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Global Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement (GPM) or Global Precipitation
Precipitation
Index (GPI) is a joint mission between JAXA
JAXA
and NASA
NASA
as well as other international space agencies to make frequent (every 2–3 hours) observations of Earth’s precipitation. It is part of NASA's Earth Systematic Missions program and works with a satellite constellation to provide full global coverage. The project provides global precipitation maps to assist researchers in improving the forecasting of extreme events, studying global climate, and adding to current capabilities for using such satellite data to benefit society.[1] GPM builds on the notable successes of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), which was also a joint NASA- JAXA
JAXA
activity. The project is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and consists of a GPM Core Observatory
GPM Core Observatory
satellite assisted by a constellation of spacecraft from other agencies and missions.[2] The Core Observatory satellite measures the two and three dimensional structure of Earth’s precipitation patterns and provides a new calibration standard for the rest of the satellite constellation. The GPM Core Observatory
GPM Core Observatory
was assembled and tested at Goddard Space Flight Center, and launched from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan, on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
H-IIA
H-IIA
rocket. The launch occurred on February 28, 2014 at 3:37am JST on the first attempt.[3] Agencies in the United States, Japan, India
India
and France
France
(together with Eumetsat) operate the remaining satellites in the constellation for agency-specific goals, but also cooperatively provide data for GPM.[2]

Contents

1 Science objectives 2 GPM Core Observatory
GPM Core Observatory
Instruments

2.1 Dual-Frequency Precipitation
Precipitation
Radar (DPR) 2.2 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI)

3 Precipitation
Precipitation
data sets 4 Social media and outreach 5 In popular culture 6 References 7 External links

Science objectives[edit] GPM has five broad science objectives:[4]

advance precipitation measurement from space improve knowledge of precipitation systems, water-cycle variability and freshwater availability improve climate modeling and prediction improve weather forecasting and climate reanalysis improve hydrological modeling and prediction

GPM Core Observatory
GPM Core Observatory
Instruments[edit]

Play media

Visualization of GPM collecting data on March 17th, 2014 over the last major snow storm of winter 2013-2014 to hit the U.S. east coast.

The GPM Core Observatory
GPM Core Observatory
in the electromagnetic testing chamber at NASA
NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center
Goddard Space Flight Center
in March 2013. The silver disc and drum (center) is the GPM Microwave Imager, and the large block on the base is the Dual-frequency Precipitation
Precipitation
Radar.

Dual-Frequency Precipitation
Precipitation
Radar (DPR)[edit] The DPR is a spaceborne radar, providing three-dimensional maps of storm structure across its swath, including the intensity of rainfall and snowfall at the surface. The DPR has two frequencies, allowing researchers to estimate the sizes of precipitation particles and detect a wider range of precipitation rates. The Ku-band radar, similar to the PR on TRMM, covers a 245 km (152 mile) swath. Nested inside that, the Ka-band radar covers a 120 km (74.5 mile) swath.[5] Data from the DPR is sent to the ground via a single-access link with TDRSS
TDRSS
relay satellites.[6] GPM Microwave Imager (GMI)[edit] The GMI is a passive sensor that observes the microwave energy emitted by the Earth and atmosphere at 13 different frequency/polarization channels. These data allow quantitative maps of precipitation across a swath that is 885 km (550 miles) wide. This instrument continues the legacy of TRMM microwave observations, while adding four additional channels, better resolution, and more reliable calibration.[5] Data from the GMI is continuously sent to the ground via a multiple-access link with TDRSS
TDRSS
relay satellites.[6] Precipitation
Precipitation
data sets[edit] GPM produces and distributes a wide variety of precipitation data products. Processing takes place at the Precipitation
Precipitation
Processing System (PPS) at NASA
NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center, as well as at the JAXA
JAXA
facility in Japan. Data is provided at multiple "levels" of processing, from raw satellite measurements to best-estimate global precipitation maps using combinations of all the constellation observations and other meteorological data. All data from the mission is made freely available to the public on NASA
NASA
websites.[7] Precipitation
Precipitation
data is made available in a variety of formats, spatial and temporal resolutions, and processing levels which are accessible on the Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement Missions "Data Access" webpage.[8] Several data visualization and analysis tools have been made available to provide easy access for the science and applications communities, which include the in-browser Earth science data analysis tool Giovanni,[9] a web API,[10] and a 3D near-realtime global precipitation viewer.[11]

Full-Scale Harness Mockup Model of the Core GPM Spacecraft being used for harness assembly inside the Acoustic Chamber at GSFC.

Social media and outreach[edit]

Play media

This animation shows GPM collecting some of its very first data on March 10th over a Pacific storm east of Japan.

In addition to maintaining social media accounts[12][13][14] and the GPM Road to Launch Blog, JAXA
JAXA
and NASA
NASA
developed several outreach activities specific to this mission prior to launch that the public could participate in. After launch a series of featured articles[15] and videos[16] were produced to highlight various scientific goals and discoveries of the mission, and an "Extreme Weather" blog is maintained to provide timely updates about the latest extreme precipitation events and natural disasters occurring around the world. A Precipitation
Precipitation
Education website[17] is also maintained to provide teachers and students with lesson plans, animations, and other resources to teach about the water cycle, Earth science, and the GPM mission.

NASA
NASA
Socials

JAXA- NASA
NASA
DC Cherry Blossom Event [18]

April 12, 2013, at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Goddard Space Flight Center
in Greenbelt, Maryland[19][20][21]

GPM Media Day[22]

Friday, Nov. 15, 2013, at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Goddard Space Flight Center
in Greenbelt, MD Social media users were invited to apply for credentials to attend the media day activities and share their experiences via their own accounts.[23][24]

Photo Contests

Extreme Weather[25] Let it Snow[26] Unique Perspectives[27][28]

GPM Anime Challenge[29][30]

In popular culture[edit] The main character Mohan Bharghav (Shahrukh Khan) in 2004 Indian film Swades: We, the People is a Project Manager in NASA's GPM project. Movie starts from NASA's GPM project analysis. Bharghav discuss the importance of GPM and its positive impact on Earth.[31] In the movie the GPM satellite is launched by the Space Shuttle.[32] A short anime film of 6 minutes, Dual frequency Precipitation
Precipitation
Radar Special
Special
Movie, was produced by JAXA
JAXA
and White Fox in 2013.[33] References[edit]

^ "The Global Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement Mission". NASA. Retrieved 2014-02-19.  ^ a b "Constellation Partners". NASA. Retrieved 2014-02-19.  ^ "GPM Launch Information". NASA. Retrieved 2014-02-19.  ^ "Science Objectives." NASA
NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center. Retrieved: 8 March 2018. ^ a b "GPM Spacecraft and Instruments". NASA. Retrieved 2014-02-19.  ^ a b "Global Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement Mission Core Observatory". NASA
NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center. Retrieved: 6 March 2018. ^ "Explanation of Data Products". NASA. Retrieved 2014-02-19.  ^ "Data Access Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement Missions". pmm.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-10.  ^ "Giovanni". giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-10.  ^ " Precipitation
Precipitation
and Applications Viewer Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement Missions". pmm.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-10.  ^ "Global Precipitation
Precipitation
Viewer Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement Missions". pmm.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-10.  ^ "GPM & TRMM Missions (NASA_Rain) on Twitter". Twitter.com. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ " Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement Missions". Facebook. 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ " NASA
NASA
Goddard". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "Featured Articles Archive Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement Missions". pmm.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-10.  ^ "Gallery: Global Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement". svs.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-10.  ^ " Precipitation
Precipitation
Education". pmm.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-10.  ^ "A Blooming Partnership: Behind the Scenes of JAXA
JAXA
& NASA Missions NASA". Nasa.gov. 2013-04-12. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "@NASASocial/JAXA/ NASA
NASA
Cherry Blossoms on Twitter". Twitter.com. 2013-04-12. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "NASA, JAXA
JAXA
Host ' NASA
NASA
Social' - a set on Flickr". Flickr.com. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "Cherry Blossoms and Partnerships in Space discussed at NASA Social". YouTube. 2013-04-12. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "Social Media Accreditation Opens for GPM Media Day NASA". Nasa.gov. 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "GPM NASA
NASA
Social at Goddard - a set on Flickr". Flickr.com. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "@NASASocial/GPM Media Day on Twitter". Twitter.com. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "Extreme Weather Photo Contest Winners Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement Missions". Pmm.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "GPM "Let it Snow" Photo Contest Winners Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement Missions". Pmm.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "GPM "Unique Perspectives" Contest Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement Missions". Pmm.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "GPM "Unique Perspectives" Winners". NASA. Retrieved 13 February 2014.  ^ GPM Anime Challenge. " Precipitation
Precipitation
Education". Pmm.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ "Winners of the GPM Anime Challenge Precipitation
Precipitation
Education". Pmm.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-26.  ^ 10 Best Bollywood Movies of the Decade Rediff.com retrieved March 01 2014 ^ Gowarikar shoots Swades
Swades
at Nasa 8 June 2004, Times of India ^ DPR Dual-frequency Precipitation
Precipitation
Radar Special
Special
Movie / DPRスペシャルムービー, Sky-Animes

External links[edit]

Spaceflight portal

Official website (NASA)

GPM videos

Official website (JAXA)

Global Precipitation
Precipitation
Measurement/ Dual-frequency Precipitation
Precipitation
Radar pamphlet videos

Twitter and Facebook

v t e

Orbital meteorological and remote sensing systems

Concepts

Earth observation
Earth observation
satellite Geographic information system
Geographic information system
(GIS) Weather satellite

Current projects

Earth Observing System (EOS)

GPM TRMM Landsat 7 QuikSCAT Terra ACRIMSAT NMP/EO-1 Jason-1 OSTM/Jason-2 Jason-3 Meteor 3M-1/Sage III GRACE Aqua SORCE Aura CloudSat CALIPSO NPOESS Megha-Tropiques SARAL IRS ESSP Aquarius Landsat 8 SMAP JPSS NISAR ICESat-2 Weather System Follow-on Microwave

A-train satellites

Aqua Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GCOM-W1 (Shizuku) OCO-2

Copernicus programme

Sentinel-1 Sentinel-2 Sentinel-3 Sentinel-4 Sentinel-5 Precursor Sentinel-5

Geostationary meteorological satellites

Elektro-L Fengyun-2 GOES INSAT Meteosat Himawari-8

Other satellites

CBERS COSMO-SkyMed DMSP DMC EROS Fengyun-3 GOSAT (Ibuki) Landsat MetOp Meteor POES RADARSAT-2 RapidEye Resurs-P SMOS SPOT TerraSAR-X THEOS

Former projects

Completed

ADEOS (Midori) ADEOS II
ADEOS II
(Midori 2) COSMIC (FORMOSAT-3) Envisat ERS FORMOSAT-1 FORMOSAT-2 Geosat GMS (Himawari) ICESat IKONOS JERS-1 (Fuyo-1) Nimbus PARASOL QuickBird RADARSAT-1 Seasat SeaWiFS TIROS TOPEX/Poseidon UARS Vanguard

Failed

OCO Glory

Cancelled

NMP/EO-3

v t e

NASA

Policy and history

History

NACA (1915) National Aeronautics and Space Act
National Aeronautics and Space Act
(1958) Space Task Group
Space Task Group
(1958) Paine (1986) Rogers (1986) Ride (1987) Space Exploration Initiative
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(1989) Augustine (1990) U.S. National Space Policy (1996) CFUSAI (2002) CAIB (2003) Vision for Space Exploration
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(2004) Aldridge (2004) Augustine (2009)

General

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Past

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Current

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Human spaceflight programs

Past

X-15 (suborbital) Mercury Gemini Apollo Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (with the Soviet space program) Skylab Space Shuttle Shuttle–Mir (with  Roscosmos
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Current

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Individual featured missions (human and robotic)

Past

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Currently operating

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timeline

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observed

GOES 14 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter GOES 15 Van Allen Probes SDO Juno Mars Science Laboratory

timeline

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Future

JPSS James Webb Space Telescope WFIRST InSight Mars 2020 NISAR Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite Europa Clipper

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(Goldstone Madrid Near Earth Network Space Flight Operations Facility) Space Network

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lists

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by name by year Apollo astronauts

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images and artwork

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NASA
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v t e

Japanese space program

JAXA

former ISAS NAL NASDA

USEF NICT

Astronomical observation

Completed

Hakucho Hinotori Tenma Ginga Yohkoh ASCA HALCA Akari Suzaku

In operation

Hinode Hisaki

Failed

Hitomi1

Planned

Nano-JASMINE XARM1 WSO-UV LiteBIRD WFIRST SPICA2 ATHENA2

Cancelled

Astro-G

Communications, broadcasting and positioning

Completed

Sakura (1 2a 2b 3a 3b) Yuri

1 2a 2b 3a 3b

BS

2X 3H 3N

Kakehashi N-STAR

a b

Kirari MBSat Kodama

In operation

Kizuna N-STAR

c d

MTSAT Michibiki

1 2 3 4

Kirameki-2

Planned

DSN

1 3

JDRS QZS

1R 5 6 7

Earth observation

Completed

Taiyo Kyokko Jikiken Denpa Ohozora Ume

1 b

Momo

1 1b

Fuyo-1 Midori

I II

Daichi Akebono

In operation

GEOTAIL1 Himawari Aqua17 TRMM1 Ibuki Shizuku GPM1 Daichi-2 ASNARO

1 2

Arase Shikisai

Planned

GOSAT-2 EarthCARE2 ALOS

3 4

GOSAT-3

Engineering tests

Completed

Ohsumi Shinsei Kiku

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Tansei

1 2 3 4

Ayame

1 2

Jindai Orizuru Myojo Ryusei EXPRESS SFU LDREX

1 2

LRE Tsubasa DASH USERS Micro LabSat-1 SERVIS-1 SERVIS-2 SDS-1

In operation

Ajisai Reimei IKAROS SDS-4 Tsubame

Planned

Small Demonstration Satellite

1 2

ETS-IX SERVIS-3

Cancelled

SmartSat-1 PETSAT

Human spaceflight

Completed

H-II Transfer Vehicle

1 2 3 4 5 6

In operation

International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS) & Kibo123456

Planned

H-II Transfer Vehicle

7 8 9 X1

Deep Space Gateway1245

Cancelled

HOPE-X Fuji manned spacecraft

Lunar and planetary exploration

Completed

Sakigake Suisei Hiten Hayabusa Kaguya (SELENE)

In operation

Akatsuki Hayabusa2 PROCYON

Failed

Nozomi Shin'en

Planned

BepiColombo
BepiColombo
(MMO)2 EQUULEUS OMOTENASHI Mars Terahertz Microsatellite SLIM DESTINY+ JUICE2 MMX OKEANOS SELENE-R MELOS

Cancelled

Lunar-A

Private miniaturized satellites

Completed

Fuji

1 2

Kanta-kun (WEOS) HIT-SAT CUTE

1.7+APD

Maido-1 Kūkai Kagayaki Negai☆″ Waseda-SAT2 Hayato WE WISH Niwaka RAIKO CosMoz

In operation

Fuji-3 CUTE

1 1.7+APDII

XI

IV V

SEEDS Raijin Kiseki Hitomi Horyu

2

PROITERES RISING-2 SOCRATES

Planned

WNI satellite SPROUT TSUBAME QSAT-EOS SOMESAT

Reconnaissance

Completed

IGS-Optical

1 2 Experimentally 3

IGS-Radar

1 2

In operation

IGS-Optical

3 4 5 6 Experimentally 5

IGS-Rader

3 4 Spare 5

Planned

IGS-Optical

7 8

IGS-Rader

6 7 8

Italics indicates projects in development. Superscripts indicate joint development with1NASA, 2ESA, 3ASI, 4CSA, 5RKA, 6AEB and 7INPE.

v t e

← 2013  ·  Orbital launches in 2014  ·  2015 →

January

GSAT-14
GSAT-14
Thaicom 6
Thaicom 6
– CRS Orb-1 ( Flock-1 × 28 · ArduSat-2 · Lituanica SAT-1 · LitSat-1 · SkyCube · UAPSat-1) – TDRS-L

February

Progress M-22M
Progress M-22M
– ABS-2 · Athena-Fidus Türksat 4A USA-248
USA-248
– GPM Core · Ginrei · KSAT-2 · INVADER · OPUSAT · STARS-II · TeikyoSat-3 · ITF-1

March

Ekspress AT1 · Ekspress AT2 – Astra 5B · Amazonas 4A – Kosmos 2494
Kosmos 2494
Soyuz TMA-12M
Soyuz TMA-12M
– Shijian XI-06

April

USA-249 – Sentinel-1A
Sentinel-1A
IRNSS-1B
IRNSS-1B
Progress M-23M
Progress M-23M
– Ofek-10 – USA-250 – EgyptSat 2
EgyptSat 2
– SpaceX CRS-3 · KickSat · PhoneSat
PhoneSat
2.5 · ALL-STAR/THEIA · SporeSat · TestSat-Lite – Luch 5V · KazSat-3 – KazEOSat 1

May

Kosmos 2495 – Ekspress AM4R USA-251
USA-251
– USA-252 – Kosmos 2496 · Kosmos 2497 · Kosmos 2498 · Kosmos 2499 – ALOS-2 · Raijin-2 · UNIFORM-1 · SOCRATES · SPROUT – Eutelsat 3B
Eutelsat 3B
– Soyuz TMA-13M

June

Kosmos 2500
Kosmos 2500
– Deimos-2 · KazEOSat 2 · Hodoyoshi 3 · Hodoyoshi 4 · AprizeSat 9, 10 · BRITE-Montreal · BRITE-Toronto · BugSat 1 · SaudiSat-4 · TabletSat-Aurora · UniSat-6 (AeroCube-6 · ANTELSAT · Lemur-1 · Tigrisat) · DTUSat-2 · Duchifat-1 · NanoSatC-Br 1 · PACE · Perseus-M × 2 · PolyITAN-1 · POPSAT-HIP-1 · QB50P1 · QB50P2 · Flock-1c × 11 – SPOT 7 · CanX-4 · CanX-5 · AISat · VELOX-I

July

OCO-2 – Gonets-M
Gonets-M
No. 8, 9, 10 – Meteor-M
Meteor-M
2 · AISSat-2 · DX-1 · Relek · SkySat-2 · TechDemoSat-1 · UKube-1 – O3b × 4 (FM3, FM6, FM7, FM8) – CRS Orb-2 (Flock-1b × 28 · TechEdSat-4) – Orbcomm-2 × 6 – Foton-M No.4 Progress M-24M
Progress M-24M
– USA-253 · USA-254 · USA-255 – Georges Lemaître ATV

August

USA-256
USA-256
AsiaSat 8
AsiaSat 8
– Yaogan 20 A, B, C – WorldView-3 – Gaofen 2 · Heweliusz – Galileo FOC-1 · Galileo FOC-2

September

Chuangxin 1-04 · Lingqiao – AsiaSat 6
AsiaSat 6
– Yaogan 21 · Tiantuo 2 – MEASAT 3b · Optus 10
Optus 10
– USA-257 – SpaceX CRS-4 – Soyuz TMA-14M
Soyuz TMA-14M
Olimp-K – Shijian XI-07

October

Himawari 8
Himawari 8
IRNSS-1C
IRNSS-1C
– Intelsat 30 · ARSAT-1
ARSAT-1
– Yaogan 22 – Ekspress AM6 – Chang'e 5-T1 · 4M – Shijian 11-08 – Cygnus CRS Orb-3
Cygnus CRS Orb-3
(Arkyd-3 · Flock-1d × 26 · GOMX-2 · RACE) – Progress M-25M
Progress M-25M
USA-258
USA-258
– Meridian 7

November

Sasuke · Hodoyoshi 1 · Kinshachi 1 · Tsukushi · Tsubame – Yaogan 23 – Yaogan 24 – Kuaizhou 2 – Soyuz TMA-15M
Soyuz TMA-15M
– Kosmos 2501

December

Hayabusa2 · PROCYON · Shinen 2 · DESPATCH – Orion EFT-1 – DirecTV-14 · GSAT-16
GSAT-16
CBERS-4
CBERS-4
– Yaogan 25 A, B, C – USA-259 – Yamal-401 – O3b × 4 (FM9 to FM12) – Kondor-E No.2 – IPM – Kosmos 2502 – Resurs-P
Resurs-P
No.2 – Yaogan 26 – Astra 2G Fengyun
Fengyun
2-08

Launches are separated by dashes ( – ), payloads by dots ( · ). Manned flights are bolded. Launch failures are in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are (enclosed i