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Gloucester
Gloucester
(/ˈɡlɒstər/ ( listen)) is a city and district in southwest England, the county city of Gloucestershire. Gloucester lies close to the Welsh border, on the River Severn, between the Cotswolds
Cotswolds
to the east and the Forest of Dean
Forest of Dean
to the southwest. Gloucester
Gloucester
was founded in AD 97 by the Romans under Emperor Nerva
Nerva
as Colonia Glevum
Glevum
Nervensis, and was granted its first charter in 1155 by King Henry II. Economically, the city is dominated by the service industries, and has a strong financial and business sector,[2] and historically was prominent in the aerospace industry.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Coat of arms

2 Government

2.1 History 2.2 Responsibilities

3 Geography

3.1 Green belt

4 Attractions 5 Culture 6 Churches 7 Education 8 Transport 9 Business and industry 10 Sport and leisure 11 Media 12 Crime 13 Twin cities 14 Notable people 15 See also 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External links

History[edit]

Kip's West prospect of Gloucester, c. 1725, emphasises the causeway and bridges traversing the water meadows of the floodplain.

The origins of the name Gloucester
Gloucester
can be traced to Caerloyw, its name in modern Welsh. The name 'caerloyw' is composed of two parts: caer (meaning fort) and 'loyw', a linquistic mutation of the name 'gloyw'. There are various appellations of the city's name in history, such as Caer Glow, Gleawecastre, Gleucestre as an early British settlement is not confirmed by direct evidence. However, Gloucester
Gloucester
was the Roman municipality of Colonia Nervia Glevensium, or Glevum, built in the reign of Nerva. Parts of the walls can be traced, and a number of remains and coins have been found, though inscriptions are scarce. In Historia Brittonum, a fabled account of the early rulers of Britain, Vortigern's grandfather, Gloiu (Gloyw Wallt Hir in Welsh, meaning "Gloiu Long-hair"), is given as the founder of Gloucester.[4][5] Part of the foundations of Roman Gloucester
Gloucester
can be seen today in Eastgate Street (near Boots), while Roman tombstones and a range of other Roman artefacts can be seen in Gloucester
Gloucester
City Museum. After the withdrawal on the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the late 4th Century the town returned to the control of Celtic Dubonni tribe.[citation needed] By the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Gloucester
Gloucester
is shown as part of Wessex from the Battle of Deorham
Battle of Deorham
in 577 until 584, when it came under the control of Mercia. The name Gloucester
Gloucester
derives from the Anglo-Saxon for fort ( Old English
Old English
ceaster) preceded by Celtic name, which derived from the Roman stem Glev- (pronounced glaiw).[6]Claudia Castra is mentioned in the 18th Century as possible Latin name related to the city.[7] Gloucester
Gloucester
was captured by the Saxons
Saxons
in 577. Its situation on a navigable river, and the foundation in 681 of the abbey of St Peter by Æthelred, favoured the growth of the town; and before the Norman Conquest of England, Gloucester
Gloucester
was a borough governed by a portreeve, with a castle which was frequently a royal residence, and a mint. In the early 10th century the remains of Saint Oswald were brought to a small church in Gloucester, bringing many pilgrims to the town. The core street layout is thought to date back to the reign of Ethelfleda in late Saxon times.[8]

Gloucester
Gloucester
in 1805

In 1051 Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
held court at Gloucester
Gloucester
and was threatened there by an army led by Godwin, Earl of Wessex, but the incident resulted in a standoff rather than a battle. A unique coin, dated to 1077–80, was discovered, just north of the city, in November 2011. It features the name of the moneyer Silacwine and its place of minting. The Portable Antiquities Scheme
Portable Antiquities Scheme
said that, until the coin was discovered, there had been no known examples of William I coins minted in Gloucester
Gloucester
in this period.[9] After the Norman Conquest, William Rufus
William Rufus
made Robert Fitzhamon
Robert Fitzhamon
the first baron or overlord of Gloucester. Fitzhamon had a military base at Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle, and for the succeeding years the history of Gloucester
Gloucester
was closely linked to that of Cardiff. During the Anarchy, Gloucester
Gloucester
was a centre of support for the Empress Matilda[10] who was supported in her claim to the throne by her half-brother, Fitzhamon's grandson, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester
Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester
(also known as Robert of Gloucester). After this period of strife ended with the marriage of Matilda to Henry I of England, Henry granted Robert possession of Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle, and it later passed to Mathilda's son Robert Curthose and his son, William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester. The story of the Anarchy is vividly told in a series of nineteenth-century paintings by William Burges
William Burges
at the Castle. King Henry II granted Gloucester
Gloucester
its first charter in 1155, which gave the burgesses the same liberties as the citizens of London and Winchester. A a second charter of Henry II gave them freedom of passage on the River Severn. The first charter was confirmed in 1194 by King Richard I. The privileges of the borough were greatly extended by the charter of King John (1200), which gave freedom from toll throughout the kingdom and from pleading outside the borough. In 1216 King Henry III, aged only ten years, was crowned with a gilded iron ring in the Chapter House of Gloucester
Gloucester
Cathedral.[11] Gloucester's significance in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is underlined by the fact that it had a number of monastic establishments, including St Peter's Abbey founded in 679 (later Gloucester
Gloucester
Cathedral), the nearby St Oswald's Priory, Gloucester
Gloucester
founded in the 880s or 890s, Llanthony Secunda Priory, founded 1136 as a retreat for a community of Welsh monks (now near the western bypass),[12] the Franciscan Greyfriars community founded in 1231 (near Eastgate Shopping Centre),[13] and the Dominican Blackfriars community founded in 1239 (Ladybellegate Street).[14] It also has some very early churches including St Mary de Lode Church, Gloucester
Gloucester
near the Cathedral and the Norman St Mary de Crypt Church, Gloucester
Gloucester
in Southgate Street. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the main export was wool which came from the Cotswolds
Cotswolds
and was processed in Gloucester; other exports included leather and iron (tools and weapons). Gloucester
Gloucester
also had a large fishing industry at that time. In 1223 thatched roofs were banned[citation needed] after a massive fire that destroyed a part of Gloucester. One of the most significant periods in Gloucester's history began in 1378 when Richard II of England
Richard II of England
convened Parliament in the city. Parliaments were held there until 1406 under Henry IV of England. The Parliament Rooms at the Cathedral remain testimony to this important time. Gloucester
Gloucester
was incorporated by King Richard III in 1483, the town being made a county in itself. This charter was confirmed in 1489 and 1510, and other charters of incorporation were received by Gloucester from Queen Elizabeth I and King James I.[citation needed] Gloucester was the site of the execution by burning of John Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester
Gloucester
in the time of Queen Mary in 1555. In 1580, Gloucester
Gloucester
was awarded the status of a port by Queen Elizabeth I.[15] The Siege of Gloucester
Gloucester
in 1643 was a battle of the English Civil War
English Civil War
in which the besieged parliamentarians emerged victorious. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries saw the foundation of two of Gloucester's grammar schools: the Crypt School in 1539 and Sir Thomas Rich's School in 1666. Both still flourish as grammar schools today, along with Ribston Hall
Ribston Hall
and the High School for Girls, Gloucester (Denmark Road). Gloucester's most important citizens include Robert Raikes
Robert Raikes
(founder of the Sunday School movement) who is still commemorated by the name of a pub in Southgate Street. Its most infamous citizen was Fred West. In July 2007, Gloucester
Gloucester
was hit badly by a flood that struck Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
and its surrounding areas. Hundreds of homes were flooded, but the event was most memorable because of its wider impact – about 40,000 people were without power for 24 hours, and the entire city (plus surrounding areas) was without piped water for 17 days. In 2009, Gloucester Day was revived as an annual day of celebration of Gloucester's history and culture. The day originally dates from the lifting of the Siege of Gloucester in 1643, during which the city held out against Royalist forces during the First English Civil War.[16] Coat of arms[edit]

Left: the arms of the Clare family; centre: the arms of the Bishop of Worcester; right: the arms of the city of Gloucester

Gloucester
Gloucester
is one of few cities in England with the distinction of having two coats of arms. The first consists of three chevrons surrounded by ten roundels. The chevrons come from the arms of the Clare family, who were earls of Gloucester
Gloucester
from the 12th to the 14th centuries, while the roundels come from the arms of the Bishop of Worcester, whose bishopric historically encompassed Gloucester. This coat is the older of the two, though it is usually termed the "Commonwealth coat", as it was not officially granted to the city until 1652, during the Commonwealth period. The crest and supporters (lions bearing broadswords and trowels) were also adopted at this time, along with the motto Fides Invicta Triumphat ("unconquered faith triumphs", in reference to the royalist siege withstood by the city in 1643). The second coat, termed the "Tudor coat", was granted in 1538. It features the roses of York
York
and Lancaster, the boar's head of Richard III, a ceremonial sword and cap, and two horseshoes surrounded by nails, to represent Gloucester's historical association with ironworking. Though grants made by Commonwealth heralds were nullified after the restoration, the Commonwealth coat continued to be used by the city rather than the Tudor coat. The Commonwealth coat, along with the crest and supporters, was legally granted to the city by letters patent dated 16 April 1945. This was reconfirmed in 1974 following the local government changes of that year.[17][18] Government[edit]

Gloucester
Gloucester
City Council

Type

Type

Non-metropolitan district

Structure

Seats 39 councillors

Conservative

22 / 39

Labour

10 / 39

Liberal Democrat

7 / 39

Elections

Voting system

First past the post

Last election

5 May 2016

Website

www.gloucester.gov.uk

Gloucester
Gloucester
is split into 18 wards, with a total of 39 councillors elected to serve on the City Council. Following the last election in 2016 there were 22 Conservative Councillors, 10 Labour Councilors, and 7 Liberal Democrat councillors.[19] History[edit] The district was formed from the County Borough of Gloucester
Gloucester
on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. The parish of Quedgeley
Quedgeley
was subsequently added in 1991. As of 24 April 2017, Quedgeley
Quedgeley
is now classed as a town.[20] Responsibilities[edit] Gloucester
Gloucester
City Council collects council tax and has main functions of:

Benefits: housing and council tax Car parking Concessionary travel Elections and electoral registration Environmental health (includes domestic and commercial premises) Food safety and hygiene complaints Noise pollution and pest control Licensing Caravan sites Planning, including planning applications, advice and appeals Public conveniences Health and leisure centres Refuse collection Recycling Social housing management and funding/construction Tourism and visitor information.

Geography[edit]

Gloucester
Gloucester
Docks at night

Gloucester
Gloucester
is the county town of Gloucestershire, and is the 53rd largest settlement in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
by population.[21] In 2002, its population was 110,600.[22] By 2011 the city had a population of 121,900,[citation needed] and by 2012 its population was 123,400.[22] Growth extends beyond city boundaries, with several outlying districts. The 2011 census gave the population of the Gloucester
Gloucester
Urban Area as 149,820. The city is located on the eastern bank of the River Severn, sheltered by the Cotswolds
Cotswolds
to the east, while the Forest of Dean
Forest of Dean
and the Malvern Hills rise to the west and north, respectively. Gloucester
Gloucester
is a port, linked via the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal
Gloucester and Sharpness Canal
which runs from Gloucester's docks to the Severn Estuary, allowing larger ships to reach the docks than would be possible on the tidal reaches of the river itself, which go well north of the city to Haw Bridge. The wharfs, warehouses and the docks themselves fell into disrepair until their renovation in the 1980s. They now form a public open space. Some warehouses now house the Gloucester
Gloucester
Waterways Museum, others were converted into residential flats, shops and bars. Additionally, the Soldiers of Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Museum is located in the Custom House. Next to the museum is Gloucester
Gloucester
Yacht Club. The port still houses the most inland RNLI
RNLI
lifeboat in the United Kingdom. Gloucester
Gloucester
is made up of a variety of neighbourhoods, some of which correspond to electoral divisions of the City Council.

Abbeydale Abbeymead Alney Island Barnwood Barton and Tredworth Coney Hill Elmbridge Hempsted Hucclecote Kingsholm Linden Longlevens Matson Podsmead Quedgeley
Quedgeley
† St. Pauls Tuffley Wotton Westgate White City

Quedgeley
Quedgeley
is the only town within the city's borders. Because of this it has its own town council.[20] Green belt[edit] Further information: Gloucester
Gloucester
and Cheltenham
Cheltenham
Green Belt The city itself contains no green belt; however it is bordered to the north east by the green belt in the surrounding Tewkesbury
Tewkesbury
district, helping to maintain local green space, prevent further urban sprawl and unplanned expansion towards Chelthenham and Innsworth, as well as protecting smaller nearby villages such as Churchdown, Badgeworth, Shurdington, and Twigworth. Attractions[edit]

Gloucester
Gloucester
Cathedral

Gloucester
Gloucester
Cathedral, in the north of the city near the river, originates in the foundation of an abbey dedicated to Saint Peter
Saint Peter
in 681. It is the burial place of King Edward II and Walter de Lacy. The cathedral (mainly its cloisters) was used for corridor scenes in the films Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets and Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince It was also used for a scene in Sherlock Christmas special, where upon the crypt was used.[23] Attached to the deanery is the Norman prior's chapel. In St Mary's Square outside the Abbey gate, the Bishop of Gloucester, Bishop John Hooper, was martyred under Queen Mary I in 1555. A good number of medieval and Tudor period
Tudor period
gabled and half timbered houses survive from earlier periods of Gloucester's history. At the point where the four principal streets intersected stood the Tolsey (town hall), which was replaced by a modern building in 1894. None of the old public buildings are left except for the New Inn in Northgate Street. It is a timbered house, with strong, massive external galleries and courtyards. It was built around 1450 by John Twyning, a monk.[24]

Kings Square (1976)

Kings Square is at the heart of the city centre and occupies what was once a cattle market and bus station. Officially opened in 1972, it was the centrepiece of a radical redesign of the city, The Jellicoe Plan, which was first proposed in 1961. It stands beside the Debenham's (formerly Bon Marché) store built in the early 1960s. Many of the features of the redevelopment have since been dismantled; the brutalist concrete fountains in the middle of the square have gone and the overhead roadways which linked three multi storey car parks around the centre have been either closed or dismantled. The main bus station received a Civic Trust Award in 1963 but has since been demolished. In 2012 a £60 million plan was unveiled to revamp the square.[25] In 2014 the prominent Golden Egg restaurant was demolished and a new look public space was created. A prior archaeological dig revealed a Roman house underneath.[26] An indoor market opened in Eastgate Street in 1968, followed by the Eastgate Shopping Centre in 1973.[27] The Kings Walk Shopping Centre was built between 1969 and 1972.[28] The corner of Eastgate Street and Brunswick Road was redeveloped around this time; Roman remains unearthed below street level in 1974 may be seen through a glass observation panel outside the Boots building, which opened in 1980. The HSBC
HSBC
building on the Cross was renovated and a modern extension added to the Westgate Street aspect in 1972 which received a Civic Trust Award. Sainsbury's
Sainsbury's
opened a supermarket in Northgate Street in 1970; it retains its original interior. Opposite, Tesco
Tesco
opened a large two-storey supermarket in June 1976 on the site of a demolished chapel. This is now occupied by Wilkinson's after Tesco
Tesco
moved to Quedgeley
Quedgeley
in 1984. Asda opened its first store in Gloucester
Gloucester
in Bruton Way in 1983. Gloucester
Gloucester
Leisure Centre opened on the corner of Eastgate Street and Bruton Way in September 1974 and was redeveloped and rebranded (as "GL1") in August 2002. Gloucester Central railway station
Gloucester Central railway station
was rebuilt in 1977 to serve both the original traffic to that railway station and the services from the closed Gloucester
Gloucester
Eastgate railway station (former Midland Railway) which had stood on another site further east along the same road. Opposite the station stands one of the city's largest office blocks, Twyver House, opened in 1968, which houses the regional Land Registry. The main shopping streets were pedestrianised in the late 1980s. The 1966 Heights Plan for Gloucester
Gloucester
sought to restrict construction of tall buildings and defend spiritual values by protecting views of Gloucester
Gloucester
Cathedral.[29] The tower of Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Royal Hospital, started in 1970 and completed in August 1975, can be seen from miles around. In Brunswick Road, a brown concrete tower, which housed classrooms at the Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
College of Arts and Technology (now moved to a site near Llanthony Bridge). The tower was added incongruously to the existing 1930s Technical College buildings in 1971 which has now been demolished. Clapham Court, a tall block of flats, stands in Columbia Close, between London Road and Kingsholm Road. It was built in 1963 and stands on what was once Columbia Street in a small district formerly known as Clapham. Other features of interest include the museum and school of art and science, the former county jail (on the site of a Saxon and Norman castle), the Shire Hall (now headquarters of the County Council) and the Whitefield memorial church. A park in the south of the city contains a spa, a chalybeate spring having been discovered in 1814. West of this, across the canal, are the remains (a gateway and some walls) of Llanthony Secunda
Llanthony Secunda
Priory, a cell of the mother abbey in the Vale of Ewyas, Monmouthshire, which in the reign of King Edward IV became the secondary establishment. Culture[edit]

View of Gloucester
Gloucester
by Thomas Hearne, watercolour

The Three Choirs Festival, originating in the 18th century and one of the oldest music festivals in the British Isles, is held in Gloucester every third year, the other venues being Hereford
Hereford
and Worcester. Gloucester
Gloucester
hosted the festival in 2016, and it is next due in the city in 2019. The city's main theatre and cultural venue is the Guildhall.[30] The Guildhall hosts a huge amount of entertainment, including live music, dance sessions, a cinema, bar, café, art gallery and much more. The Leisure Centre, GL1, hosts concerts and has a larger capacity than the Guildhall. The annual Gloucester
Gloucester
International Rhythm and Blues
Rhythm and Blues
Festival takes place at the end of July and early August.[31] Gloucester International Cajun
Cajun
and Zydeco
Zydeco
Festival, the largest in the UK and longest-running in Europe, runs for a weekend in January each year.[32] A Medieval
Medieval
Fayre is held in Westgate Street each year during the summer. Gloucester
Gloucester
is also noted as the home of the Frightmare Halloween Festival, the largest Halloween
Halloween
festival in the South West.[33] The main museum in the city is The Museum of Gloucester
The Museum of Gloucester
but there are several other important museums. The Tailor of Gloucester
The Tailor of Gloucester
House which is dedicated to the author Beatrix Potter
Beatrix Potter
can be found near the cathedral. Since 2013 Gloucester
Gloucester
has marked Armed Forces Day with a Drum Head Service held on College Green in the shadow of the cathedral. This is followed by a parade of serving forces, veterans and cadets through the city centre to the docks for a family day with military and military-related charity displays and entertainment in Back Badge Square in front of the Soldiers of Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Museum. Nature in Art
Nature in Art
is a gallery dedicated to the display of works of art inspired by the natural world. A popular and well known rhyme about the city: Doctor Foster
Doctor Foster
went to Gloucester
Gloucester
in a shower of rain, he stood in a puddle right up to his middle and never went there again. Churches[edit] Main article: List of churches in Gloucestershire Gloucester
Gloucester
has many churches, and historically has also had many dissenting chapels.[citation needed] It may have been the old proverb "as sure as God's in Gloucester" that provoked Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
to declare that the city had "more churches than godliness". Gloucester was the host of the first Sunday school
Sunday school
in England; this was founded by Robert Raikes
Robert Raikes
in 1780. Four of the churches that are of special interest are

St Mary de Lode – with a Norman tower and chancel, and a monument of Bishop John Hooper. It was built on the site of an ancient Roman temple which became the first Christian church in Britain St Mary de Crypt – with a cruciform structure of the 12th century. It has later additions, such as the tower. Also the site of the Schoolroom in which the Crypt School was formed St Michael's Church – said to have been connected with St Peter's ancient abbey St Nicholas's Church – founded by the Normans
Normans
but with many additions since then.

In the neighbourhood around St Mary de Crypt there are slight remains of Greyfriars and Blackfriars monasteries, and also of the city wall. Under the Golden Fleece (The Monks Bar) and Saracen's Head inns early vaulted cellars still remains. In addition, in the city is St Peter's Roman Catholic Church, a Grade II* listed building.[34] During the construction of the Boots store on the corner of Brunswick Road and Eastgate Street in 1974, Roman remains were found. These can be seen through a glass case on the street. At the back of the Gloucester
Gloucester
Furniture Exhibition Centre part of the city's South Gate can be seen. Education[edit] See also: List of schools in the South West of England § Gloucestershire There are three endowed schools: The King's School, refounded by Henry VIII as part of the cathedral establishment; the school of St Mary de Crypt now known as "The Crypt School, Gloucester" since it moved to a mile from town centre to Podsmead, founded by Dame Joan Cooke in the same reign (1539), Sir Thomas Rich's School, previously known as Sir Thomas Rich's Bluecoat Hospital for Boys (1666); The High School for Girls (1883) ; and Ribston Hall
Ribston Hall
High School for Girls. Comprehensives include Millbrook Academy, Beaufort Co-operative Academy, St Peter's High School (Catholic school), Chosen Hill School, Severn Vale School, Gloucester
Gloucester
Academy, Barnwood
Barnwood
Park Arts College and Churchdown
Churchdown
School Academy. There is a Steiner Waldorf School founded in 1937 with a High School added just after the Second World War. The city is home to a campus of the University of the West of England.[35] Transport[edit]

Cargo boats known as trows navigating under a bridge at Gloucester

Gloucester
Gloucester
is served by the M5 motorway, opened in 1971, which runs to the east of the city. Junction 12 serves south Gloucester
Gloucester
and Quedgeley. Junction 11a serves central Gloucester
Gloucester
and junction 11 serves north Gloucester. The A38 runs north–south through Gloucester connecting the city with Tewkesbury
Tewkesbury
and Bristol. The A40 runs west to east, connecting Gloucester
Gloucester
with Cheltenham
Cheltenham
to the east (via a dual carriageway section known as The Golden Valley Bypass) and the Forest of Dean and Monmouth
Monmouth
to the West. The A46 and A4173
A4173
links Gloucester and Stroud, and the A417 links Gloucester
Gloucester
with Cirencester
Cirencester
in the south east and Ledbury
Ledbury
in the north west. Gloucester
Gloucester
has a number of Cycle Paths. Until the construction of the Severn Bridge
Severn Bridge
in 1966, Gloucester
Gloucester
was the lowest bridging point on the river and hence was an important settlement on the route between London and South Wales. The Severn is split into two branches at this point, so the road crosses first onto Alney Island
Alney Island
and then onto the western bank. A road bridge on this western side at Over, built by Thomas Telford
Thomas Telford
in 1829, still stands, notable for its very flat arch construction, but its fragility and narrow width means it is no longer used for traffic, and since 1974 it has been paralleled by a modern road bridge. There is a rail crossing, also across Alney Island, which was the lowest on the river until the opening of the Severn Railway Bridge
Severn Railway Bridge
in 1879, followed by the Severn Tunnel in 1886, although following the dismantling of the former in 1970 Gloucester
Gloucester
once again has the furthest downstream rail bridge crossing of the Severn. Gloucester railway station
Gloucester railway station
has frequent trains to London Paddington, Reading, Bristol, Cardiff
Cardiff
Central, Nottingham
Nottingham
and Birmingham. Gloucester
Gloucester
was the site of the Gloucester
Gloucester
Railway Carriage and Wagon Company railway works, which have now closed. Buses are run by Stagecoach West, operating from its depot on London Road. For longer, slower journeys, National Express operate a number of services including the 444 to London and the 222 to Heathrow and Gatwick airports. Gloucester
Gloucester
is linked to the Severn Estuary
Severn Estuary
by the Gloucester
Gloucester
and Sharpness Canal, which is navigable by small coasters. The city is linked to the River Avon and Stourport-on-Severn
Stourport-on-Severn
by the navigable part of the River Severn, which is navigable by river craft of a few hundred tonnes' displacement. Gloucester
Gloucester
Docks mark the Normal Tidal Limit (NTL) of the river.[36] Gloucester
Gloucester
was formerly linked to Ledbury
Ledbury
and Hereford
Hereford
by the Herefordshire and Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Canal; and subsequently by the Ledbury
Ledbury
and Gloucester
Gloucester
Railway, which used the southern section of the former canal, until it also closed in 1964. This canal is now being restored, and the restored canal basin in the Gloucester
Gloucester
suburb of Over is a local attraction. The nearest commercial airport with scheduled services is Bristol Airport, around 50 miles to the south. Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Airport, located some 8 miles to the east, currently offers no scheduled flights. Business and industry[edit] Gloucester
Gloucester
has a long history in the aerospace business. In 1926 the Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Aircraft Company at Brockworth
Brockworth
changed its name to the Gloster Aircraft Company
Gloster Aircraft Company
because international customers claimed that the name "Gloucestershire" was too difficult to spell. A sculpture in the city centre celebrates Gloucester's aviation history and its involvement in the jet engine. Frank Whittle's pioneering turbojet engine powered the first British jet aircraft, which first flew at the company's airfield at Brockworth. This is commemorated by the pub "The Whittle" at Gloucester
Gloucester
Business Park, which now occupies the site. Roads in the business park are named after other Gloster aircraft and a small statue overlooks the site of the old main runway. Messier-Dowty's landing gear plant and GE Aviation
GE Aviation
Dowty Propellers plants are on the outskirts of the city. The large insurer Ecclesiastical Insurance is based in the city, as is its owner, the charity Allchurches Trust.[37] Lloyds Banking Group
Lloyds Banking Group
and TSB Bank each have an office in Barnwood, the former previously having been the headquarters of Cheltenham
Cheltenham
& Gloucester
Gloucester
Building Society.[38] Gloucester
Gloucester
was the home of Priday, Metford and Company Limited, a family milling firm which survived for over one hundred years, and hydraulic engineering firm Fielding & Platt. Gloucester Business Park
Gloucester Business Park
is a business park on the outskirts on the city and is home to a number of big brands including Fortis and Detica.[39] Sport and leisure[edit]

Gloucester
Gloucester
was a host city for the Rugby World Cup
Rugby World Cup
in 2015, hosting four matches at Kingsholm Stadium
Kingsholm Stadium
with national teams from Japan, Georgia, USA, Scotland, Tonga and Argentina Kingsholm Stadium
Kingsholm Stadium
is the ground of Gloucester
Gloucester
Rugby, founded in 1873, one of Europe's top rugby union clubs and a member of the Aviva Premiership. Meadow Park was the home of Gloucester
Gloucester
City A.F.C., founded in 1883, of the National League North. The club currently play matches at archrivals Cheltenham
Cheltenham
Town's Whaddon Road
Whaddon Road
Stadium in Cheltenham
Cheltenham
due to the 2007 Floods and have been homeless since then. The Gloucester
Gloucester
Cricket Festival is held in Gloucester
Gloucester
at the King's School. The Matson district is home to Gloucester
Gloucester
Ski and Snowboard Centre dry slope skiing facility (with two slopes of 220m and 150m respectively down the side of Robinswood Hill[40]) and an 18-hole golf course. Gloucester City Swimming Club competes in county and national swimming championships.[41] Gloucester
Gloucester
City Hockey Club is based at the Oxstalls Sports Park, with teams entered in the West Hockey Leagues.[42] Bentham Domes on the outskirts of Gloucester
Gloucester
boasts one of the largest 5-a-side leagues in Europe[citation needed]. The Gloucester Banshees American Football
American Football
are based in the city at Oxstalls Tennis Centre, and play at a national level in the British American Football
American Football
League The Gloucester
Gloucester
Vipers (seniors) & Gloucester
Gloucester
Boxers (junior) Skater Hockey Club. Compete in BIPHA (puck) & BISHA (ball) leagues. The University of Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
All Golds is the city's only professional Rugby League
Rugby League
club, playing in the semi professional Championship 1 from 2013. They play their home games at the Prince of Wales Stadium in Cheltenham Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Warriors founded in 1997 are an amateur Rugby League team that play in the Conference League South playing home games at the Oxstalls Sports Park Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
University run Rugby League
Rugby League
teams in the BUCS league Public sports facilities are focused on the GL1 leisure centre, a large modern sports centre with several swimming pools, a multi-use sports hall, indoor bowls room, squash courts, gym and health spa.

Media[edit] The Citizen, published by Local World is Gloucester's main newspaper, which shares all its content with the Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Echo and the weekly Forester covering the Forest of Dean
Forest of Dean
and Chepstow. This paper has now moved to weekly publication rather than daily. BBC Radio Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
has its studios on London Road in Gloucester. Heart Gloucestershire, previously Severn Sound, is based in Eastgate Shopping Centre. Gloucester FM is a community radio station specialising in black and urban music. Sunshine Radio, which broadcasts from Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, can be heard clearly across the county. It also broadcasts on the Gloucester
Gloucester
DAB Multiplex. Local radio is broadcast from transmitters on Churchdown
Churchdown
Hill (Chosen Hill), and for television reception Gloucester
Gloucester
is in a transmitter overlap area between Ridge Hill (Midlands) and Mendip
Mendip
(West), although the West regional broadcasts cover the city editorially. A number of TV and film productions have been filmed in Gloucester; most notably at the cathedral and docks. These include three of the Harry Potter films, Doctor Who, Outlaw[43] and Alice in Wonderland: Through the Looking Glass.[44] Crime[edit]

Crime rates in Gloucester
Gloucester
(per 1000 population) 2012-2013[45]

Offence Gloucester South West England

Violence with injury 7.0 5.4 5.5

Violence without injury 5.0 4.5 5.1

Robbery 0.9 0.4 1.2

Theft from the person 1.1 0.8 1.9

Criminal damage and arson 11.0 9.4 9.3

Domestic burglary 5.5 2.6 4.1

Non domestic burglary 5.8 3.9 4.1

Vehicle offences 7.5 5.1 6.9

Drug offences 4.0 3.0 3.6

Sexual offences 1.3 1.0 0.9

According to a Home office report Gloucester
Gloucester
had the third highest murder rate in England and Wales between October 2014 and September 2015.[46] Twin cities[edit] Gloucester
Gloucester
is twinned with Metz, France, since 1967;[47][48] Trier, Germany, since 1957; Saint Ann, Jamaica, since 1987; and Gouda, Netherlands, since 1972. Notable people[edit]

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Notable residents of Gloucester
Gloucester
have included:

Alastair Cook
Alastair Cook
(b. 1984), cricketer Alex Cuthbert
Alex Cuthbert
(b. 1990), Welsh international, British & Irish Lions rugby player. Andy Hazell (b. 1978), rugby player Bridget Christie
Bridget Christie
(b. 1972), comedian Button Gwinnett
Button Gwinnett
(1735 – 19 May 1777), second signatory of United States Declaration of Independence. Charles Wheatstone
Charles Wheatstone
(1802–1875), scientist and inventor David Lawrence (b. 1964), former England cricketer. Dynamite MC
Dynamite MC
(b. 1973), musician. Fred West
Fred West
(1941–1995) and Rose West (b. 1953) serial killers who tortured, raped and murdered at least 12 young women. George Whitefield
George Whitefield
(1714–1770), Church of England
Church of England
minister and a leader in the Methodist
Methodist
movement Hubert Cecil Booth (1871–1955), inventor of the vacuum cleaner Ivor Gurney
Ivor Gurney
(1890–1937), composer and poet Jack Russell (cricketer, born 1963) (b. 1963), cricketer Jemmy Wood
Jemmy Wood
(1756–1836), legendary miser and owner of the Gloucester Old Bank. John Clarke Whitfield (1770–1836), organist and composer John Stafford Smith
John Stafford Smith
(1750–1836), composer of the American national anthem Marcel Garvey
Marcel Garvey
(b. 1983), rugby player Mary-Jess Leaverland (b. 1990), singer Mike Teague (b. 1960), former England rugby union footballer Nathan Sykes (b. 1993), former member of British boyband the Wanted Phil Greening (b. 1975), rugby player Paul Groves (b. 1947), poet Robert Raikes
Robert Raikes
the Elder (1690–1757), "the printer of Gloucester", founder of the Gloucester
Gloucester
Journal, early pioneer of press freedom, buried in church of St Mary de Crypt Robert Raikes
Robert Raikes
(1735–1811), English philanthropist and Anglican layman, noted for his promotion of Sunday schools Samuel Daukes (1811–1880), architect[49] Scott Redding
Scott Redding
(b. 1993), motorcyclist Simon Pegg
Simon Pegg
(b. 1970), actor, comedian and writer Thomas Machen
Thomas Machen
(c. 1541–1614), mayor of Gloucester
Gloucester
three times and MP once Thomas Raikes (1741–1813), banker and merchant in London, who as Bank of England
Bank of England
governor issued the first £1 and £2 English pound notes in 1797 Tina May (b. 1961), jazz vocalist Tom Goddard (1900–1966), cricketer William Ernest Henley
William Ernest Henley
(1849–1903), poet, critic and editor

See also[edit]

List of Gloucester
Gloucester
MPs Gloucester
Gloucester
Tramways Company Gloucester
Gloucester
Corporation Tramways

References[edit]

^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Gloucester
Gloucester
Local Authority (1946157375)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 10 March 2018.  ^ "The Economy in Gloucester". Gloucester
Gloucester
City Council. Archived from the original on 14 August 2007. Retrieved 2014-02-20.  ^ "The Museum". Jet Age Museum. Retrieved 2014-02-20.  ^ Nennius (828). Historia Brittonum.  ^ Robert Vermaat (2008). "Gloiu Long-Hair". vortigernstudies.org.uk.  ^ Kenneth Cameron: English Place Names ^ Robert Ainsworth. Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Compendiarius:. Mount, 1752 - 802 pages.  ^ "Anglo-Saxon Gloucester: c.680 - 1066". british-history.ac.uk.  ^ "'Unique' 11th Century coin discovered near Gloucester". BBC Gloucestershire. 2012-02-16. Retrieved 2014-02-20.  ^ Gesta Stephani, §47 ^ "Short History of the City of Gloucester, Gloucestershire".  ^ " Llanthony Secunda
Llanthony Secunda
Priory".  ^ "History of Greyfriars - English Heritage".  ^ http://www.gloucesterblackfriars.co.uk/ ^ "Point 3 - Gloucester
Gloucester
Quay". BBC News. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ Tradition revived for city pride. BBC News, 5 September 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2011. ^ " Gloucester
Gloucester
City Council". Civic Heraldry of England and Wales.  ^ N M Herbert (ed.). A History of the County of Gloucester. London: Victoria County History.  ^ "Your Councillors". 1 December 2016.  ^ a b "What's in a name? Quedgeley
Quedgeley
Parish Council becomes a town council after conclusive vote". GloucestershireLive. 25 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017.  ^ List of largest United Kingdom
United Kingdom
settlements by population ^ a b The Citizen (January 29, 2014). "Centre for Cities 2014: Gloucester
Gloucester
ranked as a great place to live and do business". gloucestershirelive.co.uk. Local World. Retrieved February 8, 2017.  ^ "Potter filming moves to cathedral". BBC Newsround. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-10.  ^ New Inn. English Heritage. Retrieved 27 June 2011. ^ "Kings Square £60m revamp signed by developer". BBC News. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2015.  ^ "New dawn for King's Square in Gloucester
Gloucester
as Golden Egg piazza finally revealed". Gloucester
Gloucester
Citizen. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2015.  ^ "Celebrating 40 years of the Eastgate Shopping Centre". Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Live. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2016.  ^ Verey, David; Brooks, Alan (1970). "The City Centre:3". Gloucestershire:The Vale and the Forest of Dean. p. 487.  ^ Geoffrey & Susan Jellicoe. "The Landscape of Man", pp356-7. pub. Thames & Hudson, 1975.  ^ "Guildhall". Gloucester.gov.uk. Retrieved 2010-07-17.  ^ " Gloucester
Gloucester
International Rhythm & Blues Festival 2010".  ^ " Gloucester
Gloucester
Cajun
Cajun
and Zydeco
Zydeco
Festival". Gloucester
Gloucester
Guildhall. Archived from the original on 12 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-20.  ^ "Frightmare at Over Farm". Heart Gloucestershire. Heart. Retrieved 1 November 2015.  ^ Roman Catholic Church of St Peter, Gloucester
Gloucester
from British Listed Buildings, retrieved 3 January 2016 ^ " Gloucester
Gloucester
Campus". University of the West of England. Retrieved 9 September 2017.  ^ getamap.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/getamap/frames.htm?mapAction=gaz&gazName=p&gazString=GLOUCESTER getamap.ordnancesurvey.co.uk ^ Charity Commission. Allchurches Trust, registered charity no. 263960.  ^ "legacygloucestershireecho.co.uk".  ^ "Occupiers in Gloucester
Gloucester
Business Park". Retrieved 2010-08-03.  ^ " Gloucester
Gloucester
Ski facilities". Gloucesterski.com. Retrieved 2010-07-17.  ^ Gloucester City Swimming Club Archived 1 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Gloucester
Gloucester
City Hockey Club". gloucestercityhc.co.uk. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ "Things to Do".  ^ "Tall ships bring treasure to Gloucester". The Gloucester
Gloucester
Citizen. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ Neighbourhood Statistics Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
Area: Gloucester
Gloucester
(Local Authority) ^ Scott, Patrick (22 January 2016). "Murder capital of the country revealed - but where is your town?".  ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-11.  ^ " Metz
Metz
Municipal Council" (in French). Retrieved 1 June 2012.  ^ Tim Bridges 2000 rev. ed. 2005 Churches of Worcestershire Logaston Press, Logaston, Herefordshire pp106-107

Further reading[edit]

Rudder, S. (1781) The History and Antiquities of Gloucester. Cirencester: Samuel Rudder. (free download)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gloucester.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Gloucester.

Gloucester
Gloucester
City Council Local government web site Gloucester
Gloucester
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) BBC archive film of Gloucester
Gloucester
from 1980 BBC archive film of Gloucester
Gloucester
from 1987 Gloucester
Gloucester
City Council YouTube channel [1]

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Ceremonial county of Gloucestershire

Unitary authorities

South Gloucestershire

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Major settlements

Berkeley Bradley Stoke Cheltenham Chipping Campden Chipping Sodbury Cinderford Cirencester Coleford Dursley Fairford Filton Gloucester Kingswood Lechlade Lydney Minchinhampton Mitcheldean Moreton-in-Marsh Nailsworth Newent Northleach Painswick Patchway Quedgeley Stonehouse Stow-on-the-Wold Stroud Tetbury Tewkesbury Thornbury Winchcombe Wotton-under-Edge Yate See also: List of civil parishes in Gloucestershire

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Stroud
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 296459