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Esso
Esso
/ˈɛsoʊ/ is a trading name for ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
and its related companies. The name is a phonetic version of the initials of the pre 1911 Standard Oil
Oil
(SO = Esso),[1] and as such became the focus of much litigation and regulatory restriction in the United States. In 1972, it was largely replaced in the U.S. by the Exxon
Exxon
brand after it bought Humble Oil, while Esso
Esso
remained widely used elsewhere. In most of the world, the Esso
Esso
brand and the Mobil
Mobil
brand are the primary brand names of ExxonMobil, with the Exxon
Exxon
brand name still in use only in the United States alongside Mobil.

An Esso
Esso
station in Stabekk, Norway (2006)

A combination gasoline/diesel pump at an Exxon
Exxon
in Zelienople, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(2008); note that diesel on this pump is branded "Esso".

The Esso
Esso
sign in 1940, used in the United States until 1966

Contents

1 History 2 United Kingdom

2.1 Esso
Esso
Blue 2.2 Cleveland 2.3 Northern Ireland 2.4 Euro Garages 2.5 Shop and Drive

3 Affiliates

3.1 Canada 3.2 Australia 3.3 Japan

4 Branding 5 Advertising campaigns 6 Commercial automotive and motorcycle partnerships 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] In 1911, Standard Oil
Oil
was broken up into 34 companies, some of which were named "Standard Oil" and had the rights to that brand in certain states (the other companies had no territorial rights). Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) ("Jersey Standard") had the rights in that state, plus in Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and the District of Columbia. By 1941, it had also acquired the rights in Pennsylvania, Delaware, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Louisiana. In those states, it marketed its products under the brand "Esso", the phonetic pronunciation of the letters "S" and "O". It also used the Esso
Esso
brand in New York and the six New England states, where the Standard Oil
Oil
Company of New York (Socony Vacuum, later Socony Mobil) had the rights, but did not object to the New Jersey company's use of the trademark[citation needed] (the two companies did not merge until November 1999). However, in the other states, the other Standard Oil
Oil
companies objected and, via a 1937 U.S. federal court injunction, forced Jersey Standard to use other brand names.[2] In most states the company used the trademark Enco ("Energy Company"), and in a few "Humble". The other Standard companies likewise were "Standard" or some variant on that in their home states, and another brand name in other states. Esso
Esso
ranked 31st among United States corporations in the value of World War II
World War II
production contracts.[3] During the years of racial segregation in the United States, certain Esso
Esso
franchises gave out The Negro Motorist Green Book: An International Travel Guide.[4] In 1973, Standard Oil
Oil
of New Jersey renamed itself as the Exxon
Exxon
Corporation, and adopted that trademark throughout the country. It maintained the rights to "Standard" and "Esso" in the states where it held those rights, by a token effort, by selling " Esso
Esso
Diesel" in those states at stations that sell diesel fuel, thus preventing the trademark from being declared abandoned. It retained the "Esso" brand in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and the United States Virgin Islands until 2008, when it sold its stations there to Total S.A.[5] The Enco brand name was used on locations in the Midwest until 1977 when they were sold to Cheker Oil
Oil
Co. (now part of Marathon Petroleum subsidiary Speedway LLC[6]); Exxon
Exxon
continues to have a presence in southern Ohio
Ohio
today (as it does throughout much of Appalachia
Appalachia
in general), though Mobil
Mobil
is the company's primary brand in the Midwest. In February 2016, ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
successfully asked a U.S. federal court to lift the 1930s trademark injunction that banned it from using the Esso
Esso
brand in certain states. By this time, as a result of numerous mergers and rebranding, the remaining Standard Oil
Oil
companies that previously objected to the Esso
Esso
name had been acquired by BP. ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
cited trademark surveys in which there was no longer possible confusion with the Esso
Esso
name as it was more than seven decades before. BP also had no objection to lift the ban.[2] ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
did not specify whether they would now open new stations in the U.S. under the Esso
Esso
name; they were primarily concerned about the additional expenses of having separate marketing, letterheads, packaging, and other materials that omit "Esso".[7] United Kingdom[edit]

An Esso
Esso
service station in Wetherby, West Yorkshire, England (2010)

In 1888, the Anglo American Oil
Oil
company opened its head office in London, which eventually became a part of Esso.[8] In August 1998, Tesco
Tesco
announced a partnership with Esso, opening chains of Tesco Express stores located within forecourts, which continues today.[9] In February 2000, the two companies were opening one new store a month, creating 4,000 jobs.[10]

In Tampere, Finland (2007)

In Kyoto, Japan (2017)

Esso
Esso
Blue[edit] Esso
Esso
Blue was the brand name of Esso's paraffin oil (kerosene) for domestic heaters in countries such as the United Kingdom. Their television advertising song from the 1950s, through to the 1970s, was the famous "Bom, Bom, Bom, Bom, Esso
Esso
Blue!" One campaign used the well known song tune of "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes" cleverly reworded as:[11] "They asked me how I knew, it was Esso Blue, I of course replied, with lower grades one buys, smoke gets in your eyes. The non-smoking paraffin". The track was released as a flexi disk which was given away free in hardware stores.[12] Cleveland[edit] In the 1930s, Esso
Esso
acquired Cleveland, an independent company based in North East England. The name comes from the fact that the founder and principal shareholder, Norman Davis, spent some of World War I with his brother Manuel in Cleveland, Ohio. Cleveland's products included a benzole blend and an alcohol blend called "Discol". The Esso
Esso
and Cleveland
Cleveland
names continued in use until 1973, when the Cleveland filling stations were re-branded as Esso. Northern Ireland[edit] Esso
Esso
traded in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
up until the early 2000s. Their forecourts were re-branded as Maxol
Maxol
and some remained private. Euro Garages[edit] 45 of Euro Garages' forecourts were bought from Esso
Esso
in 2013, and are operated under the Esso
Esso
brand. They plan to roll out partner brands such as Starbucks
Starbucks
and Spar, replacing the Esso
Esso
branded shops. Shop and Drive[edit] Shop and Drive is an Esso
Esso
branded convenience store operated in some stations, although many of their locations have franchised shops such as Nisa. Affiliates[edit] Canada[edit] Main article: Imperial Oil

An Esso
Esso
location in Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada (2008)

In Canada, the Esso
Esso
brand is used on stations operated by Imperial Oil, which is 69.8% owned by ExxonMobil. Esso
Esso
also provides aviation fuel services at 80 airport locations in Canada (Aviation and Avitat). Australia[edit] Main article: Esso
Esso
Australia In Australia, Esso
Esso
is an affiliate of ExxonMobil, it operates oil and gas production. Its retail petrol stations were acquired by Mobil Australia in 1990. Japan[edit] Established as Esso
Esso
Standard Oil(Japan) in 1962 with Standard Vacuum division in Japan. It became Esso
Esso
Oil
Oil
in 1982. With the establishment of Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Merger with Mobil
Mobil
Oil
Oil
will merge with Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Japan but will be sold to TonenGeneral Oil
Oil
in 2012 EMG Marketing will be merged with the company in January 2017. It was merged with JX Nippon Oil
Oil
& Energy in April, and the company became JXTG Nippon Oil
Oil
& Energy. The Esso
Esso
brand will be maintained for the time being. Branding[edit] Esso
Esso
is ExxonMobil's primary gasoline brand worldwide except in Australia, Guam, Mexico (starting in about the first quarter of 2018), Nigeria and New Zealand, where the Mobil
Mobil
brand is used exclusively. In Colombia, Egypt, Japan (until 2020) and formerly Malaysia, both the Esso
Esso
and Mobil
Mobil
brands are used. While Esso
Esso
and Mobil
Mobil
in Malaysia were rebranded as Petron
Petron
in 2013, Esso
Esso
and Mobil
Mobil
in Japan will be rebranded as ENEOS
ENEOS
in 2020, since the acquisition of Esso
Esso
and Mobil
Mobil
from JXTG Nippon Oil
Oil
& Energy in 2017. Mobil
Mobil
is ExxonMobil's primary retail gasoline brand in California, Florida, New York, New England, the Great Lakes and the Midwest. Exxon is the primary brand in the rest of the United States, with the highest concentration of retail outlets located in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas
Texas
and in the Mid-Atlantic and South Eastern states. Advertising campaigns[edit] In the 1960s, campaigns featuring heavy spending in different mass media channels became more prominent. Esso
Esso
spent hundreds of millions of dollars on a brand awareness campaign built around the simple and alliterative[13] theme Put a Tiger in Your Tank.[14] Psychologist Ernest Dichter[15] and DDB Worldwide
DDB Worldwide
copywriter Sandy Sulcer[16] learned that motorists desired both power and play while driving, and chose the tiger as an easy to remember symbol to communicate those feelings. The North American and later European campaign featured extensive television and radio and magazine ads, including photos with tiger tails supposedly emerging from car gas tanks, promotional events featuring real tigers, billboards, and in Europe station pump hoses "wrapped in tiger stripes" as well as pop music songs.[14] Tiger imagery can still be seen on the pumps of successor firm ExxonMobil. Commercial automotive and motorcycle partnerships[edit] Esso, along with its sister brands Exxon
Exxon
and Mobil, are official long-term recommended gasoline of Porsche, Bentley, Toyota, Lexus, Daihatsu, Hino, Chevrolet, Cadillac, Opel, Vauxhall, Buick, Holden, Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(until 2015, now fully switched to Petronas
Petronas
in 2016) and Perodua
Perodua
for automobiles and also Honda
Honda
for both automobiles and motorcycles. References[edit]

^ ExxonMobil: History of Esso
Esso
in the UK ^ a b "The Return of Esso
Esso
Gasoline?". CSP Daily News. February 16, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2016.  ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School
Harvard Business School
p.619 ^ McGee, Celia (August 22, 2010). "The Open Road Wasn't Quite Open to All". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2011. Although Victor Green’s initial edition only encompassed metropolitan New York, the Green Book soon expanded.... The 15,000 copies Green eventually printed each year were sold as a marketing tool not just to black-owned businesses but to the white marketplace, implying that it made good economic sense to take advantage of the growing affluence and mobility of African Americans. Esso
Esso
stations, unusual in franchising to African Americans, were a popular place to pick one up.  ^ Lett, Christine (March 11, 2008). "Total Petroleum to take over Esso's fuel business in V.I." The Virgin Islands Daily News. Retrieved June 11, 2010. [dead link] ^ http://www.marathonpetroleum.com/content/documents/mpc/about/MarathonMarketingHistory.pdf ^ "After 78 Years, Exxon
Exxon
Asks Court To Use 'Esso' Name Again". CSP Daily News. December 21, 2015. Retrieved September 18, 2016.  ^ "Our early days in Europe". About us. Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corporation. Retrieved January 17, 2014.  ^ " Esso
Esso
fuels Tesco's expansion". news.bbc.co.uk. August 21, 1998. Retrieved August 11, 2015.  ^ " Tesco
Tesco
link with Esso
Esso
to create 4,000 jobs". theguardian.com. February 5, 2000. Retrieved August 11, 2015.  ^ the great blue singer — Esso
Esso
Blue flexi disk recording, Juzp [permanent dead link] ^ "The Great Blue Singer " at Discogs ^ William Safire (February 6, 2005). "ON LANGUAGE: Metaphor Madness". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2011. The foolish fearsomeness of this act was vitiated in the 1960s by Esso, which took a smiling tiger as a symbol with the alliterative slogan Put a tiger in your tank.  ^ a b "Western Europe: The Tiger Goes Abroad". Time. May 28, 1965. Retrieved October 19, 2011. "Put a tiger in your tank." The star of one of the most popular advertising campaigns ever hatched on Madison Avenue, Esso's frisky, whimsical tiger with the high-octane tail has become a roaring success all over Europe.  ^ Lynne ames (August 2, 1998). "The View From/Peekskill; Tending the Flame of a Motivator". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2011. Among his most famous successes was the slogan Put a tiger in your tank, still in use by Exxon.  ^ David Kaplan (January 23, 2004). "Sulcer, 77, Former DDB Needham Exec, Dies". adweek. Retrieved January 20, 2014. Frederick D. "Sandy" Sulcer... He created the well-known "Put a tiger in your tank" theme line for Esso
Esso
(now ExxonMobil) 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Esso.

Official website

v t e

ExxonMobil

Divisions

Aera Energy Esso Esso
Esso
Australia Exxon Exxon
Exxon
Neftegas Humble Oil Imperial Oil Magnolia Petroleum Company Mobil Mobil
Mobil
Producing Nigeria Petron SeaRiver Maritime Superior Oil
Oil
Company Syncrude Vacuum Oil
Oil
Company XTO Energy

People

Michael Boskin Larry R. Faulkner William W. George James R. Houghton Samuel J. Palmisano Lee R. Raymond John D. Rockefeller Walter V. Shipley Walter C. Teagle Rex Tillerson

Facilities

Baton Rouge Refinery Baytown Refinery Milford Haven Exxon
Exxon
Building (New York) Fawley Refinery Imperial Oil
Oil
Building Mossmorran Nanticoke Refinery

Controversies

Accusations of ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
human rights violations in Indonesia Allison v. ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
Corp. Exxon
Exxon
Corp. v Exxon
Exxon
Insurance Consultants International Ltd ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
climate change controversy Kivalina v. ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
Corporation Oil
Oil
Pollution Act of 1990

Oil
Oil
spills

2010 ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
oil spill 2010 Port Arthur oil spill 2013 Mayflower oil spill Exxon
Exxon
Valdez oil spill Greenpoint oil spill SS Atlantic Empress SS Esso
Esso
Brussels

Brands

Coolanol Enco Hefty Mobil
Mobil
1 On the Run Speedpass

Oil
Oil
and gas fields

Colony Shale Oil
Oil
Project East-Prinovozemelsky field Goose Creek Oil
Oil
Field Kearl Oil
Oil
Sands Project Kizomba deepwater project Ormen Lange Pembina oil field Prudhoe Bay Oil
Oil
Field Sable Offshore Energy Project Sakhalin-I Tengiz Field Tern oilfield Tuapse field West Qurna Field

Other

ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
Electrofrac Mobil
Mobil
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