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Gospel
Gospel
is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".[1] It originally meant the Christian message itself, but in the 2nd century it came to be used for the books in which the message was set out.[2][Notes 1] The four gospels of the New Testament
New Testament
— Matthew, Mark, Luke and John — are the main source of information on the life of Jesus.[3] For various reasons modern scholars are cautious of relying on them uncritically, but nevertheless they do provide a good idea of the public career of Jesus, and critical study can attempt to distinguish the original ideas of Jesus
Jesus
from those of the later authors.[4][5]

Contents

1 Composition of the canonical gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John)

1.1 Authors, dates and sources 1.2 Contents

2 Genre and reliability 3 Canonisation and the non-canonical gospels

3.1 Canonisation 3.2 Non-canonical gospels

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Bibliography

7 External links

Composition of the canonical gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John)[edit]

The Synoptics sources: the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
(the triple tradition), Q (the double tradition), and material unique to Matthew (the M source), Luke (the L source), and Mark[6]

Main articles: Synoptic problem
Synoptic problem
and Oral gospel traditions Authors, dates and sources[edit] Main article: Synoptic gospels The four canonical gospels, like the rest of the New Testament, were written in Greek,[7] Mark probably c. AD 66–70,[8] Matthew and Luke around AD 85–90,[9] and John AD 90–110.[10] Despite the traditional ascriptions, all four are anonymous, and none were written by eyewitnesses.[11] In the immediate aftermath of Jesus' death his followers expected him to return at any moment, certainly within their own lifetimes, and in consequence there was little motivation to write anything down for future generations, but as eyewitnesses began to die, and as the missionary needs of the church grew, there was an increasing demand and need for written versions of the founder's life and teachings.[12] The stages of this process can be summarised as follows:[13]

Oral traditions — stories and sayings passed on largely as separate self-contained units, not in any order; Written collections of miracle stories, parables, sayings, etc., with oral tradition continuing alongside these; Written proto-gospels preceding and serving as sources for the gospels — the dedicatory preface of Luke, for example, testifies to the existence of previous accounts of the life of Jesus.[14] Gospels formed by combining proto-gospels, written collections and still-current oral tradition.

Mark, the first gospel to be written, uses a variety of sources, including conflict stories (Mark 2:1–3:6), apocalyptic discourse (4:1–35), and collections of sayings, although not the sayings gospel known as the Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Thomas
and probably not the Q source used by Matthew and Luke.[15] The authors of Matthew and Luke, acting independently, used Mark for their narrative of Jesus's career, supplementing it with the collection of sayings called the Q document and additional material unique to each called the M source
M source
(Matthew) and the L source
L source
(Luke).[16][Notes 2] Mark, Matthew and Luke are called the synoptic gospels because of the close similarities between them in terms of content, arrangement, and language.[17] The author(s)/editor(s) of John may have known the synoptics, but did not use them in the way that Matthew and Luke used Mark.[18] There is a near-consensus that this gospel had its origins as a "signs" source (or gospel) that circulated within the Johannine community (the community that produced John and the three epistles associated with the name), later expanded with a Passion narrative and a series of discourses.[19][Notes 3] All four also use the Jewish scriptures, by quoting or referencing passages, or by interpreting texts, or by alluding to or echoing biblical themes.[20] Such use can be extensive: Mark's description of the Parousia (second coming) is made up almost entirely of quotations from scripture.[21] Matthew is full of quotations and allusions,[22] and although John uses scripture in a far less explicit manner, its influence is still pervasive.[23] Their source was the Greek version of the scriptures, called the Septuagint
Septuagint
- they do not seem familiar with the original Hebrew.[24] Contents[edit] The gospels are memories of the deeds and words of Jesus.[25] The four narratives share a story in which the earthly career of Jesus culminates in his death and resurrection, an event of crucial redemptive significance.[26] The four are inconsistent in detail.[27] John and the three synoptics relate the same basic story-line, but within this overall framework they present completely different pictures of Jesus' career.[28] John has no baptism, no temptation, no transfiguration, and lacks the Lord's Supper
Lord's Supper
and stories of Jesus' ancestry, birth, and childhood.[28] Jesus's career in the synoptics takes up a single year while in John it takes three, with the cleansing of the Temple at the beginning of his ministry while in the synoptics it happens at the end, and in the synoptics the Last Supper takes place as a Passover meal, while in John it happens on the day before Passover.[29] Mark, the first gospel, never calls Jesus
Jesus
"God" or claims that Jesus existed prior to his earthly life, never mentions a virgin birth (the author apparently believes that Jesus
Jesus
had a normal human parentage and birth), and makes no attempt to trace Jesus' ancestry back to King David or Adam.[30] Crucially, Mark originally had no post-resurrection appearances of Jesus,[31] although Mark 16:7, in which the young man discovered in the tomb instructs the women to tell "the disciples and Peter" that Jesus
Jesus
will see them again in Galilee, hints that the author may have known of the tradition.[32] Matthew reinterprets Mark,[33] stressing Jesus' teachings as much as his acts,[34] and making subtle changes to the narrative in order to stress his divine nature – Mark's "young man" who appears at Jesus' tomb, for example, becomes a radiant angel in Matthew.[35] The miracle stories in Mark confirm Jesus' status as an emissary of God (which was Mark's understanding of the Messiah), but in Matthew they demonstrate his divinity.[36] Luke, while following Mark's plot more faithfully than does Matthew, has expanded on the source, corrected Mark's grammar and syntax, and eliminating some passages entirely, notably most of chapters 6 and 7, which he apparently felt reflected poorly on the disciples and painted Jesus
Jesus
too much like a magician.[37] The synoptic gospels represent Jesus
Jesus
as an exorcist and healer who preached in parables about the coming Kingdom of God. He preached first in Galilee and later in Jerusalem, where he cleansed the temple. He states that he offers no sign as proof (Mark) or only the sign of Jonah (Matthew and Luke).[38] In Mark, apparently written with a Roman audience in mind, Jesus
Jesus
is a heroic man of action, given to powerful emotions, including agony.[39] In Matthew, apparently written for a Jewish audience, Jesus
Jesus
is repeatedly called out as the fulfillment of Hebrew prophecy.[39] In Luke, apparently written for gentiles, Jesus
Jesus
is especially concerned with the poor.[39] Luke emphasizes the importance of prayer and the action of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
in Jesus's life and in the Christian community.[40] Jesus
Jesus
appears as a stoic supernatural being, unmoved even by his own crucifixion.[41] Like Matthew, Luke insists that salvation offered by Christ is for all, and not only for the Jews.[40][42] The Gospel of John
Gospel of John
is the only gospel to call Jesus
Jesus
God, and in contrast to Mark, where Jesus
Jesus
hides his identity as messiah, in John he openly proclaims it.[43] It represents Jesus
Jesus
as an incarnation of the eternal Word (Logos), who spoke no parables, talked extensively about himself, and did not explicitly refer to a Second Coming.[39] Jesus
Jesus
preaches in Jerusalem, launching his ministry with the cleansing of the temple. He performs several miracles as signs, most of them not found in the synoptics. The Gospel of John
Gospel of John
ends:(21:25) "And there are also many other things which Jesus
Jesus
did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written. Amen." Genre and reliability[edit] The consensus among modern scholars is that the gospels belong to the ancient genre of bios, or biography.[44] Ancient biographies were concerned with providing examples for readers to emulate while preserving and promoting the subject's reputation and memory, and so they included both propaganda and kerygma (preaching) in their works.[45] Mark, for example, is not biography in the modern sense but an apocalyptic history depicting Jesus
Jesus
caught up in events at the end of time.[46] Despite this, scholars are confident that the gospels do provide a good idea of the public career of Jesus, and that critical study can attempt to distinguish the ideas of Jesus
Jesus
from those of later authors and editors.[5] As Luke's attempt to link the birth of Jesus
Jesus
to the census of Quirinius demonstrates, there is no guarantee that the gospels are historically accurate.[4] Matthew and Luke have frequently edited Mark to suit their own ends, and the contradictions and discrepancies between John and the synoptics make it impossible to accept both as reliable.[3] In addition the gospels we read today have been edited and corrupted over time, leading Origen
Origen
to complain in the 3rd century that "the differences among manuscripts have become great, ... [because copyists] either neglect to check over what they have transcribed, or, in the process of checking, they make additions or deletions as they please."[47] For these reasons modern scholars are cautious of relying on the gospels uncritically, but nevertheless they do provide a good idea of the public career of Jesus, and critical study can attempt to distinguish the original ideas of Jesus
Jesus
from those of the later authors.[4][5] Canonisation and the non-canonical gospels[edit] Main article: Development of the New Testament
New Testament
canon Main article: New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha Further information: Gnostic
Gnostic
gospels Canonisation[edit] The creation of a Christian canon was probably a response to the career of the heretic Marcion
Marcion
(c. 85–160), who established a canon of his own with just one gospel, the gospel of Luke, which he edited to fit his own theology.[48] The Muratorian canon, the earliest surviving list of books considered (by its own author at least) to form Christian scripture, included Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Irenaeus of Lyons
Irenaeus of Lyons
went further, stating that there must be four gospels and only four because there were four corners of the Earth and thus the Church should have four pillars.[2][49] Non-canonical gospels[edit] Epiphanius, Jerome
Jerome
and other early church fathers preserve in their writings citations from Jewish-Christian gospels. Most modern critical scholars consider that the extant citations suggest at least two and probably three distinct works, at least one of which (possibly two) closely parallels the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew.[50] The Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Thomas
is mostly wisdom without narrating Jesus's life. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
Christian Church
says that the original may date from c. 150.[51] It may represent a tradition independent from the canonical gospels, but that developed over a long time and was influenced by Matthew and Luke.[51] While it can be understood in Gnostic
Gnostic
terms, it lacks the characteristic features of Gnostic doctrine.[51] It includes two unique parables, the parable of the empty jar and the parable of the assassin.[52] It had been lost but was discovered, in a Coptic version dating from c. 350, at Nag Hammadi in 1945–46, and three papyri, dated to c. 200, which contain fragments of a Greek text similar to but not identical with that in the Coptic language, have also been found.[51] The Gospel of Peter
Gospel of Peter
was likely written in the first half of the 2nd century.[53][54] It seems to be largely legendary, hostile toward Jews, and including docetic elements.[53] It is a narrative gospel and is notable for asserting that Herod, not Pontius Pilate, ordered the crucifixion of Jesus. It had been lost but was rediscovered in the 19th century.[53] The Gospel of Judas
Gospel of Judas
is another controversial and ancient text that purports to tell the story of the gospel from the perspective of Judas, the disciple who is usually said to have betrayed Jesus. It paints an unusual picture of the relationship between Jesus
Jesus
and Judas, in that it appears to interpret Judas's act not as betrayal, but rather as an act of obedience to the instructions of Jesus. The text was recovered from a cave in Egypt by a thief and thereafter sold on the black market until it was finally discovered by a collector who, with the help of academics from Yale and Princeton, was able to verify its authenticity. The document itself does not claim to have been authored by Judas (it is, rather, a gospel about Judas), and is known to date to at least 180 AD.[55] The Gospel of Mary
Gospel of Mary
was originally written in Greek during the 2nd century. It is often interpreted as a Gnostic
Gnostic
text. It consists mainly of dialog between Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and the other disciples. It is typically not considered a gospel by scholars since it does not focus on the life of Jesus.[56] The Gospel of Barnabas
Gospel of Barnabas
was a gospel which is claimed to be written by Barnabas
Barnabas
one of the twelve apostles. It contradicts the ministry of Jesus
Jesus
in cannonical New Testament, but has clear parallels with the Islamic faith, by mentioning Muhammad as Messenger of God. It also strongly deny Pauline doctrine, and Jesus
Jesus
testified himself as a prophet, not the son of God.[57] A genre of "Infancy gospels" (Greek: protoevangelion) arose in the 2nd century, and includes the Gospel
Gospel
of James, which introduces the concept of the Perpetual Virginity
Perpetual Virginity
of Mary, and the Infancy Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas (not to be confused with the absolutely different sayings Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas), both of which related many miraculous incidents from the life of Mary and the childhood of Jesus
Jesus
that are not included in the canonical gospels. Another genre is that of gospel harmonies, in which the four canonical gospels were selectively recast as a single narrative to present a consistent text. Very few fragments of harmonies have survived. The Diatessaron
Diatessaron
was such a harmonization, compiled by Tatian around 175. It was popular for at least two centuries in Syria, but eventually it fell into disuse. Marcion
Marcion
of Sinope, c. 150, had a much shorter version of the gospel of Luke, differing substantially from what has now become the standard text of the gospel and far less oriented towards the Jewish scriptures. Marcion
Marcion
is said to have rejected all other gospels, including those of Matthew, Mark and especially John, which he allegedly rejected as having been forged by Irenaeus. Marcion's critics alleged that he had edited out the portions he did not like from the then canonical version, though Marcion
Marcion
is said to have argued that his text was the more genuinely original one. Written in Coptic, it contains oracles that would have been used to provide support and reassurance to people seeking help for problems. It is not a gospel in the traditional sense, since it does not predominantly teach about Christ.[58] See also[edit]

Book: Gospel

Christianity
Christianity
portal

Acts of the Apostles Agrapha Apocalyptic literature The Aquarian Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus
Jesus
the Christ Bodmer Papyri The Gospel Gospel
Gospel
(liturgy) Gospel
Gospel
in Islam Jesusism List of gospels Jewish-Christian gospels Gospel
Gospel
of the Nazarenes Gospel
Gospel
of the Ebionites Gospel
Gospel
of the Hebrews Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas Gospel
Gospel
of Peter Gospel
Gospel
of Judas Gospel
Gospel
of Barnabas Gospel
Gospel
of Mary Infancy gospel Gospel
Gospel
harmony Gospel
Gospel
of Marcion

Notes[edit]

^ For gospel as the Christian message see the article The Gospel. ^ The priority of Mark is accepted by most scholars, but there are important dissenting opinions: see the article Synoptic problem. ^ The debate over the composition of John is too complex to be treated adequately in a single paragraph; for a more nuanced view see Aune's entry on the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
in the "Westminster Dictionary of New Testament and Early Christian Literature", pages 243-245.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Woodhead 2004, p. 4. ^ a b Cross & Livingstone 2005, p. 697. ^ a b Tuckett 2000, p. 523. ^ a b c Reddish 2011, pp. 21–22. ^ a b c Sanders 1995, pp. 4–5. ^ Honoré 1986, pp. 95–147. ^ Porter 2006, p. 185. ^ Perkins 1998, p. 241. ^ Reddish 2011, pp. 108, 144. ^ Lincoln 2005, p. 18. ^ Reddish 2011, p. 13,42. ^ Reddish 2011, p. 17. ^ Burkett 2002, pp. 124–25. ^ Martens 2004, p. 100. ^ Boring 2006, pp. 13–14. ^ Levine 2009, p. 6. ^ Goodacre 2001, p. 1. ^ Perkins 2012, p. unpaginated. ^ Burge 2014, p. 309. ^ Allen 2013, p. 43-44. ^ Edwards 2002, p. 403. ^ Beaton 2005, p. 122. ^ Lieu 2005, p. 175. ^ Allen 2013, p. 45. ^ Johnson 2010, p. 23. ^ Hurtado 2005, p. 587. ^ Ehrman 2005, p. 215. ^ a b Burkett 2002, p. 217. ^ Anderson 2011, p. 52. ^ Burkett 2002, p. 158. ^ Parker 1997, p. 125. ^ Telford 1999, p. 149. ^ Beaton 2005, p. 117. ^ Morris 1986, p. 114. ^ Beaton 2005, p. 123. ^ Aune 1987, p. 59. ^ Johnson 2010, p. 48. ^ Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus
Jesus
Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. ^ a b c d Harris, Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985 ^ a b Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Luke, Gospel
Gospel
of St ^ Ehrman 2005, p. 143. ^ St. Matthew, "The Thompson Chain-Reference Study Bible
Bible
New King James Version", (B.B. Kirkbride Bible
Bible
Co. Inc., 1997) p. 1258 verse 12:21, p. 1274, verse 21:43. ^ Burkett 2002, p. 214. ^ Lincoln 2004, p. 133. ^ Dunn 2005, p. 174. ^ Donahue 2005, p. 15. ^ Ehrman 2005, p. 7,52. ^ Ehrman 2005, p. 34. ^ Ehrman 2005, p. 35. ^ Philipp Vielhauer in Schneemelcher's New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha Vol.1 (1971) English revised edition R. Wilson, of Neutestamentliche Apokryphen 1964 Hennecke & Schneemelcher ^ a b c d "Thomas, Gospel
Gospel
of". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005 ^ Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus
Jesus
Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. " The Gospel
The Gospel
of Thomas", pp. 471–532. ^ a b c "Peter, Gospel
Gospel
of St.". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005 ^ Ehrman, Bart (2003). The Lost Christianities. New York: Oxford University Press. p. xi. ISBN 978-0-19-514183-2.  ^ Achtemeier, Paul J., Th.D., Harper's Bible
Bible
Dictionary, (San Francisco: Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc.; 1985). ^ Andrew E. Bernhard, Other Early Christian Gospels: A Critical Edition of the Surviving Greek Manuscripts, Library of New Testament Studies 315 (London-New York: T & T Clark, 2006), p. 2. ISBN 0-567-04204-9. ^ Wiegers, G. (1995). "Muhammad as the Messiah: A comparison of the polemical works of Juan Alonso with the Gospel
Gospel
of Barnabas". Biblitheca Orientalis ^ Daily Mail, 19 February 2015

Bibliography[edit]

Allen, O. Wesley (2013). Reading the Synoptic Gospels. Chalice Press. ISBN 9780827232273.  Anderson, Paul N. (2011). The Riddles of the Fourth Gospel: An Introduction to John. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451415551.  Aune, David E. (2003). "John, Gospel
Gospel
of". The Westminster Dictionary of New Testament
New Testament
and Early Christian Literature and Rhetoric. Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press. ISBN 9780664219178.  Aune, David E. (1987). The New Testament
New Testament
in its literary environment. Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press. ISBN 978-0-664-25018-8.  Beaton, Richard C. (2005). "How Matthew Writes". In Bockmuehl, Markus; Hagner, Donald A. The Written Gospel. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83285-4.  Boring, M. Eugene (2006). Mark: A Commentary. Presbyterian Publishing Corp. ISBN 978-0-664-22107-2.  Burge, Gary M. (2014). " Gospel
Gospel
of John". In Evans, Craig A. Routledge Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus. Routledge. ISBN 9781317722243.  Burkett, Delbert (2002). An introduction to the New Testament
New Testament
and the origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00720-7.  Burridge, R.A. (2006). "Gospels". In Rogerson, J.W.; Lieu, Judith M. The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199254255.  Charlesworth, James H. (2008). The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abingdon Press. ISBN 9780687021673.  Cross, Frank Leslie; Livingstone, Elizabeth A. (2005). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192802903.  Donahue, John (2005). The Gospel
The Gospel
of Mark. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814659656.  Duling, Dennis C. (2010). " The Gospel
The Gospel
of Matthew". In Aune, David E. The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781444318944.  Dunn, James D.G. (2005). "The Tradition". In Dunn, James D.G.; McKnight, Scot. The Historical Jesus
Jesus
in Recent Research. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575061009.  Edwards, James R. (2015). The Gospel
The Gospel
according to Luke. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802837356.  Edwards, James R. (2002). The Gospel
The Gospel
according to Mark. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780851117782.  Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Misquoting Jesus. Harper Collins.  Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195182491.  Ehrman, Bart D. (1999). Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199839438.  Goodacre, Mark (2001). The Synoptic Problem: A Way Through the Maze. A&C Black. ISBN 9780567080561.  Harrington, Daniel J. (1991). The Gospel
The Gospel
of Matthew. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814658031.  Hatina, Thomas R. (2014). " Gospel
Gospel
of Mark". In Evans, Craig A. Routledge Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus. Routledge. ISBN 9781317722243.  Honoré, A.M. (1986). "A statistical study of the synoptic problem". Novum Testamentum. 10 (2/3): 95–147. JSTOR 1560364.  Hurtado, Larry W. (2005). Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ: Devotion to Jesus
Jesus
in Earliest Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802831675.  Johnson, Luke Timothy (2010). The New Testament: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199745999.  Levine, Amy-Jill (2009). "Introduction". In Levine, Amy-Jill; Allison, Dale C. Jr.; Crossan, John Dominic. The Historical Jesus
Jesus
in Context. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400827374.  Johnson, Luke Timothy (2010). The Writings of the New Testament
New Testament
— An Interpretation, 3rd ed. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451413281.  Lincoln, Andrew (2004). "Reading John". In Porter, Stanley E. Reading the Gospels Today. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802805171.  Lieu, Judith (2005). "How John Writes". In Bockmuehl, Markus; Hagner, Donald A. The Written Gospel. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83285-4.  Lincoln, Andrew (2005). Gospel
Gospel
According to St John. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781441188229.  Martens, Allan (2004). "Salvation Today: Reading Luke's Message for a Gentile Audience". In Porter, Stanley E. Reading the Gospels Today. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802805171.  Mckenzie, John L. (1995). The Dictionary of the Bible. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780684819136.  McMahon, Christopher (2008). "Introduction to the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles". In Ruff, Jerry. Understanding the Bible: A Guide to Reading the Scriptures. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780884898528.  McNichol, Allan J. (2000). "Gospel, Good News". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.  Morris, Leon (1986). New Testament
New Testament
Theology. Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-45571-4.  Nolland, John (2005). The Gospel
The Gospel
of Matthew: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Eerdmans.  O'Day, Gail R. (1998). "John". In Newsom, Carol Ann; Ringe, Sharon H. Women's Bible
Bible
Commentary. Westminster John Knox. ISBN 9780281072606.  Parker, D.C. (1997). The Living Text of the Gospels. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521599511.  Perkins, Pheme (1998). "The Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
and the Acts of the Apostles: Telling the Christian Story". In Barton, John. The Cambridge companion to biblical interpretation. Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-48593-7.  Perkins, Pheme (2009). Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802865533.  Perkins, Pheme (2012). Reading the New Testament: An Introduction. Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809147861.  Porter, Stanley E. (2006). "Language and Translation of the New Testament". In Rogerson, J.W.; Lieu, Judith M. The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199254255.  Powell, Mark Allan (1998). Jesus
Jesus
as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-664-25703-3.  Reddish, Mitchell (2011). An Introduction to The Gospels. Abingdon Press. ISBN 9781426750083.  Sanders, E.P. (1995). The Historical Figure of Jesus. Penguin UK. ISBN 9780141928227.  Senior, Donald (1996). What are they saying about Matthew?. PaulistPress. ISBN 978-0-8091-3624-7.  Telford, W.R. (1999). The Theology of the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521439770.  Tuckett, Christopher (2000). "Gospel, Gospels". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.  Woodhead, Linda (2004). Christianity: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199687749. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Gospel

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Gospel.

A detailed discussion of the textual variants in the gospels — covering about 1200 variants on 2000 pages. Greek New Testament — the Greek text of the New Testament: specifically the Westcott-Hort text from 1881, combined with the NA26/27 variants. Synoptic Parallels A web tool for finding corresponding passages in the Gospels

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Pelagianism Gregory I Celtic Germanic Scandinavian Kievan Rus' Investiture Anselm Abelard Bernard of Clairvaux Bogomils Cathars Crusades Waldensians Inquisition Scholasticism Dominic Francis Bonaventure Aquinas Wycliffe Avignon Papal Schism Bohemian Reformation Hus Conciliarism

Catholicism

Primacy development Papacy Timeline Lateran IV Trent Counter-Reformation Thomas More Leo X Guadalupe Jesuits Jansenists Xavier Monastery dissolution Wars Teresa Vatican I and II Modernism

Reformation

Protestantism

Erasmus Five solae Eucharist Calvinist–Arminian debate Arminianism Dort Wars

Lutheranism

Martin Luther 95 Theses Diet of Worms Melanchthon Orthodoxy Eucharist Book
Book
of Concord

Calvinism

Zwingli Calvin Presbyterianism Scotland Knox TULIP Dort Three Forms of Unity Westminster

Anglicanism

Timeline Henry VIII Cranmer Settlement 39 Articles Common Prayer Puritans Civil War

Anabaptism

Radical Reformation Grebel Swiss Brethren Müntzer Martyrs' Synod Menno Simons Smyth

1640–1789

Revivalism English denominations Baptists Congregationalism First Great Awakening Methodism Millerism Pietism Neo- and Old Lutherans

1789–present

Camp meeting Holiness movement Independent Catholic denominations Second Great Awakening Restoration Movement Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Seventh-day Adventist Adventism Third Great Awakening Azusa Revival Fundamentalism Ecumenism Evangelicalism Jesus
Jesus
movement Mainline Protestant Pentecostalism Charismatics Liberation theology Christian right Christian left Genocide by ISIL

Timeline Missions Timeline Martyrs Theology Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy Protestantism Catholicism

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Christianity

Jesus

Christ Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection Son of God

Foundations

Church Creed Gospel New Covenant

Bible

Books Canon Old Testament New Testament

Theology

God Trinity

Father Son Holy Spirit

Apologetics Baptism Christology Ecclesiology History of theology Mission Salvation

History and tradition

Mary Apostles Peter Paul Fathers Early Constantine Ecumenical councils Augustine East–West Schism Crusades Aquinas Reformation Luther

Denomi- nations and traditions (list)

Western

Adventist Anabaptist Anglican Baptist Calvinist Catholic Charismatic Evangelical Holiness Lutheran Methodist Pentecostal Protestant

Eastern

Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox (Miaphysite) Assyrian Church of the East
Church of the East
("Nestorian") Eastern Catholic Churches

Nontrinitarian

Jehovah's Witnesses Latter Day Saint movement Oneness Pentecostalism

Related topics

Art Criticism Culture Ecumenism Liturgy Music Other religions Prayer Sermon Symbolism

Category Christianity
Christianity
portal

v t e

Jesus

Historicity

Chronology of Jesus Genealogy of Jesus Historical Jesus

Quest for the historical Jesus portraits sources Josephus on Jesus Tacitus mention Mara bar Serapion letter

Historicity

Gospels race and appearance

Life events

Birth

Nativity Mary Joseph Flight into Egypt

Childhood Unknown years Baptism Temptation Apostles

selecting Great Commission

Ministry Sermon
Sermon
on the Mount

Plain

Prayers

Lord's Prayer

Parables Miracles Transfiguration Homelessness Last Supper Passion

arrest trial

Crucifixion

sayings on the cross

Tomb Resurrection Ascension

New Testament

Gospels

Matthew Mark Luke John Gospel
Gospel
harmony Oral gospel traditions

Life of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament Historical background of the New Testament New Testament
New Testament
places associated with Jesus Names and titles of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament

Culture

Language of Jesus Bibliography Films

Christianity

Christ Christianity Christology Depictions of Jesus

art

Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity

pre-existence incarnation

Relics associated with Jesus Scholastic Lutheran Christology Second Coming Session of Christ

Other views

Brothers of Jesus Holy Family Jesuism Jesus
Jesus
in comparative mythology Christ myth theory Jesus
Jesus
in Islam

Ahmadiyya

Jesus
Jesus
in Scientology Judaism's view of Jesus

in the Talmud

Master Jesus Religious perspectives on Jesus Criticism

Authority control