Mahmud I 1092–1094

son of Malik-Shah I

5 Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din رکن الدنیا والدین‬ Barkiyaruq 1094–1105

son of Malik-Shah I

6 Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Jalal ad-Dawlah رکن الدنیا والدین جلال الدولہ‬ Malik-Shah II 1105

son of Barkiyaruq

7 Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa ad-Din غیاث الدنیا والدین‬ Tapar 1105–1118 1) Nisandar Jihan Khatun (2) Gouhar Khatun (daughter of Isma'il bin Yaquti) (3) Fulana Khatun (daughter of Aksungur Beg) son of Malik-Shah I

8 Mughith ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Jalal ad-Dawlah مُغيث الدنيا و الدين جلال الدولة‬ Mahmud II 1118–1131 1) Mah-i Mulk Khatun (died 1130) (daughter of Sanjar) (2) Amir Siti Khatun (daughter of Sanjar) (3) Ata Khatun (daughter of Ali bin Faramarz) son of Muhammad I

9 Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah مُعز الدنيا و الدين جلال الدولة‬ Sanjar 1118–1153 1) Turkan Khatun (daughter of Muhammad Arslan Khan, Khagan
of Western Kara-Khanid) (2) Rusudan Khatun (daughter of Demetrius I of Georgia) (3) Gouhar Khatun (daughter of Isma'il bin Yaquti, widow of Tapar) (4) Fulana Khatun (daughter of Arslan Khan, a Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
prisoner) son of Malik-Shah I

10 Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa ad-Din غیاث الدنیا والدین‬ Dawud 1131–1132 Gouhar Khatun (daughter of Masud) son of Mahmud II

11 Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din رکن الدنیا والدین‬ Toghrul II 1132–1135 1) Mumine Khatun (mother of Arslan-Shah) (2) Zubeida Khatun (daughter of Barkiyaruq) son of Muhammad I

12 Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa ad-Din غیاث الدنیا والدین ‬ Masud 1135–1152 1) Gouhar Nasab Khatun (daughter of Sanjar) (2) Zubeida Khatun (daughter of Barkiyaruq, widow of Toghrul II) (3) Mustazhiriyya Khatun (daughter of Qawurd) (4) Sufra Khatun (daughter of Dubais) (5) Arab Khatun (daughter of Al-Muqtafi) (6) Ummiha Khatun (daughter of Amid ud-Deula bin Juhair) (7) Abkhaziyya Khatun (daughter of David IV of Georgia) (8) Sultan Khatun (mother of Malik-Shah III) son of Muhammad I

13 Muin ad-Dunya wa ad-Din مُعين الدنيا و الدين‬ Malik-Shah III 1152–1153

son of Mahmud II

14 Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din رکن الدنیا والدین‬ Muhammad 1153–1159 1) Mahd Rafi Khatun (daughter of Kirman-Shah) (2) Gouhar Khatun (daughter of Masud, widow of Dawud) (3) Kerman
Khatun (daughter of Al-Muqtafi) (4) Kirmaniyya Khatun (daughter of Tughrul Shah, ruler of Kerman) son of Mahmud II

15 Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa ad-Din غیاث الدنیا والدین‬ Suleiman-Shah 1159–1160 1) Khwarazmi Khatun (daughter of Muhammad Khwarazm Shah) (2) Abkhaziyya Khatun (daughter of David IV of Georgia, widow of Masud) son of Muhammad I

16 Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din معز الدنیا والدین‬ Arslan-Shah 1160–1176 1) Kerman
Khatun (daughter of Al-Muqtafi, widow of Muhammad) (2) Sitti Fatima Khatun (daughter of Ala ad-Daulah) (3) Kirmaniyya Khatun (daughter of Tughrul Shah, ruler of Kerman, widow of Muhammad) (4) Fulana Khatun (sister of Izz al-Din Hasan Qipchaq) son of Toghrul II

17 Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din رکن الدنیا والدین‬ Toghrul III 1176–1191 1st reign Inanj Khatun (daughter of Sunqur-Inanj, ruler of Rey, widow of Toghrul III) son of Arslan-Shah

18 Muzaffar ad-Dunya wa ad-Din مظفر الدنیا والدین‬ Qizil Arslan 1191 Inanj Khatun (daughter of Sunqur-Inanj, ruler of Rey, widow of Muhammad ibn Ildeniz) son of Ildeniz (stepbrother of Arslan-Shah)

— Rukn ad-Dunya wa ad-Din رکن الدنیا والدین‬ Toghrul III 1192–1194 2nd reign

son of Arslan-Shah

v t e

Great Seljuq sultans family tree

















Duqaq Temür Yalığ (b. ? – d. ?) Commander-in-chief of Oghuz army





















































Seljuq-Beg (b. ? – d. ?) Commander-in-chief of Oghuz army































































Arslan Yabgu (b. ? – d. 1032) Chief of Seljuq Dynasty


Mikail (b. ? -d. ?)


Musa Yabgu






























































1.Toghrul I (r. 1037–1063) Sultan of Great Seljuq


Chaghri-Beg (r. 1040–1060) Governor of Khorasan


Ibrahim Inal

















































































Qawurd-Beg (r. 1048–1073) Governor of Kirman


Suleiman Prince


Bahram-Shah Prince


Alp Sungur Prince Governor of Azerbaijan


2.Alp Arslan (r. 1063–1072) Sultan of Great Seljuq


Ilyas Prince


Khadija Princess married Abbasid
caliph Al-Qa'im.


Uthman Prince


Jawhar Khatun Princess
















































































Tutush (r. 1078–1095) Governor of Damascus


Toghrul Prince


Böri-Bars Prince


Arslan-Shah (r. 1066–1083) Governor of Khorasan


3.Malik-Shah I (r. 1072–1092) Sultan of Great Seljuq


Toghan-Shah (r. 1083–1092) Governor of Khorasan


Aisha Princess married Kara-Khanid
khan Nasr Shams al-Mulk.


Arslan-Argun (r. 1092–1097) Governor of Khorasan


Mah-i Mulk Princess married Abbasid
caliph Al-Muqtadi.








































































5.Barkiyaruq (r. 1094–1105) Sultan of Great Seljuq


Dawud Prince


Ahmad Prince


4.Mahmud I (r. 1092–1094) Sultan of Great Seljuq


7.Tapar (r. 1105–1118) Sultan of Great Seljuq


9.Sanjar (r. 1118–1153) Sultan of Great Seljuq


Gawhar Khatun Princess married Ghaznavid
sultan Mas'ud III.


Sitara Princess married Kakuyid atabeg Garshasp II.





















































6.Malik-Shah II (r. 1105) Sultan of Great Seljuq






8.Mahmud II (r. 1118–1131) Sultan of Great Seljuq


15.Suleiman-Shah (r. 1159–1160) Sultan of Great Seljuq


12.Masud (r. 1135–1152) Sultan of Great Seljuq


11.Toghrul II (r. 1132–1135) Sultan of Great Seljuq


Mu'mine Khatun wife of Toghrul II until 1135 wife of Ildeniz from 1136


Ildeniz (r. 1160–1175) de facto ruler Atabeg of Arslan-Shah

































































14.Muhammad II (r. 1153–1159) Sultan of Great Seljuq


10.Dawud (r. 1131–1132) Sultan of Great Seljuq


13.Malik-Shah III (r. 1152–1153) Sultan of Great Seljuq








16.Arslan-Shah (r. 1160–1176) Sultan of Great Seljuq


Muhammad (r. 1175–1186) de facto ruler Atabeg of Toghrul III


18.Qizil Arslan (r. 1191) Sultan of Great Seljuq



















































17.Toghrul III (r. 1176–1191, 1192–1194) Sultan of Great Seljuq



"Family tree of Seljuqs" (PDF). 


Seljuq-era art: Ewer
from Herat, Afghanistan, dated 1180–1210CE. Brass worked in repousse and inlaid with silver and bitumen. British Museum.

Section of a Water Jug, Habb, 12th-13th century, Brooklyn Museum

Bowl with an Enthronement Scene,12th-13th century, Brooklyn Museum

Head of male royal figure, 12–13th century, found in Iran.

Toghrol Tower, a 12th-century monument south of Tehran
in Iran commemorating Tughril

The Kharāghān twin towers, built in 1053 in Iran, is the burial of Seljuq princes.

Seljuq sultan Barkiyaruq

Seljuk Sultan Muhammad ibn Malik-Shah

See also[edit]

Artuqid Assassins Atabeg Anatolian Seljuks family tree Danishmend Ghaznavid
Empire Rahat al-sudur Seljuq architecture Seljuq dynasty Sultanate
of Rûm History of the Turks List of Turkic dynasties and countries Timeline of the Sultanate
of Rûm Timeline of the Turks (500–1300) Seldschuken-Fürsten, list of Seljuq rulers in the German Turkic migrations


^ a b Savory, R. M., ed. (1976). Introduction to Islamic Civilisation. Cambridge University Press. p. 82. ISBN 0-521-20777-0.  ^ Black, Edwin (2004). Banking on Baghdad: Inside Iraq's 7,000-year History of War, Profit and Conflict. John Wiley and Sons. p. 38. ISBN 0-471-67186-X.  ^ a b c C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO History of Humanity, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO
Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language
Arabic language
retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time)." ^ Stokes 2008, p. 615. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd., 2009), 1110; "Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule." ^ A New General Biographical Dictionary, Vol.2, Ed. Hugh James Rose, (London, 1853), 214. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire
of the Steppes, (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167. ^ Grousset, Rene
Grousset, Rene
(1988). The Empire
of the Steppes. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. pp. 159, 161. ISBN 0-8135-0627-1. In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East.  ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ Rein Taagepera
Rein Taagepera
(September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 496. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.  ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.  ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.  ^ * "Aḥmad of Niǧde's al-Walad al-Shafīq and the Seljuk Past", A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; "With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate
culture of the Great Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia."

Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; " Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate
model&nbsp k..." Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Šahrbānu", Online Edition: "here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language
Persian language
and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia
rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..." Josef W. Meri, Medieval
Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 2005, p. 399 Michael Mandelbaum, Central Asia
Central Asia
and the World, Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79 Jonathan Dewald, Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks." Grousset, Rene, The Empire
of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161, 164; "renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran." "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz
bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace." Wendy M. K. Shaw, Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire. University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0-520-23335-2, ISBN 978-0-520-23335-5; p. 5.

^ * Jackson, P. (2002). "Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens". Journal of Islamic Studies. Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75. 

Bosworth, C. E. (2001). 0Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi". Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299–313. Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
(Pvt. Ltd). Hancock, I. (2006). On Romani origins and identity. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin. Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: "The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century", Part One: "The Historical, Social and Economic Setting". Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
(Pvt. Ltd).

^ * Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Šahrbānu", Online Edition: "here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language
Persian language
and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia
rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."

Josef W. Meri, " Medieval
Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399 Michael Mandelbaum, " Central Asia
Central Asia
and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79 Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."

^ * C.E. Bosworth, "Turkmen Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO History of Humanity, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO
Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language
Arabic language
retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkmen must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time). The process of Persianization accelerated in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya
of two of the most distinguished refugees fleeing before the Mongols, Bahā' al-Dīn Walad and his son Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī, whose Mathnawī, composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of classical Persian literature."

Mehmed Fuad Köprülü, "Early Mystics in Turkish Literature", Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff, Routledge, 2006, p. 149: "If we wish to sketch, in broad outline, the civilization created by the Seljuks of Anatolia, we must recognize that the local—i.e., non-Muslim, element was fairly insignificant compared to the Turkish and Arab-Persian elements, and that the Persian element was paramount. The Seljuk rulers, to be sure, who were in contact with not only Muslim Persian civilization, but also with the Arab civilizations in al-jazlra and Syria—indeed, with all Muslim peoples as far as India—also had connections with various Byzantine courts. Some of these rulers, like the great 'Ala' al-Dln Kai-Qubad I himself, who married Byzantine princesses and thus strengthened relations with their neighbors to the west, lived for many years in Byzantium and became very familiar with the customs and ceremonial at the Byzantine court. Still, this close contact with the ancient Greco-Roman and Christian traditions only resulted in their adoption of a policy of tolerance toward art, aesthetic life, painting, music, independent thought—in short, toward those things that were frowned upon by the narrow and piously ascetic views of their subjects . The contact of the common people with the Greeks and Armenians had basically the same result. [Before coming to Anatolia,] the Turkmens
had been in contact with many nations and had long shown their ability to synthesize the artistic elements that thev had adopted from these nations. When they settled in Anatolia, they encountered peoples with whom they had not yet been in contact and immediately established relations with them as well. Ala al-Din Kai-Qubad I established ties with the Genoese and, especially, the Venetians at the ports of Sinop and Antalya, which belonged to him, and granted them commercial and legal concessions. Meanwhile, the Mongol invasion, which caused a great number of scholars and artisans to flee from Turkmenistan, Iran, and Khwarazm and settle within the Empire
of the Seljuks of Anatolia, resulted in a reinforcing of Persian influence on the Anatolian Turks. Indeed, despite all claims to the contrary, there is no question that Persian influence was paramount among the Seljuks of Anatolia. This is clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne after Ghiyath al-Din Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient Persian mythology, like Kai-Khusraw, Kai-Ka us, and Kai-Qubad; and that. Ala' al-Din Kai-Qubad I had some passages from the Shahname inscribed on the walls of Konya
and Sivas. When we take into consideration domestic life in the Konya
courts and the sincerity of the favor and attachment of the rulers to Persian poets and Persian literature, then this fact [i.e., the importance of Persian influence] is undeniable. With regard to the private lives of the rulers, their amusements, and palace ceremonial, the most definite influence was also that of Iran, mixed with the early Turkish traditions, and not that of Byzantium." Stephen P. Blake, Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639–1739. Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran
it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were " Persianized and Islamicized"

^ * Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Šahrbānu", Online Edition: "here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language
Persian language
and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia
rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."

O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine.", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition Encyclopædia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition: "Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language
Arabic language
disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..." M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya
and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25-6 (2005), pp. 157–69 F. Daftary, "Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid
Times", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO
Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids
and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."

^ "The Turko-Persian tradition
Turko-Persian tradition
features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers." See Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum, " Central Asia
Central Asia
and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, p. 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers." ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire
of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 574. ^ Bingham, Woodbridge, Hilary Conroy and Frank William Iklé, History of Asia, Vol.1, (Allyn and Bacon, 1964), 98. ^ *An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples (Peter B. Golden. Otto Harrasowitz, 1992). pg 386: "Turkic penetration probably began in the Hunnic era and its aftermath. Steady pressure from Turkic nomads was typical of the Khazar
era, although there are no unambiguous references to permanent settlements. These most certainly occurred with the arrival of the Oguz in the 11th century. The Turkicization
of much of Azarbayjan, according to Soviet scholars, was completed largely during the Ilxanid period if not by late Seljuk times. Sumer, placing a slightly different emphasis on the data (more correct in my view), posts three periods which Turkicization
took place: Seljuk, Mongol and Post-Mongol (Qara Qoyunlu, Aq Qoyunlu and Safavid). In the first two, Oguz Turkic tribes advanced or were driven to the western frontiers (Anatolia) and Northern Azarbaijan (Arran, the Mugan steppe). In the last period, the Turkic elements in Iran (derived from Oguz, with lesser admixture of Uygur, Qipchaq, Qaluq and other Turks brought to Iran
during the Chinggisid era, as well as Turkicized Mongols) were joined now by Anatolian Turks migrating back to Iran. This marked the final stage of Turkicization. Although there is some evidence for the presence of Qipchaqs among the Turkic tribes coming to this region, there is little doubt that the critical mass which brought about this linguistic shift was provided by the same Oguz-Turkmen tribes that had come to Anatolia. The Azeris of today are an overwhelmingly sedentary, detribalized people. Anthropologically, they are little distinguished from the Iranian neighbors."

John Perry: "We should distinguish two complementary ways in which the advent of the Turks affected the language map of Iran. First, since the Turkish-speaking rulers of most Iranian polities from the Ghaznavids
and Seljuks onward were already Iranized and patronized Persian literature
Persian literature
in their domains, the expansion of Turk-ruled empires served to expand the territorial domain of written Persian into the conquered areas, notably Anatolia
and Central and South Asia. Secondly, the influx of massive Turkish-speaking populations (culminating with the rank and file of the Mongol armies) and their settlement in large areas of Iran
(particularly in Azerbaijan
and the northwest), progressively turkicized local speakers of Persian, Kurdish and other Iranian languages"

(John Perry. "The Historical Role of Turkish in Relation to Persian of Iran". Iran
& the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193–200.)

According to C.E. Bosworth:

"The eastern Caucasus
came under Saljuq control in the middle years of the 5th/11th century, and in c. 468/1075-56 Sultan Alp Arslān sent his slave commander ʿEmād-al-dīn Savtigin as governor of Azerbaijan and Arrān, displacing the last Shaddadids. From this period begins the increasing Turkicization
of Arrān, under the Saljuqs and then under the line of Eldigüzid or Ildeñizid Atabegs, who had to defend eastern Transcaucasia against the attacks of the resurgent Georgian kings. The influx of Oghuz and other Türkmens was accentuated by the Mongol invasions. Bardaʿa had never revived fully after the Rūs sacking, and is little mentioned in the sources." (C.E. Bsowrth, Arran in Encyclopedia Iranica)

According to Fridrik Thordarson:

"Iranian influence on Caucasian languages. There is general agreement that Iranian languages
Iranian languages
predominated in Azerbaijan
from the 1st millennium b.c. until the advent of the Turks in a.d. the 11th century (see Menges, pp. 41–42; Camb. Hist. Iran
IV, pp. 226–228, and VI, pp. 950–952). The process of Turkicization
was essentially complete by the beginning of the 16th century, and today Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are spoken in only a few scattered settlements in the area." ^ Wink, Andre, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8 pg.9 ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol.2, (Brill, 2002), 9.  – via  Questia (subscription required) ^ Iran, The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism, ed. Antoine Sfeir and John King, transl. John King, (Columbia University Press, 2007), 141. ^ Canby, Sheila R.; Beyazit, Deniz; Rugiadi, Martina; Peacock, A. C. S. (2016-04-27). Court and Cosmos: The Great Age of the Seljuqs. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9781588395894.  ^ Princeton, University. "Dhu'l Qa'da 463/ August 1071 The Battle of Malazkirt (Manzikert)". Retrieved 2007-09-08.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Nizam al-Mulk", Online Edition ^ "The Kings of the East and the West": The Seljuk Dynastic Concept and Titles in the Muslim and Christian sources, Dimitri Korobeinikov, The Seljuks of Anatolia, ed. A.C.S. Peacock and Sara Nur Yildiz, (I.B. Tauris, 2015), 71. ^ a b c d Wink, Andre, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8 pg 9–10 ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander. "'Miraculous Victory:' Battle of Didgori, 1121". Armchair General. Retrieved 2012-10-20.  ^ Anatol Khazanov. Nomads in the Sedentary World. Retrieved 2012-10-20.  ^ Ronald Grigor Suny, The Making of the Georgian Nation, (Indiana University Press, 1994), 36. ^ a b c d Alexander Mikaberidze, Historical Dictionary of Georgia, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2015), 184. ^ Biran, Michel, The Empire
of the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
in Eurasian History, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44. ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol.2, 16.  – via  Questia (subscription required)

Further reading[edit]

Previté-Orton, C. W. (1971). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval
History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Tetley, G. E. (2008). The Ghaznavid
and Seljuk Turks: Poetry as a Source for Iranian History. Abingdon. ISBN 978-0-415-43119-4.  Stokes, Jamie, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. New York: Facts On File. ISBN 978-0-8160-7158-6. 

External links[edit]

has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article Seljuks.  Houtsma, Martin Theodoor (1911). "Seljūks". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 

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