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Shia Islam
Shia Islam
portal

v t e

Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Muhammad
Muhammad
(/ˈfætəmə, ˈfɑːtiːˌmɑː/; Arabic: فاطمة‎ Fāṭimah;[pronunciation 1] born c. 609[1][2][3] (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH [(609-07-27)27 July 609 AD] ?[4]) – died 28 August 632 [disputed]) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia
Shia
Muslims,[8] the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household. She was a wife of Ali
Ali
and mother of Hasan and Husayn.[1][2][9] She is the object of love and respect of Muslims, as she was the child closest to her father and supported him in his difficulties, was the supporter and loving caretaker of her own husband and children, and was the only child of Muhammad
Muhammad
to have male children live beyond childhood, whose descendants are spread throughout the Islamic world and are known as Sayyids. The 11th century dynasty ruling Egypt
Egypt
at the time of the Crusades, the Fatimids, claimed descent from her.[1] For Muslims, Fatimah
Fatimah
is an inspiring example and 'Fatimah' is one of the most popular girl's names throughout the Muslim world.[10] Fatimah
Fatimah
is a vital character in the religion of Islam
Islam
and is considered a role model for all Muslim women.[11] Although there is controversy between different sects of Islam
Islam
regarding her political role, she is the daughter of Muhammad
Muhammad
and is revered by many Muslims. [12]

Contents

1 Birth

1.1 Mother's Day

2 Titles

2.1 Kunyas

3 Early life 4 Marriage 5 Life before the death of Muhammad

5.1 A humble life 5.2 Married life 5.3 On the battlefield

6 Fatimah
Fatimah
in the Qur'an 7 Life after the death of Muhammad

7.1 Caliphate of Abu Bakr 7.2 Sunni view 7.3 Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a view 7.4 Inheritance

8 Death

8.1 Sunni View 8.2 Shi'a View 8.3 Burial place

9 Descendants 10 Views

10.1 Shia
Shia
view

11 Spiritual character 12 See also 13 References 14 Books

14.1 Primary sources 14.2 Books and journals 14.3 Shia
Shia
sources 14.4 Encyclopedias

15 External links

Birth[edit] See also: Genealogy of Khadijah's daughters Fatimah
Fatimah
was born in Mecca
Mecca
to Khadija, the first of Muhammad's wives. There are differences of opinion on the exact date of her birth, but the widely accepted view is that she was born five years before the first Quranic revelations,[9] during the time of the rebuilding of the Kaaba
Kaaba
in 605,[13][14][15] although this does imply she was over 18 at the time of her marriage, which was unusual in Arabia.[1] Twelver
Twelver
Shia sources, however, state that she was born either two or five years after the first Qur'anic revelations,[3] but that timeline would imply her mother was over fifty at the time of her birth, according to Sunni sources.[1] Fatimah
Fatimah
had three sisters named Zaynab bint Muhammad, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, and Ruqayyah bint Muhammad. She also had three brothers named Qasim ibn Muhammad, Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad, and Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, all of whom died in childhood. While Sunnis
Sunnis
believe Zainab, Ruqayyah, and Umm Kulthum to be the other daughters of Muhammad, Shias believe that they were actually the daughters of Hala, the sister of Khadijah, who were adopted by Muhammad
Muhammad
and Khadijah at her death. A strong reason given by the Shi'a scholars for this belief is the event of (Mubahala) mentioned in the Quran, in which there is no reference to the presence of any other female apart from Fatimah, however Sunnis accept that Muhammad
Muhammad
had four daughters all from Khadijah.[16]

Fatimah
Fatimah
residence location at Medina mosque

There are several traditions related before and after Fatimah’s birth in Shia
Shia
sources which are expressed on this occasion: the glorification of God
God
to Muhammad
Muhammad
in the presence of Fatima in the ascension: O Muhammad! Allah gives you the good news of Fatimah
Fatimah
from Khadījah bint Khuwaylid.[17] "The Holy Prophet, before the coagulation of Fatima’s sperm, fasted for forty days and worshiped at nights." [18] After forty days of worship, Gabriel
Gabriel
came down and said: O great Prophet! Allah bless you and orders to be ready for His great present. The Prophet said to Gabriel: “what is the gift of the Lord of all the Worlds?” Gabriel
Gabriel
said: I have no knowledge about it; at that time Michael descended while carrying a vessel covered with fine silk and heavy brocade and placed the vessel in front of the Prophet.[19] The great present of Allah was the existence of Fatimah to all being.[20] Mother's Day[edit] Iranians celebrate Fatima Zahra's birth anniversary (20 Jumada al-Thani) as Mother's Day.[21] The Gregorian date for this changes every year:

Year Gregorian date

2018 9 March

2019 25 February

2020 15 February

2021 4 February

Titles[edit] See also: List of Shi'a titles for Fatima Zahra Fatimah
Fatimah
is given many titles by Muslims to show their admiration of her moral and physical characteristics. The most used title is "al-Zahra", meaning "the shining one", and she is commonly referred to as Fatimah
Fatimah
Zahra.[2][22] She was also known as "al-Batūl" (the chaste and pure one) as she spent much of her time in prayer, reciting the Qur'an
Qur'an
and in other acts of worship.[2] Besides, amongst 125 famous veneration titles, she has also been honored with the title of Umm-ul-Aaima (Mother of Imams).[23] Kunyas[edit]

Umm Abihā[4][24][25] Umm al-Ḥasanayn[4] Umm al-Ḥasan[4] Umm al-Ḥusayn[4] Umm al-Ā’ima (Mother of Imams).[23]

Moreover, there are plenty of Shia
Shia
narrations which have been stated from their Imams about the names and titles of Fatima. For instance, Imam
Imam
al-Sadiq says: Fatima (as) has nine names from God: 1-Fāṭima (a woman who throws herself and her followers out of the hell), 2-al-Ṣiddīqah (a woman who has never lied), 3-al-Mubārakah (a woman who is full of blessings), 4-al-Ṭāhirah (a woman who is pure, sinless and infallible), 5-al-Zakiyyah (a woman who is away from any contamination), 6-al-Raḍiyyah (a woman who suffers hardship and difficulty and is happy with the will of God), 7-al-Marḍiyyah (a woman with whom God
God
is satisfied), 8-al-Muḥaddithah (a woman who transmits some aḥādīth [Prophetic traditions]), 9-al-Zahrah (bright and shining).[26][27] Early life[edit] Following the birth of Fatimah, she was nursed by her mother and brought up by her father;[28] contrary to local customs where the newborns were sent to "wet nurses" in the surrounding villages.[29] She spent her early youth under the care of her parents in Mecca
Mecca
in the shadow of the tribulations suffered by her father at the hands of the Quraysh.[1] Evoking the caring nature of Fatima is the account of when Muhammad, as he was performing the salat (prayer) in the Kaaba, had camel placenta poured over him by Amr ibn Hishām
Amr ibn Hishām
(Abu Jahl) and his men. Fatimah, upon hearing the news, rushed to her father and wiped away the filth while scolding the men.[1][30] At the death of her mother, Fatimah
Fatimah
was overcome by sorrow and found it very difficult to cope with it. To console her, her father informed her about having received word from angel Gabriel
Gabriel
that God
God
had built for her a palace in paradise.[1] Marriage[edit]

Muhammad
Muhammad
marrying Fatimah
Fatimah
to Ali, as depicted in the Siyer-i Nebi

Many of Muhammad's companions asked for Fatimah's hand in marriage, including Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar. Muhammad
Muhammad
turned them all down, saying that he was awaiting a sign of her destiny.[1] Ali, Muhammad's cousin, also had a desire to marry Fatimah. When he went to see Muhammad, he could not vocalise his intention but remained silent. Muhammad understood the reason for his being there and prompted Ali
Ali
to confirm that he had come to seek Fatimah
Fatimah
in marriage. He suggested that Ali had a shield, which if sold, would provide sufficient money to pay the bridal gift (mahr).[1][2] Muhammad
Muhammad
put forward the proposal from Ali to Fatimah, who remained silent and did not reject the proposal like the previous ones. Muhammad
Muhammad
took this to be a sign of affirmation and consent.[1][31] The actual date of the marriage is unclear, but it most likely took place in 623, the second year of the hijra, although some sources say it was in 622. The age of Fatimah
Fatimah
is reported to have been 9 or 19 (due to differences of opinion on the exact date of her birth i.e. 605 or 615) at the time of her marriage while Ali
Ali
was between 21 and 25.[1][2][3] Muhammad
Muhammad
told Ali
Ali
that he had been ordered by God
God
to give his daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
to Ali
Ali
in marriage.[32][33] Muhammad
Muhammad
said to Fatimah: "I have married you to the dearest of my family to me."[2] Ali
Ali
sold his shield to raise the money needed for the wedding, as suggested by Muhammad.[1] However, Uthman ibn Affan, to whom the shield was sold, gave it back to Ali
Ali
saying it was his wedding gift to Ali
Ali
and Fatimah.[2] Muhammad
Muhammad
himself performed the wedding ceremony and two of his wives, Aisha
Aisha
and Umm Salama, prepared the wedding feast with dates, figs, sheep and other food donated by various members of the Madinan community.[1] According to Hossein Nasr, their marriage possesses a special spiritual significance for all Muslims because it is seen as the marriage between the greatest saintly figures surrounding Muhammad.[33] Their marriage lasted about ten years and ended when Fatimah
Fatimah
died. Although polygyny is permitted by Islam, Muhammad
Muhammad
did not permit Ali
Ali
to marry another woman while Fatimah
Fatimah
was alive.[34][33][35] Life before the death of Muhammad[edit] Main article: Fatimah
Fatimah
marital life A humble life[edit] After her marriage to Ali, the couple led a humble life in contrast to her sisters who were all married to wealthy individuals.[2] Ali
Ali
had built a house not too far from Muhammad's residence where he lived with Fatimah. However, due to Fatimah's desire to be closer to her father, a Medinan (Haritha bin al-Numan) donated his own house to them.[1] For several years after her marriage, she did all of the work by herself. The shoulder on which she carried pitchers of water from the well was swollen and the hand with which she worked the handmill to grind corn were often covered with blisters.[36] Fatimah
Fatimah
vouched to take care of the household work, make dough, bake bread, and clean the house; in return, Ali
Ali
vouched to take care of the outside work such as gathering firewood and bringing food.[37] Ali
Ali
worked to irrigate other people's lands by drawing water from the wells.[2] Their circumstances were akin to many of the Muslims at the time and only improved following the Battle of Khaybar
Battle of Khaybar
when the produce of Khaybar
Khaybar
was distributed among the poor. When the economic situations of the Muslims become better, Fatimah
Fatimah
gained some maids but treated them like her family and performed the house duties with them.[1] Another reference to their simple life comes to us from the Tasbih
Tasbih
of Fatimah, a divine formula that was first given to Fatimah
Fatimah
when she asked her father for a kaneez (servant girl) in order to help her with household chores. Her father asked her if she would like a gift instead that was better than a servant and worth more than everything in the world. Upon her ready agreement, he told her to recite at the end of every prayer the Great Exaltation, Allahu Akbar 34 times, the Statement of Absolute Gratitude, Alhamdulillah
Alhamdulillah
33 times and the Invocation of Divine Glory, Subhan'Allah
Subhan'Allah
33 times, totalling 100. This collective prayer is called the Tasbih
Tasbih
of Fatima.[38][39] Married life[edit] The event of Ahl al-Kisa
Ahl al-Kisa
signifies a happy married life. Muhammad
Muhammad
used to say: "Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me."[34] The three most popular versions of this tradition are related by al-Miswar b. Makhrama, a Companion who was about nine years old when Muhammad
Muhammad
died.[40] Ali, anyhow, did not marry another woman during Fatima's lifetime. One of Ali's letter provides comparison of alleged proposal[41]

Human beings have received and will receive perfection through us. The perpetual supremacy and inherent superiority do no prevent us from making contact with human beings or with your clan, and we have married amongst you and have established family connections with your clan, though you do not belong to our class. How can you be our equal when the Holy Prophet belongs to us and Abu Jahl, the worst enemy of Islam
Islam
was from amongst you..(Famous written reply of Ali
Ali
to Muawiya)

In contrary with what Sunni says, in Shia
Shia
literature, there are some speeches from Ali
Ali
that deny any problem with his spouse. For instance, Ali
Ali
has sworn to the God, " I never did any act that made Fatimah angry and she never made me angry either."[42] Shia
Shia
acknowledge the saying of Muhammad, " Fatimah
Fatimah
is a part of me and whoever offends her offends me", but the context of the reporting in reference to Ali
Ali
is disputed, like Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
Ordoni quotes in his book: "Among the many fabricated stories told against Ali
Ali
was that he had asked for Abu Jahl's (the chief of infidels) daughter's hand in marriage. When this news reached Fatimah, she rushed to her father who found out the falsity of the story."[43] The Shia
Shia
say this statement was used by Fatimah
Fatimah
herself when she spoke to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar, stating that they had both displeased her.[44] On the battlefield[edit] Following the Battle of Uhud, Fatimah
Fatimah
tended to the wounds of her father and husband and took it upon herself to regularly visit the graves of all those who died in the battle and pray for them. Fatimah, along with her husband, was also called upon by Abu Sufyan to intercede on his behalf with Muhammad
Muhammad
while attempting to make amends following the violation of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. Abu Sufyan also asked for Fatimah's protection when she went to Mecca
Mecca
while it was under occupation which she refused under instruction from her father.[1] Fatimah
Fatimah
in the Qur'an[edit] See also: Ahl al-Bayt Some verses in the Qur'an
Qur'an
are associated with Fatimah
Fatimah
and her household by classical exegetes, although she is not mentioned by name. According to J. D. McAuliffe, two of the most important verses include the verse of purification, which is the 33rd ayah in sura al-Ahzab[45] and the 61st ayah in sura Al-i-Imran.[46][47] In the first verse, the phrase "people of the house" (ahl al-bayt) is ordinarily understood to consist of Muhammad, Fatimah, her husband Ali and their two sons (al-Tabari in his exegesis also mentions a tradition that interprets "people of the house" as Muhammad's wives; for Ibn al-Jawzi, the order of these options is reversed).[47] The second verse refers to an episode in which Muhammad
Muhammad
proposed an ordeal of mutual adjuration (Mubahala) to a delegation of Christians. Fatimah, according to the "occasion for the revelation" of this verse, was among those offered by Muhammad
Muhammad
as witnesses and guarantors.[47] Muslim exegesis of the Qur'anic verse 3:42, links the praise of Mary, the mother of Jesus, with that of Fatimah
Fatimah
based on a quote attributed to Muhammad
Muhammad
that lists the outstanding women of all time as Mary, Asiya (the wife of Pharaoh), Khadija and Fatima.[47] One of the significant chapters in the Quran related to Fatima is Surah Al-Kauthar.[48] This chapter was revealed when Fatima was born in Mecca. However, it had been expressed by Muhammad's enemies that he would be without posterity.[49] Another considerable verse which is regarded to Fatima is verse 23th of Surah Ash-Shura: ....I do not ask you any reward for it except love of [my] relatives.... [42/23] Ibn Abbas says: when this verse revealed, I asked the Holy Prophet (pbuh): who are those persons that their kindness and love is obligatory? The Prophet said: They are Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn.[50] It has been said by some Quranic commentators, following the first verse of surah Al-Qadr, that the meaning [entire example] of Night (لَيْلَةِ ) is Fatima. Some traditions are also narrated from Shia
Shia
Imams regarding to this matter.[51] Life after the death of Muhammad[edit] Caliphate of Abu Bakr[edit] Main article: Succession to Muhammad See also: Umar
Umar
at Fatimah's house For the few months that she survived following the death of her father, Fatimah
Fatimah
found herself at the centre of political disunity. There are differing accounts of how the events surrounding the commencement of the caliphate led to the Shia
Shia
and Sunni split. Sunni view[edit] Sunni Muslims believe that Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was favored as the Caliph following his selection to the caliphate after a meeting in Saqifah
Saqifah
at the time of Muhammed's death; whereas a portion of the population supported Fatimah's husband, Ali.[1] Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a view[edit] Shia
Shia
historians hold that Umar
Umar
called for Ali
Ali
and his followers to come out and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. When they did not, Umar broke in, resulting in Fatimah's ribs being broken by being pressed between the door and the wall causing her to miscarry Muhsin which led to her eventual death.[52][53] Another Shia
Shia
version of the events says that Umar
Umar
sent a force led by his slave-boy Qunfud to Fatimah's house instructing them to bring Ali
Ali
to the mosque. Arriving at the house, Qunfud requested permission to enter, which was refused by Ali
Ali
causing Qunfud to return to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
and relate the events, who instructed them to go back and enter the house by force if necessary. Qunfud and his men returned but were this time refused permission by Fatimah
Fatimah
which caused Qunfud to send his men back to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar for further instructions who told them to burn the house down if necessary in order to bring Ali
Ali
to them.[1][52][53] Shi'as hold the beliefs that she was involved in three significant political actions. First, after the conquest of Mecca, she refused her protection to Abu Sufian; Second, after Muhammad's death, she defended Ali's cause, fiercely opposed the election of Abu Bakr, and had violent disputes with him and particularly with Umar; Third, she laid claim to the property rights of her father and challenged Abu Bakr's categorical refusal to cede them, particularly Fadak[54] and a share in the produce of Khaybar.[55] Inheritance[edit] Main article: Fadak

Unlike the ascetic who has renounced the affairs of the world, both the historical and hagiographical sources about Fatima al-Zahra document her active participation in domestic and public life. One particular event is recounted in all of the histories both Shiʿi and Sunni: the dispute over the land Fatima received from her father at Fadak...her knowledge of her legal rights and desire for justice indicate that she was a woman involved in the affairs of society".[56]

After the death of her father, Fatimah
Fatimah
approached Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and asked him to relinquish her share of the inheritance from Muhammad's estate. Fatimah
Fatimah
expected the land of Fadak
Fadak
(situated 30 mi (48 km) from Medina[57]) and a share of Khaybar
Khaybar
would be passed onto her as part of her inheritance. However, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
rejected her request citing a narration where Muhammad
Muhammad
stated that prophets do not leave behind inheritance and that all their possessions become sadaqah to be used for charity. Fatimah
Fatimah
was upset at this flat refusal by Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and did not speak to him until her death (however some Sunni sources claim she had reconciled her differences with Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
before she died).[1] Shias contend that Fadak
Fadak
had been given to Fatimah
Fatimah
by Muhammad
Muhammad
and Abu Bakr was wrong in not allowing her to take possession of it.[58] Death[edit] See also: Umar
Umar
at Fatimah's house Sunni View[edit] Sunnis
Sunnis
believe that Fatimah
Fatimah
reconciled her differences with Abu Bakr prior to her death.[1][15] Fatima died as a result of separation from her beloved father.[59] Sufi scholar Muzaffer Ozak
Muzaffer Ozak
writes:[60]

After our Master had honoured the world of the Hereafter, Fatima would neither eat nor drink and she forgot all laughter and joy. She had an apartment built for her in which she stayed by night and day, weeping her heart out for her beloved father.

Shi'a View[edit] After the Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad
Muhammad
summoned Fatimah
Fatimah
and informed her that he would die soon, and also told her that she would be the next of his household to die.[1][2] After Mohammad's subsequent passing, Fatimah
Fatimah
was grief-stricken and remained so until she herself died less than six months later, on 3rd, Jumada al-Sani (as per Fatimid). She passed the time sobbing and sighing and nothing could take away her grief. As soon as she had done her household chores and taken care of her husband, 'Ali, and their sons, Hasan and Husain, she would continue weeping: "O my beloved father! To whom have you left your Fatima?" Less than six months went by in this fashion till Fatima got so thin that there was nothing left of her but skin and bones.[2] Shia
Shia
believe that Fatima died as a result of injuries sustained after her house was raided by Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab who Shi'a believe set fire to her house. Historians claim that the door is said to have been rammed open by one of the assailants, reportedly Khalid bin Walid knocking Fatimah
Fatimah
to the ground. This attack is said to have cracked her rib-cage whilst she was pregnant, causing her to miscarry. According to Shia
Shia
tradition, Muhammed appeared in a dream and informed Fatimah
Fatimah
that she would be passing away the next day. Fatimah
Fatimah
informed her husband Ali
Ali
of her impending death and asked him not to allow the oppressors to be involved in her ceremonial prayers janazah (prayer performed in congregation after the death of a Muslim) or take part in the burial.[61] According to some sources[who?], on the morning of her death, she took a bath, put on new clothes and lay down in bed. She asked for Ali
Ali
and informed him that her time to die was very close. Upon hearing this news, Ali
Ali
began to cry but was consoled by Fatimah
Fatimah
who asked him to look after her two sons and for him to bury her without ceremony. It is further stated that her two sons were the first family members to learn of her death and immediately proceeded to the mosque to inform their father. Upon hearing the news, Ali
Ali
fell unconscious. After recovering he followed Fatima's wishes and performed the janazah. He buried her during the night on 13 Jumada al-awwal or 3rd Jamadi-u-Thani 11 AH (632 AD), also making three false graves to ensure her real grave could not be identified. With him were his family and a few of his close companions.[62] After her death, Ali followed her wishes and buried her without informing the Medinan people. Lesley Hazleton also describes Fatimah' death as follows:[63]

But perhaps most painful of all in those months after the loss of her third son was the ostracism she suffered ordered by Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
to force Ali
Ali
into line. [...] When she knew death was close she asked Ali
Ali
for a clandestine burial [...] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was not to be informed of her death she said. he was to be given no chance to officiate at her funeral.

Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a, especially Iranians, hold ceremonies every year for 20 days in Jumada al-awwal to commemorate the anniversary of the martyrdom of Fatimah. Mourners march in procession through the streets to reaffirm their allegiance to the ideals of Fatima. Burial place[edit] Main article: The burial place of Fatimah Fatimah's burial place is a disputed issue among Muslims from different sects. It is famous that Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Taleb buried his wife in an unknown location, because it was Fatimah's decision .[64] According to Madelung in The Succession to Muhammad, the secret burial was done with the aim of avoiding the presence of caliph (Abu Bakr).[64] Different locations have been mentioned as the possible burial places of Fatimah
Fatimah
some of which are said to be nearer to fact. Al-Baqi', her house and between the Prophet's tomb and his minbar are the possible places of her grave.[65] One of the important reasons that Fatima’s grave was concealed is because of her protest against what happened regarding to the caliphate of the Holy prophet.[66] Hence, as long as the Muslims don’t believe in what Fatima believes relating to the Holy prophet’s succession, the reason for the concealment of her grave will remain. One of the historians in this filed says: "… In any case, concealment of the prophet’s daughter indicates that she was dejected about some people and it’s clear that she wanted to declare her dissatisfaction and unhappiness".[67] Descendants[edit] See also: Descendants of Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib Fatimah
Fatimah
was survived by two sons, Hasan and Husayn, and two daughters, Zaynab and Umm Kulthum.[1] Controversy surrounds the fate of her third son, Muhsin. Shias[68] and some sunni scholars such as ibn Abi l-Hadid[69] say that she miscarried following an attack on her house by Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar, while other Sunnis
Sunnis
insist that Muhsin died in his infancy of natural causes.[29] Modern descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
trace their lineage exclusively through Fatimah, as she was the only surviving child of Muhammad
Muhammad
(According to Shias. Sunni and some Shia
Shia
believe Muhammad
Muhammad
had 4 daughters[70]). Muhammad
Muhammad
had no sons who reached adulthood.[71] Fatimah's descendants are given the honorific titles Sayyid
Sayyid
(meaning lord or sir), Sharif (meaning noble), and respected by both Sunni and Shi'a, though the Shi'as place much more emphasis and value on the distinction.[72][73] Views[edit] Muslims regard Fatimah
Fatimah
as a loving and devoted daughter, mother, wife, a sincere Muslim, and an exemplar for women.[74][75] It is believed that she was very close to her father and her distinction from other women is mentioned in many hadith.[76] After Khadijah, Muslims regard Fatimah
Fatimah
as the most significant historical figure, considered to be the leader (Arabic: Sayyidih) of all women in this world and in Paradise.[74][77][78] It is because of her moral purity that she occupies an analogous position in Islam
Islam
to that Mary occupies in Catholic Christianity. She was the first wife of Ali, whom Sunnis consider the fourth Rashidun
Rashidun
caliph, and whom the Shi'as consider the first infallible Imam, the mother of the second and third Imams, and the ancestor of all the succeeding Imams; indeed, the Fatimid Caliphate is named after her.[79] Shia
Shia
view[edit] Main article: Shi'a view of Fatimah See also: The Fourteen Infallibles
The Fourteen Infallibles
and Fatimid Fatimah, regarded as "the Mother of the Imams", plays a special role in the Shia
Shia
sect. She has a unique status as Muhammad's only surviving child, the wife of Ali, their first Imam, and the mother of Hasan and Husayn. The chapter of Quran on abundance (Sūrat al-Kawthar) mentions the significance of her birth and recognises her as the only surviving child of Muhammad.[80] The Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate/ Imamate is named for her. She is believed to have been immaculate, sinless, and a model for Muslim women. Although leading a life of poverty, the Shia
Shia
tradition emphasises her compassion and sharing of whatever she had with others.[81] Shias greatly respect her, and her character shines as one of the bravest and most courageous in the Islamic history. Fatimah
Fatimah
stood as the lone defender of Muhammad's declaration of Ghadeer. She put forward her arguments to prove Fadak
Fadak
as her right and undisputed property amongst those who had killed her unborn child Mohsin.[82] According to Mahmoud Ayoud, the two main images of Fatimah
Fatimah
within the Shia
Shia
tradition are those of the "Eternal Weeper" and "the Judge in the hereafter".[83] According to Shia
Shia
tradition, the suffering and death of Fatimah
Fatimah
was the first tragedy of Islam. She spent her last days mourning the death of her father. Fatimah
Fatimah
eternally weeps at the death of her two sons, who were murdered by the Umayyads. Shias believe they share in Fatimah's suffering by weeping for her sorrows. It is believed that the tears of the faithful console Fatimah.[84] Shias hold that Fatimah
Fatimah
will play a redemptive role as the mistress of the day of judgment in the hereafter, as a reward for her suffering in this world.[85] Spiritual character[edit] According to Louis Massignon there are many different attitudes among Shiites and Sunnis
Sunnis
about the Mubahalah. One of those disagreements is in terms of the approving of the verse of Quran on Mubahalah whether the verse III, 54 was with the presence of the five persons such as Fatima. According to Shia
Shia
sources not only Mubahala
Mubahala
happened with the presence of Fatima but also Fatima considered as someone who is standing back of prophet. In other words, some mystical sects refer to the symbolic role during that event. They try to interpret her as an image. This image shows a lighting matter. Some sects such as Nusayrieh believes that the Christians of Najran acknowledge to the place of Fatima as Maryam.[86] See also[edit]

Shia Islam
Shia Islam
portal Islam
Islam
portal

Book of Fatimah Children of Muhammad Fatima the Gracious, biography of Fatimah Genealogy of Khadijah's daughters Hamsa, type of amulet also referred to as "Hand of Fatima" Our Lady of Fátima, title of the Virgin Mary based on reported apparitions at Fátima, Portugal Sermon of Fadak
Fadak
given by Fatimah

References[edit]

^ Arabic pronunciation: [ˈfɑːtˤɪma, ˈfɑːtˤimæ, fɑːˈtˤemæ, ˈfɑːt̪ˠɪmɐ]; especially colloquially: [ˈfɑːtˤma, ˈfɑtˤmɑ, ˈfɑːt̪ˠmɐ, ˈfɑːtˤme]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Fatimah", Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m " Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Muhammad". Muslim Students' Association (West) Compendium of Muslim Texts. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009.  ^ a b c d Ordoni (1990) pp.42-45 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Sharif al-Qarashi, Bāqir. The Life of Fatima az-Zahra (sa). Trans. Jāsim al-Rasheed. Qum, Iran: Ansariyan Publications, n.d. Print. Pgs. 37-41 ^ "The Ka'aba, The House Of Allah Story of the Holy Ka'aba Books on Islam
Islam
and Muslims". Al-Islam.org. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ "THE BLESSED NAMES OF SAYYIDATINĀ FĀTIMA AZ-ZAHRĀ' Rady Allāhu 'Anhā". Iqra.net. Retrieved 3 December 2013.  ^ Amoli, Seyyed Jafar Morteza. الصحیح من سیره النبی الاعظم‎ [True Biography of the Prophet Muhammad]. 1. pp. 351–350".  ^ Yasin T. al-Jibouri. "Fatima (sa), the Daughter of Muhammad
Muhammad
(S), a Brief Biography". Al-Islam. Retrieved 19 August 2017.  ^ a b Chittick 1981, p. 136 ^ The Heirs Of The Prophet Muhammad: And The Roots Of The Sunni-Shia Schism By Barnaby Rogerson [1] ^ "Companions of the Prophet". Umram. 15 June 1982 – via Google Books.  ^ Our Liegelady Fatimah, the Resplendent By Habib Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Abd ar Rahman As saqqaf al Husayni ^ Parsa, 2006, pp. 8–14 ^ "MSN Encarta article on Fatimah". Archived from the original on 2 September 2007.  ^ a b "Encyclopædia Britannica".  ^ Ordoni (1990) pp.32,42-44 ^ 'Allama Majlisi (1403) Bihār al-Anwār, vol8, p151 ^ 'Allama Majlisi (1403) Bihār al-Anwār, vol16, p78 ^ 'Allama Majlisi (1403) Bihār al-Anwār, vo16, p79 ^ 'Allama Majlisi (1403) Bihār al-Anwār, vol97, p200. ^ "Iran marks Mother's Day". 20 April 2014.  ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.98 ^ a b "Al-Zahraa (A.S.) in her Grandchild's Speech". Al-Maaref Islamic Net. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2015.  ^ Al-Istee'ab, vol.2 Pg. 752 ^ Usd al-Ghabah, vol.5 Pg. 520 ^ Faḍl ibn Ḥasan al-Ṭabrisī(1376), Iʿlam al-wara bi-aʿlam al-huda, vol.1, p.290. ^ Ali
Ali
b. 'Isa al-Irbili (1381) Kashf al-ghumma fī maʿrifat al-aʾimma, vol.1, p.461.) ^ Qurashi 2006, p. 42 ^ a b Ghadanfar, p? ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.99 ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p. 100 ^ Qurashi 2006, p. 97 ^ a b c Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 12 October 2008.  ^ a b " Hadith
Hadith
– Book of Wedlock, Marriage (Nikaah) – Sahih al-Bukhari – Sunnah.com – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
(صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.  ^ " Hadith
Hadith
- Book of One-fifth of Booty to the Cause of Allah (Khumus)". Sunnah.com. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Ali
Ali
bin Abu Talib demanded the hand of the daughter of Abi Jahal to be his wife besides Fatima.  ^ Ashraf (2005), pp.42-43 ^ Ordoni (1990), p.140 ^ "After The Prophet's (as) Death". Al-Islam.org.  ^ [2] for more information on prayer beads in Islam ^ Denise L. Soufi, "The Image of Fatima in Classical Muslim Thought," PhD dissertation, Princeton, 1997, p. 51-52 ^ Letter No.28, 2nd paragraph, Peak of Eloquence (Page-575), ISBN 0-941724-18-2 retrieved: 27 October 2016 ^ اربلی, محدث. کشف الغمة في معرفة الأئمة. pp. Vol1, 363.  ^ - Fatimah
Fatimah
['a] The Gracious by Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
Ordoni Published by: Ansariyan Publications Qum, The Islamic Republic of Iran ^ ibn Qutayba, Abu Muhammad. Al-Imama wa-al-siyasa. 1. Dar ul-marifa. p. 14.  al-Qurashi, Baqir (2006). The Life of Fatimah
Fatimah
az-Zahra. Ansariyan Publications. pp. 240–241.  Ordoni, Abu- Muhammad
Muhammad
(1992). "52". Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. p. 255.  ^ [33:33] ^ [3:61] ^ a b c d Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Fatima ^ the Quran, chapter 108 ^ [Tafsir Nemone, vol27, p374] ^ [Tafsir Noor al-Thaqalayn, vol4, p 572] ^ [Bihār al-Anwār, vol 25, p97]. ^ a b Ordoni, Abu- Muhammad
Muhammad
(1992). "47". Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. pp. 205–207.  ^ a b al-Qurashi, Baqir (2006). The Life of Fatimah
Fatimah
az-Zahra. Ansariyan Publications. pp. 217–220.  ^ Jafari 2008, p. 31 ^ "Fatema". Encyclopedia Iranica.  ^ Ruffle, Karen (2011). "May You Learn from Their Model: The Exemplary Father-Daughter Relationship of Mohammad and Fatima in South Asian Shiʿism" (PDF). Journal of Persianate Studies. 4: 12–29. Retrieved January 1, 2013.  ^ Imam
Imam
Malik's Muwatta, Book 41, Number 41.2.13 ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.101 ^ "After The Prophet's (as) Death". Al-Islam.org.  ^ Ozak, Muzaffer (1988). Irshad: Wisdom of a Sufi Master. Amity House, Incorporated. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-916349-43-1.  ^ Ordoni, Abu- Muhammad
Muhammad
(1992). "54". Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. p. 261.  ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.103 ^ After the Prophet: The Epic Story of the Shia-Sunni Split in Islam By Lesley Hazleton, pp. 72-73 ^ a b Madelung 1998, p. 52 ^ Qurashi, Baqir Shareef (2006). The Life of Fatima Az-Zahra': The Principal of All Women : Study and Analysis. Ansariyan Publications. ISBN 964-438-817-8.  ^ [bn Abil-Hadid, Sharh Nahjul-Balaghah, vol.16, pg.281] ^ [Jafar shahidi, the life of Fatima, p165] ^ Ordoni, Abu-Muhammad. "47". Fatima the Gracious. p. 206.  ^ Izz al-Din ibn Hibatullah ibn Abi l-Hadid. Comments on the Peak of Eloquence (Ibn Abi al-Hadid) Vol. 3. p. 351.  ^ al-Istī`āb fī Ma`rifat al-Aşĥāb (Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr, The Comprehensive Compilation of the Names of the Prophet's Companions) vol.1 pp.50 ^ Armstrong (1993) p.? ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.  ^ "Sayyid". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007.  ^ a b Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:56:819 ^ Ordoni (1990) p.? ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:57:111 ^ Ordoni (1990) p.117 ^ Tahir-ul-Qadri (2006), pp.19-24 ^ Esposito (1999) p.? ^ Quran chp: 108 ^ John Esposito
John Esposito
(1998), p.112 ^ Bee Daaneed Manam Fatima ^ Ayoub (1978), p.40, 19 ^ Ayoub (1978), p.45–46 ^ Ayoub (1978), p.19 ^ Massignon, Louis. "La Mubâhala. Étude sur la proposition d'ordalie faite par le prophète Muhammad
Muhammad
aux chrétiens Balhàrith du Najràn en l'an 10/631 à Médine". École pratique des hautes études, Section des sciences religieuses. 55 (51): 5–26. doi:10.3406/ephe.1942.17495. 

Books[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Al-Bukhari, Muhammad. Sahih al-Bukhari, Book 4, 5, 8.  Al-Tabari, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir (1987–1996). History of the Prophets and Kings, V.2. SUNY Press.  Ibn Hisham, Abdul Malik (1955). Al-Seerah Al-Nabaweyah (السيرة النبوية — Biography of the Prophet). Mustafa Al Babi Al Halabi (Egypt).  (In Arabic)

Books and journals[edit]

Nahim, Hassan A. (28 August 2012). The Division After Prophet Muhammad. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4771-4800-6. [self-published source] Morrow, John Andrew (11 November 2013). Islamic Images and Ideas: Essays on Sacred Symbolism. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5848-6.  Chittick, William C. (1981). A Shi'ite Anthology. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-510-2.  Ordoni, Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
(2012). Fatima (S.A.) The Gracious. Ansariyan Publications.  Armstrong, Karen (1993). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 0-06-250886-5.  Ashraf, Shahid (2005). Encyclopedia of Holy Prophet and Companions. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 81-261-1940-3.  Ayoud, Mahmoud (1978). Redemptive Suffering in Islam: A Study of the Devotional Aspects of (Ashura) in Twelver
Twelver
Shi'Ism.  Buehler, Arthur, Fatima, in Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God
God
(2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610691776 Esposito, John (1990). Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510799-9.  Madelung, Wilferd (15 October 1998). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-64696-3.  Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-511234-4.  Fadlullah, Sayyid
Sayyid
Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn. Fatimah
Fatimah
al-Ma`sumah (as): a role model for men and women. London: Al-Bakir Cultural & Social Centre.  Ghadanfar, Mahmood Ahmad. Great Women of Islam. Darussalam. ISBN 9960-897-27-3.  Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64696-0.  Ordoni, Abu Muhammad; Muhammad
Muhammad
Kazim Qazwini (1992). Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. ASIN B000BWQ7N6.  Parsa, Forough (فروغ پارسا) (2006). "Fatima Zahra Salaamullah Alayha in the works of Orientalists" (فاطمهٔ زهرا سلام‌الله علیها در آثار خاورشناسان)". Nashr-e Dānesh. 22 (1). 0259-9090.  (In Persian) Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2006). Virtues of Sayyedah Fatimah. Minhaj-ul-Quran Publications. ISBN 969-32-0225-2. 

Shia
Shia
sources[edit]

The Life of Fatimah Fatimah
Fatimah
al-Ma`sumah (as): a role model for men and women by Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah The world’s most outstanding Lady: Fatima az-Zahra’ by Naser Makarem Shirazi Fatima is Fatima by Ali
Ali
Shariati Fatima (S.A) The Gracious by Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
Ordoni Behar al-Anwar, Volume 43 Bihar al-Anwar
Bihar al-Anwar
(Oceans of Light) a compendium of Ahadith by Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir Majlisi, (1110 AH/1698 AD) Translated to English by Muhammad
Muhammad
Sarwar, ( Muhammad
Muhammad
Shaykh Sarwar), Publication 2015 "Fatima's life", a chapter from Muntahi al-Amal, by Abbas Qomi

Encyclopedias[edit]

Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica.  Amin, Hassan (1968–73). Islamic Shi'ite Encyclopedia. Beirut: SLIM Press.  Vacca, V. "Fāṭima". In P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.  MSN Encarta.  McAuliffe, Jane Dammen; et al., eds. (2001–2006). "Fāṭima". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an
Qur'an
1st Edition, 5 vols. plus index. Leiden: Brill Publishers. ISBN 90-04-14743-8.  Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 1-56859-050-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Fātimah

Fatimah
Fatimah
by Jean Calmard, article at Encyclopaedia Iranica

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Time of Muhammad

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 30328354 LCCN: n82010587 GND: 118532030 SELIBR: 136967 SUDOC: 125424019 BNF: cb1362