Immigration to the United States is the international movement of individuals who are not natives or do not possess citizenship in order to settle, reside, study or to take-up employment in the country. It has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States.

In absolute numbers, the United States has a larger immigrant population than any other country, with 47 million immigrants as of 2015.[1] This represents 19.1% of the 244 million international migrants worldwide, and 14.4% of the U.S. population. Many other countries have significantly higher percentages, such as e.g. Switzerland with 24.9% immigrants. [2]

The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, crime, and voting behavior.

Prior to 1965, policies such as the national origins formula limited immigration and naturalization opportunities for people from areas outside Western Europe. Exclusion laws enacted as early as the 1880s generally prohibited or severely restricted immigration from Asia, and quota laws enacted in the 1920s curtailed Eastern European immigration. The civil rights movement led to the replacement[3] of these ethnic quotas with per-country limits.[4] Since then, the number of first-generation immigrants living in the United States has quadrupled.[5][6]

Research suggests that immigration to the United States is beneficial to the US economy. With few exceptions, the evidence suggests that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies also indicate that immigration either has no impact on the crime rate or that it reduces the crime rate in the United States.[7][8] Research shows that the United States excels at assimilating first- and second-generation immigrants relative to many other Western countries.


Immigrants on ocean steamer passing the Statue of Liberty, New York City, 1887

American immigration history can be viewed in four epochs: the colonial period, the mid-19th century, the start of the 20th century, and post-1965. Each period brought distinct national groups, races and ethnicities to the United States. During the 17th century, approximately 400,000 English people migrated to Colonial America.[9] Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America during the 17th and 18th centuries arrived as indentured servants.[10] The mid-19th century saw mainly an influx from northern Europe; the early 20th-century mainly from Southern and Eastern Europe; post-1965 mostly from Latin America and Asia.

Historians estimate that fewer than 1 million immigrants came to the United States from Europe between 1600 and 1799.[11] The 1790 Act limited naturalization to "free white persons"; it was expanded to include blacks in the 1860s and Asians in the 1950s.[12] In the early years of the United States, immigration was fewer than 8,000 people a year,[13] including French refugees from the slave revolt in Haiti. After 1820, immigration gradually increased. From 1836 to 1914, over 30 million Europeans migrated to the United States.[14] The death rate on these transatlantic voyages was high, during which one in seven travelers died.[15] In 1875, the nation passed its first immigration law, the Page Act of 1875.[16]

Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island, 1902

After an initial wave of immigration from China following the California Gold Rush, Congress passed a series of laws culminating in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, banning virtually all immigration from China until the law's repeal in 1943. In the late 1800s, immigration from other Asian countries, especially to the West Coast, became more common.

The peak year of European immigration was in 1907, when 1,285,349 persons entered the country.[17] By 1910, 13.5 million immigrants were living in the United States.[18] In 1921, the Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act, followed by the Immigration Act of 1924. The 1924 Act was aimed at further restricting immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, particularly Jews, Italians, and Slavs, who had begun to enter the country in large numbers beginning in the 1890s, and consolidated the prohibition of Asian immigration.[19]

Polish immigrants working on the farm, 1909. The welfare system was practically non-existent before the 1930s and the economic pressures on the poor were giving rise to child labor.

Immigration patterns of the 1930s were affected by the Great Depression. In the final prosperous year, 1929, there were 279,678 immigrants recorded,[20] but in 1933, only 23,068 came to the U.S.[11] In the early 1930s, more people emigrated from the United States than to it.[21] The U.S. government sponsored a Mexican Repatriation program which was intended to encourage people to voluntarily move to Mexico, but thousands were deported against their will.[22] Altogether about 400,000 Mexicans were repatriated half of them US citizens.[23] Most of the Jewish refugees fleeing the Nazis and World War II were barred from coming to the United States.[24] In the post-war era, the Justice Department launched Operation Wetback, under which 1,075,168 Mexicans were deported in 1954.[25]

First, our cities will not be flooded with a million immigrants annually. Under the proposed bill, the present level of immigration remains substantially the same. ... Secondly, the ethnic mix of this country will not be upset. ... Contrary to the charges in some quarters, [the bill] will not inundate America with immigrants from any one country or area, or the most populated and deprived nations of Africa and Asia. ... In the final analysis, the ethnic pattern of immigration under the proposed measure is not expected to change as sharply as the critics seem to think.

— Ted Kennedy, chief Senate sponsor of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965.[26]

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, also known as the Hart-Cellar Act, abolished the system of national-origin quotas. By equalizing immigration policies, the act resulted in new immigration from non-European nations, which changed the ethnic make-up of the United States.[27] In 1970, 60% of immigrants were from Europe; this decreased to 15% by 2000.[28] In 1990, George H. W. Bush signed the Immigration Act of 1990,[29] which increased legal immigration to the United States by 40%.[30] In 1991, Bush signed the Armed Forces Immigration Adjustment Act 1991, allowing foreign service members who had serve 12 or more years in the US Armed Forces to qualify for permanent residency and, in some cases, citizenship.

In November 1994, California voters passed Proposition 187 amending the state constitution, denying state financial aid to illegal immigrants. The federal courts voided this change, ruling that it violated the federal constitution.[31]

Appointed by Bill Clinton,[32] the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform recommended reducing legal immigration from about 800,000 people per year to approximately 550,000.[33] While an influx of new residents from different cultures presents some challenges, "the United States has always been energized by its immigrant populations," said President Bill Clinton in 1998. "America has constantly drawn strength and spirit from wave after wave of immigrants [...] They have proved to be the most restless, the most adventurous, the most innovative, the most industrious of people."[34]

Boston Chinatown, Massachusetts, 2008.

In 2001, President George W. Bush discussed an accord with Mexican President Vincente Fox. Possible accord was derailed by the September 11 attacks. From 2005 to 2013, the US Congress discussed various ways of controlling immigration. The Senate and House are unable to reach an agreement. In 2012 and 2014, President Obama initiated policies that were intended to ease the pressure on deporting people who use anchor babies as a means of immigrating to the United States.[31]

Nearly 14 million immigrants entered the United States from 2000 to 2010,[35] and over one million persons were naturalized as U.S. citizens in 2008. The per-country limit[4] applies the same maximum on the number of visas to all countries regardless of their population and has therefore had the effect of significantly restricting immigration of persons born in populous nations such as Mexico, China, India, and the Philippines—the leading countries of origin for legally admitted immigrants to the United States in 2013;[36] nevertheless, China, India, and Mexico were the leading countries of origin for immigrants overall to the United States in 2013, regardless of legal status, according to a U.S. Census Bureau study.[37] As of 2009, 66% of legal immigrants were admitted on the basis of family ties, along with 13% admitted for their employment skills and 17% for humanitarian reasons.[38]

Nearly 8 million people immigrated to the United States from 2000 to 2005; 3.7 million of them entered without papers.[39][40] In 1986 president Ronald Reagan signed immigration reform that gave amnesty to 3 million undocumented immigrants in the country.[41] Hispanic immigrants suffered job losses during the late-2000s recession,[42] but since the recession's end in June 2009, immigrants posted a net gain of 656,000 jobs.[43] Over 1 million immigrants were granted legal residence in 2011.[44]

For those who enter the US illegally across the Mexico–United States border and elsewhere, migration is difficult, expensive and dangerous.[45] Virtually all undocumented immigrants have no avenues for legal entry to the United States due to the restrictive legal limits on green cards, and lack of immigrant visas for low-skilled workers.[46] Participants in debates on immigration in the early twenty-first century called for increasing enforcement of existing laws governing illegal immigration to the United States, building a barrier along some or all of the 2,000-mile (3,200 km) Mexico-U.S. border, or creating a new guest worker program. Through much of 2006 the country and Congress was immersed in a debate about these proposals. As of April 2010 few of these proposals had become law, though a partial border fence had been approved and subsequently canceled.[47]

In January 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump signed an executive order temporarily suspending entry to the United States by nationals of certain Muslim-majority countries. It was replaced by another executive order in March 2017 and by a presidential proclamation in September 2017, with various changes to the list of countries and exemptions.[48] The orders were temporarily suspended by federal courts but later allowed to proceed by the Supreme Court, pending a definite ruling on their legality.[49] Another executive order called for the immediate construction of a wall across the U.S.–Mexico border, the hiring of 5,000 new border patrol agents and 10,000 new immigration officers, and federal funding penalties for sanctuary cities.[50]

Persons obtaining legal permanent resident status by fiscal year[51]
Year Year Year Year Year Year Year
1930 241,700 1950 249,187 1970 373,326 1990 1,535,872 2006 1,266,129 2010 1,042,625 2014 1,016,518
1935 34,956 1955 237,790 1975 385,378 1995 720,177 2007 1,052,415 2011 1,062,040 2015 1,051,031
1940 70,756 1960 265,398 1980 524,295 2000 841,002 2008 1,107,126 2012 1,031,631 2016 1,183,505
1945 38,119 1965 296,697 1985 568,149 2005 1,122,257 2009 1,130,818 2013 990,553
Decade Average per year
1930–39 69,900
1940–49 85,700
1950–59 249,900
1960–69 321,400
1970–79 424,800
1980–89 624,400
1990–99 977,500
2000–09 1,029,900
2010–16 1,054,000

Contemporary immigration

Naturalization ceremony, Salem, Massachusetts, 2007

Until the 1930s most legal immigrants were male. By the 1990s women accounted for just over half of all legal immigrants.[52] Contemporary immigrants tend to be younger than the native population of the United States, with people between the ages of 15 and 34 substantially overrepresented.[53] Immigrants are also more likely to be married and less likely to be divorced than native-born Americans of the same age.[54]

Paterson, New Jersey, within the New York City Metropolitan Area, is becoming an increasingly popular destination for Muslim immigrants.

Immigrants are likely to move to and live in areas populated by people with similar backgrounds. This phenomenon has held true throughout the history of immigration to the United States.[55] Seven out of ten immigrants surveyed by Public Agenda in 2009 said they intended to make the U.S. their permanent home, and 71% said if they could do it over again they would still come to the US. In the same study, 76% of immigrants say the government has become stricter on enforcing immigration laws since the September 11, 2001 attacks ("9/11"), and 24% report that they personally have experienced some or a great deal of discrimination.[56]

Public attitudes about immigration in the U.S. were heavily influenced in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. After the attacks, 52% of Americans believed that immigration was a good thing overall for the U.S., down from 62% the year before, according to a 2009 Gallup poll.[57] A 2008 Public Agenda survey found that half of Americans said tighter controls on immigration would do "a great deal" to enhance U.S. national security.[58] Harvard political scientist and historian Samuel P. Huntington argued in his 2004 book Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity that a potential future consequence of continuing massive immigration from Latin America, especially Mexico, could lead to the bifurcation of the United States.[59][60]

The estimated population of illegal Mexican immigrants in the US fell from approximately 7 million in 2007 to 6.1 million in 2011 [61] Commentators link the reversal of the immigration trend to the economic downturn that started in 2008 and which meant fewer available jobs, and to the introduction of tough immigration laws in many states.[62][63][64][65] According to the Pew Hispanic Center the net immigration of Mexican born persons had stagnated in 2010, and tended toward going into negative figures.[66]

More than 80 cities in the United States,[67] including Washington D.C., New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco, San Diego, San Jose, Salt Lake City, Phoenix, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, Detroit, Jersey City, Minneapolis, Miami, Denver, Baltimore, Seattle, Portland, Oregon and Portland, Maine, have sanctuary policies, which vary locally.[68]


Inflow of New Legal Permanent Residents by continent in 2016:[69]

  Americas (42.8%)
  Asia (39.1%)
  Africa (9.6%)
  Europe (7.9%)
  Unknown (0.1%)
Inflow of New Legal Permanent Residents by region, in 2013, 2014 and 2015
Region 2014 % of total 2015 % of total 2016 % of total Increase% in 2016
Americas 398,069 39.16% 438,435 41.71% 506,901 42.83% Increase15.6%
Asia 430,508 42.35% 419,297 39.89% 462,299 39.06% Increase10.3%
Africa 98,413 9.68% 101,415 9.65% 113,426 9.58% Increase11.8%
Europe 83,266 8.19% 85,803 8.16% 93,567 7.90% Increase9.0%
Australia and Oceania 5,122 0.50% 5,404 0.51% 5,588 0.47% Increase3.4%
Unknown 1,150 0.11% 677 0.06% 1,724 0.14% Increase154.6%
Total 1,016,518 100% 1,051,031 100% 1,183,505 100% Increase12.6%

Source: US Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics[70][71][69]

Top 10 sending countries in 2015 and 2016[72]

Country 2015 2016
1. Mexico 158,619 174,534
2. China 74,558 81,772
3. Cuba 54,396 66,516
4. India 64,116 64,687
5. Dominican Rep. 50,610 61,161
6. Philippines 56,478 53,287
7. Vietnam 30,832 41,451
8. Haiti 16,967 23,584
9. El Salvador 19,487 23,449
10. Jamaica 17,642 23,350
Total 1,051,031 1,183,505


Extent and destinations

Little Italy in New York, ca.1900
Crowd at the Philippine Independence Day Parade in New York City
Year[73] Number of foreign-born Percent
1850 2,244,602 9.7
1860 4,138,697 13.2
1870 5,567,229 14.4
1880 6,679,943 13.3
1890 9,249,547 14.8
1900 10,341,276 13.6
1910 13,515,886 14.7
1920 13,920,692 13.2
1930 14,204,149 11.6
1940 11,594,896 8.8
1950 10,347,395 6.9
1960 9,738,091 5.4
1970 9,619,302 4.7
1980 14,079,906 6.2
1990 19,767,316 7.9
2000 31,107,889 11.1
2010[74] 39,956,000 12.9
2015[75] 43,290,000 13.4

The United States admitted more legal immigrants from 1991 to 2000, between ten and eleven million, than in any previous decade. In the most recent decade, the ten million legal immigrants that settled in the U.S. represent an annual growth of only about 0.3% as the U.S. population grew from 249 million to 281 million. By comparison, the highest previous decade was the 1900s, when 8.8 million people arrived, increasing the total U.S. population by one percent every year. Specifically, "nearly 15% of Americans were foreign-born in 1910, while in 1999, only about 10% were foreign-born."[76]

By 1970, immigrants accounted for 4.7 percent of the US population and rising to 6.2 percent in 1980, with an estimated 12.5 percent in 2009.[77] As of 2010, 25% of US residents under age 18 were first- or second-generation immigrants.[78] Eight percent of all babies born in the U.S. in 2008 belonged to illegal immigrant parents, according to a recent analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data by the Pew Hispanic Center.[79]

Legal immigration to the U.S. increased from 250,000 in the 1930s, to 2.5 million in the 1950s, to 4.5 million in the 1970s, and to 7.3 million in the 1980s, before resting at about 10 million in the 1990s.[80] Since 2000, legal immigrants to the United States number approximately 1,000,000 per year, of whom about 600,000 are Change of Status who already are in the U.S. Legal immigrants to the United States now are at their highest level ever, at just over 37,000,000 legal immigrants. Illegal immigration may be as high as 1,500,000 per year with a net of at least 700,000 illegal immigrants arriving every year.[81][82] Immigration led to a 57.4% increase in foreign born population from 1990 to 2000.[83]

While immigration has increased drastically over the last century, the foreign born share of the population is, at 13.4, only somewhat below what it was at its peak in 1910 at 14.7%. A number of factors may be attributed to the decrease in the representation of foreign born residents in the United States. Most significant has been the change in the composition of immigrants; prior to 1890, 82% of immigrants came from North and Western Europe. From 1891 to 1920, that number dropped to 25%, with a rise in immigrants from East, Central, and South Europe, summing up to 64%. Animosity towards these different and foreign immigrants rose in the United States, resulting in much legislation to limit immigration.[citation needed]

Contemporary immigrants settle predominantly in seven states, California, New York, Florida, Texas, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Illinois, comprising about 44% of the U.S. population as a whole. The combined total immigrant population of these seven states was 70% of the total foreign-born population in 2000. If current birth rate and immigration rates were to remain unchanged for another 70 to 80 years, the U.S. population would double to nearly 600 million.[84]

In 1900, when the U.S. population was 76 million, there were an estimated 500,000 Hispanics.[85] The Census Bureau projects that by 2050, one-quarter of the population will be of Hispanic descent.[86] This demographic shift is largely fueled by immigration from Latin America.[87][88]


Foreign-born population of the United States in 2016, by country of birth.
  United States and its territories
Immigrants to the United States (2012–2016) per thousand inhabitants of each country of origin (2012).
  United States and its territories
Foreign-born population of the United States in 2016[89] and number of immigrants between 1986 and 2016,[90] by country of birth
Country of birth Population (2016) Immigrants (1986–2016)
Total foreign-born 43,738,901 30,393,223
 Mexico 11,573,680 6,154,006
 India 2,434,524 1,598,201
 China[a] 2,122,951 1,703,930
 Philippines 1,941,665 1,695,162
 El Salvador 1,387,022 757,247
 Vietnam 1,352,760 1,085,652
 Cuba 1,271,618 866,495
 Dominican Republic 1,085,321 1,102,386
 South Korea 1,041,727[b] 691,668[c]
 Guatemala 935,707 398,373
 Canada 783,206 445,048
 Jamaica 736,303 587,164
 Colombia 704,587 573,798
 United Kingdom[d] 696,896 433,528[e]
 Haiti 668,223 612,838
 Honduras 651,059 217,955
 Germany 563,985 215,089[f]
 Ecuador 439,123 285,715
 Peru 427,445 364,871
 Poland 424,928 383,673
 Brazil 409,595 260,974
 Russia 397,236 322,431[g]
 Iran 386,073 409,476
 Pakistan 382,852 416,473
 Taiwan 373,943 289,966
 Japan 355,156 194,969
 Ukraine 347,759 340,566[g]
 Italy 335,763 83,002
 Nigeria 306,874 280,089
 Venezuela 290,224 181,329
 Guyana 266,368 238,473
 Thailand 253,585 202,494
 Ethiopia 244,924 252,548
 Nicaragua 243,024 204,447
 Trinidad and Tobago 242,661 173,095
 Bangladesh 234,640 274,201
 Iraq 221,587 222,615
 Hong Kong 212,253 165,776
 Argentina 189,126 115,072
 Laos 183,894 113,742
 Egypt[h] 181,677 199,656
 Portugal 176,638 57,511
 France[i] 175,250 106,433
 Ghana 171,428 161,061
 Romania 161,629 154,838
 Cambodia 152,415 116,386
 Myanmar 142,494 144,374
 Israel[j] 142,078 122,477
 Greece 135,484 42,677
 Kenya 129,670 116,774
   Nepal 129,450 110,021
 Lebanon 128,608 125,541
 Ireland 125,840 111,183
 Turkey 120,745 102,063
 Spain 105,975 53,558
 South Africa 104,889 81,227
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 101,638 132,705[k]
 Saudi Arabia 99,849 30,908
 Syria[l] 96,694 84,410
 Panama 94,958 62,039
 Afghanistan 94,726 93,044
 Indonesia 94,453 70,577
 Chile 93,647 61,184
 Australia 93,179 68,125[m]
 Albania 93,033 101,471
 Somalia 93,020 117,687
 Armenia 90,946 74,341[g]
 Liberia 88,090 89,255
 Costa Rica 85,133 55,983
 Jordan[n] 81,930 123,477
 Morocco[o] 80,384 91,860
 Netherlands[p] 79,902 40,082
 Bolivia 79,461 59,188
 Malaysia 78,459 57,959
 Bulgaria 70,800 79,951
 Slovakia N/A[q] 14,298[r]
 Czech Republic N/A[q] 7,484[r]
 Uzbekistan 62,713 86,567[g]
 Belarus 62,514 66,361[g]
 Hungary 62,296 35,556
 Yemen 61,680 74,933[s]
 Sri Lanka 55,049 43,558
 Barbados 54,374 27,005
 Cameroon 49,430 55,688
 Belize 48,918 34,196
 Sweden 48,294 35,547
 Austria 44,943 14,686
 Cape Verde 44,519 37,720
 Fiji 43,406 38,654
 Eritrea 43,010 28,695
 Moldova 42,403 49,455[g]
 Uruguay 42,181 28,410
 Croatia 39,747 21,080[k]
 Sudan 39,346 62,949
  Switzerland 38,144 25,587
 Sierra Leone 38,101 48,036
 Serbia 37,654 5,606[k]
 Kuwait 36,659 29,637
 Grenada 36,056 23,574
 Belgium 35,406 19,443
 Denmark 33,715 17,467[t]
 Lithuania 33,640 30,205
 Bahamas 33,163 22,447
 Kazakhstan 32,017 33,662[g]
 Dominica 31,220 13,665
 New Zealand[u] 31,054 27,074
 Bhutan N/A 54,123
 Democratic Republic of the Congo N/A 36,535
 Azerbaijan N/A 30,968[g]
  1. ^ Mainland China only.
  2. ^ Including North Korea.
  3. ^ Including North Korea before 2009.
  4. ^ Including Crown dependencies.
  5. ^ Including 677 immigrants recorded separately as born in Northern Ireland.
  6. ^ Including 596 immigrants from East Germany.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h In addition, there were 195,309 immigrants recorded as born in the Soviet Union.
  8. ^ Including the Gaza Strip.
  9. ^ Metropolitan France only.
  10. ^ Excluding the Golan Heights and the Palestinian territories.
  11. ^ a b c In addition, there were 86,683 immigrants recorded as born in Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro.
  12. ^ Including the Golan Heights.
  13. ^ Excluding Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands.
  14. ^ Including the West Bank.
  15. ^ Excluding Western Sahara.
  16. ^ European Netherlands only.
  17. ^ a b There were 65,982 people recorded as born in Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia combined.
  18. ^ a b In addition, there were 22,708 immigrants recorded as born in Czechoslovakia.
  19. ^ Including 822 immigrants from South Yemen.
  20. ^ Excluding Greenland.
  21. ^ Excluding the Cook Islands and Niue.

Effects of immigration


A U.S. naturalization ceremony at the Kennedy Space Center, 2010.

The Census Bureau estimates the US population will grow from 317 million in 2014 to 417 million in 2060 with immigration, when nearly 20% will be foreign born.[91] A 2015 report from the Pew Research Center projects that by 2065, non-Hispanic whites will account for 46% of the population, down from the 2005 figure of 67%.[92] Non-Hispanic whites made up 85% of the population in 1960.[93] It also foresees the Hispanic population rising from 17% in 2014 to 29% by 2060. The Asian population is expected to nearly double in 2060.[91] Overall, the Pew Report predicts the population of the United States will rise from 296 million in 2005 to 441 million in 2065, but only to 338 million with no immigration.[92]

In 35 of the country's 50 largest cities, non-Hispanic whites were at the last census or are predicted to be in the minority.[94] In California, non-Hispanic whites slipped from 80% of the state's population in 1970 to 42% in 2001[95] and 39% in 2013.[96]

Immigrant segregation declined in the first half of the 20th century, but has been rising over the past few decades. This has caused questioning of the correctness of describing the United States as a melting pot. One explanation is that groups with lower socioeconomic status concentrate in more densely populated area that have access to public transit while groups with higher socioeconomic status move to suburban areas. Another is that some recent immigrant groups are more culturally and linguistically different from earlier groups and prefer to live together due to factors such as communication costs.[97] Another explanation for increased segregation is white flight.[98]

Place of birth for the foreign-born population in the United States
Top ten countries 2015 2010 2000 1990
Mexico 11,643,298 11,711,103 9,177,487 4,298,014
China 2,676,697 2,166,526 1,518,652 921,070
India 2,389,639 1,780,322 1,022,552 450,406
Philippines 1,982,369 1,777,588 1,369,070 912,674
El Salvador 1,352,357 1,214,049 817,336 465,433
Vietnam 1,300,515 1,240,542 988,174 543,262
Cuba 1,210,674 1,104,679 872,716 736,971
Dominican Republic 1,063,239 879,187 687,677 347,858
South Korea 1,060,019 1,100,422 864,125 568,397
Guatemala 927,593 830,824 480,665 225,739
All of Latin America 21,224,087 16,086,974 8,407,837
All Immigrants 43,289,646 39,955,854 31,107,889 19,767,316

Source: 1990, 2000 and 2010 decennial Census and 2015 American Community Survey


Mexican immigrants march for more rights in Northern California's largest city, San Jose (2006).

A survey of leading economists shows a consensus behind the view that high-skilled immigration makes the average American better off.[99] A survey of the same economists also shows strong support behind the notion that low-skilled immigration makes the average American better off.[100] According to David Card, Christian Dustmann, and Ian Preston, "most existing studies of the economic impacts of immigration suggest these impacts are small, and on average benefit the native population".[101] In a survey of the existing literature, Örn B Bodvarsson and Hendrik Van den Berg write, "a comparison of the evidence from all the studies ... makes it clear that, with very few exceptions, there is no strong statistical support for the view held by many members of the public, namely that immigration has an adverse effect on native-born workers in the destination country."[102]

Overall economic prosperity

Whereas the impact on the average native tends to be small and positive, studies show more mixed results for low-skilled natives, but whether the effects are positive or negative, they tend to be small either way.[103]

Immigrants may often do types of work that natives are largely unwilling to do, contributing to greater economic prosperity for the economy as a whole: for instance, Mexican migrant workers taking up manual farm work in the United States has close to zero effect on native employment in that occupation, which means that the effect of Mexican workers on U.S. employment outside farm work was therefore most likely positive, since they raised overall economic productivity.[104] Research indicates that immigrants are more likely to work in risky jobs than U.S.-born workers, partly due to differences in average characteristics, such as immigrants' lower English language ability and educational attainment.[105] Further, some studies indicate that higher ethnic concentration in metropolitan areas is positively related to the probability of self-employment of immigrants.[106]

Research also suggests that diversity has a net positive effect on productivity[107][108] and economic prosperity.[109][109][110][111][112] A study by Nathan Nunn, Nancy Qian and Sandra Sequeira found that the Age of Mass Migration (1850–1920) has had substantially beneficial long-term effects on U.S. economic prosperity: "locations with more historical immigration today have higher incomes, less poverty, less unemployment, higher rates of urbanization, and greater educational attainment. The long-run effects appear to arise from the persistence of sizeable short-run benefits, including earlier and more intensive industrialization, increased agricultural productivity, and more innovation."[113] The authors also find that the immigration had short-term benefits: "that there is no evidence that these long-run benefits come at short-run costs. In fact, immigration immediately led to economic benefits that took the form of higher incomes, higher productivity, more innovation, and more industrialization."[114]

Research also finds that migration leads to greater trade in goods and services.[115][116][117][118] Using 130 years of data on historical migrations to the United States, one study finds "that a doubling of the number of residents with ancestry from a given foreign country relative to the mean increases by 4.2 percentage points the probability that at least one local firm invests in that country, and increases by 31% the number of employees at domestic recipients of FDI from that country. The size of these effects increases with the ethnic diversity of the local population, the geographic distance to the origin country, and the ethno-linguistic fractionalization of the origin country."[119]

Some research suggests that immigration can offset some of the adverse effects of automation on native labor outcomes in the United States.[120][121] By increasing overall demand, immigrants could push natives out of low-skilled manual labor into better paying occupations.[120][121]

Fiscal effects

A 2011 literature review of the economic impacts of immigration found that the net fiscal impact of migrants varies across studies but that the most credible analyses typically find small and positive fiscal effects on average.[122] According to the authors, "the net social impact of an immigrant over his or her lifetime depends substantially and in predictable ways on the immigrant's age at arrival, education, reason for migration, and similar".[122]

A 2016 report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concluded that over a 75-year time horizon, “the fiscal impacts of immigrants are generally positive at the federal level and generally negative at the state and local level.”[123] The reason for the costs to state and local governments is that the cost of educating the immigrants' children falls on state and local governments.[124] According to a 2007 literature review by the Congressional Budget Office, "Over the past two decades, most efforts to estimate the fiscal impact of immigration in the United States have concluded that, in aggregate and over the long term, tax revenues of all types generated by immigrants—both legal and unauthorized—exceed the cost of the services they use."[125]

According to James Smith, a senior economist at Santa Monica-based RAND Corporation and lead author of the United States National Research Council's study "The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration", immigrants contribute as much as $10 billion to the U.S. economy each year.[126] The NRC report found that although immigrants, especially those from Latin America, caused a net loss in terms of taxes paid versus social services received, immigration can provide an overall gain to the domestic economy due to an increase in pay for higher-skilled workers, lower prices for goods and services produced by immigrant labor, and more efficiency and lower wages for some owners of capital. The report also notes that although immigrant workers compete with domestic workers for low-skilled jobs, some immigrants specialize in activities that otherwise would not exist in an area, and thus can be beneficial for all domestic residents.[127]

Immigration and foreign labor documentation fees increased over 80% in 2007, with over 90% of funding for USCIS derived from immigration application fees, creating many USCIS jobs involving immigration to US, such as immigration interview officials, finger print processor, Department of Homeland Security, etc.[128]


Overall immigration has not had much effect on native wage inequality[129][130] but low-skill immigration has been linked to greater income inequality in the native population.[131]

Impact of undocumented immigrants

Research on the economic effects of undocumented immigrants is scant but existing peer-reviewed studies suggest that the effects are positive for the native population[132][133] and public coffers.[125] A 2015 study shows that "increasing deportation rates and tightening border control weakens low-skilled labor markets, increasing unemployment of native low-skilled workers. Legalization, instead, decreases the unemployment rate of low-skilled natives and increases income per native."[134] Studies show that legalization of undocumented immigrants would boost the U.S. economy; a 2013 study found that granting legal status to undocumented immigrants would raise their incomes by a quarter (increasing U.S. GDP by approximately $1.4 trillion over a ten-year period),[135] and 2016 study found that "legalization would increase the economic contribution of the unauthorized population by about 20%, to 3.6% of private-sector GDP."[136]

A 2007 literature by the Congressional Budget Office found that estimating the fiscal effects of undocumented immigrants has proven difficult: "currently available estimates have significant limitations; therefore, using them to determine an aggregate effect across all states would be difficult and prone to considerable error". The impact of undocumented immigrants differs on federal levels than state and local levels,[125] with research suggesting modest fiscal costs at the state and local levels but with substantial fiscal gains at the federal level.[137]

In 2009, a study by the Cato Institute, a free market think tank, found that legalization of low-skilled illegal resident workers in the US would result in a net increase in US GDP of $180 billion over ten years.[138] The Cato Institute study did not examine the impact on per capita income for most Americans. Jason Riley notes that because of progressive income taxation, in which the top 1% of earners pay 37% of federal income taxes (even though they actually pay a lower tax percentage based on their income), 60% of Americans collect more in government services than they pay in, which also reflects on immigrants.[139] In any event, the typical immigrant and his children will pay a net $80,000 more in their lifetime than they collect in government services according to the NAS.[140] Legal immigration policy is set to maximize net taxation. Illegal immigrants even after an amnesty tend to be recipients of more services than they pay in taxes. In 2010, an econometrics study by a Rutgers economist found that immigration helped increase bilateral trade when the incoming people were connected via networks to their country of origin, particularly boosting trade of final goods as opposed to intermediate goods, but that the trade benefit weakened when the immigrants became assimilated into American culture.[141]

According to NPR in 2005, about 3% of illegal immigrants were working in agriculture.[142] The H-2A visa allows U.S. employers to bring foreign nationals to the United States to fill temporary agricultural jobs.[143] The passing of tough immigration laws in several states from around 2009 provides a number of practical case studies. The state of Georgia passed immigration law HB 87 in 2011;[144] this led, according to the coalition of top Kansas businesses, to 50% of its agricultural produce being left to rot in the fields, at a cost to the state of more than $400 million. Overall losses caused by the act were $1 billion; it was estimated that the figure would become over $20 billion if all the estimated 325,000 unauthorized workers left Georgia. The cost to Alabama of its crackdown in June 2011 has been estimated at almost $11 billion, with up to 80,000 unauthorized immigrant workers leaving the state.[145]

Impact of refugees

Studies of refugees' impact on native welfare are scant but the existing literature shows a positive fiscal impact and mixed results (negative, positive and no significant effects) on native welfare.[146][147][148][149] A 2017 paper by Evans and Fitzgerald found that refugees to the United States pay "$21,000 more in taxes than they receive in benefits over their first 20 years in the U.S."[148] An internal study by the Department of Health and Human Services under the Trump administration, which was suppressed and not shown to the public, found that refugees to the United States brought in $63 billion more in government revenues than they cost the government.[149] According to labor economist Giovanni Peri, the existing literature suggests that there are no economic reasons why the American labor market could not easily absorb 100,000 Syrian refugees in a year.[150] Refugees integrate more slowly into host countries' labor markets than labor migrants, in part due to the loss and depreciation of human capital and credentials during the asylum procedure.[151]

Garment factories in Manhattan's Chinatown

Innovation and entrepreneurship

According to one survey of the existing economic literature, "much of the existing research points towards positive net contributions by immigrant entrepreneurs."[152] Areas where immigrant are more prevalent in the United States have substantially more innovation (as measured by patenting and citations).[153] Immigrants to the United States create businesses at higher rates than natives.[154] Mass migration can also boost innovation and growth, as shown by the examples of Huguenots migration to Prussia,[155] or German-Jewish immigration from Nazi Germany.[156] Immigrants have been linked to greater invention and innovation in the US.[157] According to one report, "immigrants have started more than half (44 of 87) of America's startup companies valued at $1 billion or more and are key members of management or product development teams in over 70 percent (62 of 87) of these companies."[158] Foreign doctoral students are a major source of innovation in the American economy.[159] In the United States, immigrant workers hold a disproportionate share of jobs in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM): "In 2013, foreign-born workers accounted for 19.2 percent of STEM workers with a bachelor's degree, 40.7 percent of those with a master's degree, and more than half—54.5 percent—of those with a Ph.D."[160]

The Kauffman Foundation's index of entrepreneurial activity is nearly 40% higher for immigrants than for natives.[161] Immigrants were involved in the founding of many prominent American high-tech companies, such as Google, Yahoo, YouTube, Sun Microsystems, and eBay.[162]

Scottish immigrant Andrew Carnegie led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century.
Bangladeshi immigrant Fazlur Rahman Khan was responsible for the engineering design of Sears Tower (now Willis Tower),[163][164] the tallest building in the world until 1998.[165]



Irish immigration was opposed in the 1850s by the nativist Know Nothing movement, originating in New York in 1843. It was engendered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by Irish Catholic immigrants. On March 14, 1891, a lynch mob stormed a local jail and lynched several Italians following the acquittal of several Sicilian immigrants alleged to be involved in the murder of New Orleans police chief David Hennessy. The Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act in 1921, followed by the Immigration Act of 1924. The Immigration Act of 1924 was aimed at limiting immigration overall, and making sure that the nationalities of new arrivals matched the overall national profile.


A 2014 meta-analysis of racial discrimination in product markets found extensive evidence of minority applicants being quoted higher prices for products.[166] A 1995 study found that car dealers "quoted significantly lower prices to white males than to black or female test buyers using identical, scripted bargaining strategies."[167] A 2013 study found that eBay sellers of iPods received 21 percent more offers if a white hand held the iPod in the photo than a black hand.[168]

Criminal justice system

Research suggests that police practices, such as racial profiling, over-policing in areas populated by minorities and in-group bias may result in disproportionately high numbers of racial minorities among crime suspects.[169][170][171][172] Research also suggests that there may be possible discrimination by the judicial system, which contributes to a higher number of convictions for racial minorities.[173][174][175][176][177] A 2012 study found that "(i) juries formed from all-white jury pools convict black defendants significantly (16 percentage points) more often than white defendants, and (ii) this gap in conviction rates is entirely eliminated when the jury pool includes at least one black member."[175] Research has found evidence of in-group bias, where "black (white) juveniles who are randomly assigned to black (white) judges are more likely to get incarcerated (as opposed to being placed on probation), and they receive longer sentences."[177] In-group bias has also been observed when it comes to traffic citations, as black and white cops are more likely to cite out-groups.[171]


A 2015 study using correspondence tests "found that when considering requests from prospective students seeking mentoring in the future, faculty were significantly more responsive to White males than to all other categories of students, collectively, particularly in higher-paying disciplines and private institutions."[178] Through affirmative action, there is reason to believe that elite colleges favor minority applicants.[179]


A 2014 meta-analysis found extensive evidence of racial discrimination in the American housing market.[166] Minority applicants for housing needed to make many more enquiries to view properties.[166] Geographical steering of African-Americans in US housing remained significant.[166] A 2003 study finds "evidence that agents interpret an initial housing request as an indication of a customer's preferences, but also are more likely to withhold a house from all customers when it is in an integrated suburban neighborhood (redlining). Moreover, agents' marketing efforts increase with asking price for white, but not for black, customers; blacks are more likely than whites to see houses in suburban, integrated areas (steering); and the houses agents show are more likely to deviate from the initial request when the customer is black than when the customer is white. These three findings are consistent with the possibility that agents act upon the belief that some types of transactions are relatively unlikely for black customers (statistical discrimination)."[180]

A report by the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development where the department sent African-Americans and whites to look at apartments found that African-Americans were shown fewer apartments to rent and houses for sale.[181]

Labor market

Several meta-analyses find extensive evidence of ethnic and racial discrimination in hiring in the American labor market.[166][182][183] A 2016 meta-analysis of 738 correspondence tests—tests where identical CVs for stereotypically black and white names were sent to employers—in 43 separate studies conducted in OECD countries between 1990 and 2015 finds that there is extensive racial discrimination in hiring decisions in Europe and North-America.[183] These correspondence tests showed that equivalent minority candidates need to send around 50% more applications to be invited for an interview than majority candidates.[183][184] A study that examine the job applications of actual people provided with identical résumés and similar interview training showed that African-American applicants with no criminal record were offered jobs at a rate as low as white applicants who had criminal records.[185]

Discrimination between minority groups

Racist thinking among and between minority groups does occur;[186][187] examples of this are conflicts between blacks and Korean immigrants,[188] notably in the 1992 Los Angeles Riots, and between African Americans and non-white Latino immigrants.[189][190] There has been a long running racial tension between African American and Mexican prison gangs, as well as significant riots in California prisons where they have targeted each other, for ethnic reasons.[191][192] There have been reports of racially motivated attacks against African Americans who have moved into neighborhoods occupied mostly by people of Mexican origin, and vice versa.[193][194] There has also been an increase in violence between non-Hispanic Anglo Americans and Latino immigrants, and between African immigrants and African Americans.[195]


Measuring assimilation can be difficult due to "ethnic attrition", which refers to when ancestors of migrants cease to self-identify with the nationality or ethnicity of their ancestors. This means that successful cases of assimilation will be underestimated. Research shows that ethnic attrition is sizable in Hispanic and Asian immigrant groups in the United States.[196][197] By taking account of ethnic attrition, the assimilation rate of Hispanics in the United States improves significantly.[196][198] A 2016 paper challenges the view that cultural differences are necessarily an obstacle to long-run economic performance of migrants. It finds that "first generation migrants seem to be less likely to success the more culturally distant they are, but this effect vanishes as time spent in the USA increases."[199]

Religious diversity

Immigration from South Asia and elsewhere has contributed to enlarging the religious composition of the United States. Islam in the United States is growing mainly due to immigration. Hinduism in the United States, Buddhism in the United States, and Sikhism in the United States are other examples.[200]

Since 1992, an estimated 1.7 million Muslims, approximately 1 million Hindus, and approximately 1 million Buddhists have immigrated legally to the United States.[201]

Labor unions

The American Federation of Labor (AFL), a coalition of labor unions formed in the 1880s, vigorously opposed unrestricted immigration from Europe for moral, cultural, and racial reasons. The issue unified the workers who feared that an influx of new workers would flood the labor market and lower wages.[202] Nativism was not a factor because upwards of half the union members were themselves immigrants or the sons of immigrants from Ireland, Germany and Britain. However, nativism was a factor when the AFL even more strenuously opposed all immigration from Asia because it represented (to its Euro-American members) an alien culture that could not be assimilated into American society. The AFL intensified its opposition after 1906 and was instrumental in passing immigration restriction bills from the 1890s to the 1920s, such as the 1921 Emergency Quota Act and the Immigration Act of 1924, and seeing that they were strictly enforced.[203][204]

Mink (1986) concludes that the link between the AFL and the Democratic Party rested in part on immigration issues, noting the large corporations, which supported the Republicans, wanted more immigration to augment their labor force.[203]

United Farm Workers during Cesar Chavez tenure was committed to restricting immigration. Chavez and Dolores Huerta, cofounder and president of the UFW, fought the Bracero Program that existed from 1942 to 1964. Their opposition stemmed from their belief that the program undermined U.S. workers and exploited the migrant workers. Since the Bracero Program ensured a constant supply of cheap immigrant labor for growers, immigrants could not protest any infringement of their rights, lest they be fired and replaced. Their efforts contributed to Congress ending the Bracero Program in 1964. In 1973, the UFW was one of the first labor unions to oppose proposed employer sanctions that would have prohibited hiring illegal immigrants.

On a few occasions, concerns that illegal immigrant labor would undermine UFW strike campaigns led to a number of controversial events, which the UFW describes as anti-strikebreaking events, but which have also been interpreted as being anti-immigrant. In 1973, Chavez and members of the UFW marched through the Imperial and Coachella Valleys to the border of Mexico to protest growers' use of illegal immigrants as strikebreakers. Joining him on the march were Reverend Ralph Abernathy and U.S. Senator Walter Mondale.[205] In its early years, the UFW and Chavez went so far as to report illegal immigrants who served as strikebreaking replacement workers (as well as those who refused to unionize) to the Immigration and Naturalization Service.[206][207][208][209][210]

In 1973, the United Farm Workers set up a "wet line" along the United States-Mexico border to prevent Mexican immigrants from entering the United States illegally and potentially undermining the UFW's unionization efforts.[211] During one such event, in which Chavez was not involved, some UFW members, under the guidance of Chavez's cousin Manuel, physically attacked the strikebreakers after peaceful attempts to persuade them not to cross the border failed.[212][213][214]


Immigrant rights march in downtown Los Angeles, California on May Day, 2006.

A Boston Globe article attributed Barack Obama's win in the 2008 U.S. Presidential election to a marked reduction over the preceding decades in the percentage of whites in the American electorate, attributing this demographic change to the Immigration Act of 1965.[27] The article quoted Simon Rosenberg, president and founder of the New Democrat Network, as having said that the Act is "the most important piece of legislation that no one's ever heard of," and that it "set America on a very different demographic course than the previous 300 years."[27]

Immigrants differ on their political views; however, the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position among immigrants overall.[215][216] Research shows that religious affiliation can also significantly impact both their social values and voting patterns of immigrants, as well as the broader American population. Hispanic evangelicals, for example, are more strongly conservative than non-Hispanic evangelicals.[217] This trend is often similar for Hispanics or others strongly identifying with the Catholic Church, a religion that strongly opposes abortion and gay marriage.

A rally in Chicago, part of the Great American Boycott and 2006 U.S. immigration reform protests, on May 1, 2006.

The key interests groups that lobby on immigration are religious, ethnic and business groups, together with some liberals and some conservative public policy organizations. Both the pro- and anti- groups affect policy.[218]

Studies have suggested that some special interest group lobby for less immigration for their own group and more immigration for other groups since they see effects of immigration, such as increased labor competition, as detrimental when affecting their own group but beneficial when affecting other groups.[citation needed]

A 2011 paper found that both pro- and anti-immigration special interest groups play a role in migration policy. "Barriers to migration are lower in sectors in which business lobbies incur larger lobbying expenditures and higher in sectors where labor unions are more important."[218] A 2011 study examining the voting of US representatives on migration policy suggests that "representatives from more skilled labor abundant districts are more likely to support an open immigration policy towards the unskilled, whereas the opposite is true for representatives from more unskilled labor abundant districts."[219]

After the 2010 election, Gary Segura of Latino Decisions stated that Hispanic voters influenced the outcome and "may have saved the Senate for Democrats".[220] Several ethnic lobbies support immigration reforms that would allow illegal immigrants that have succeeded in entering to gain citizenship. They may also lobby for special arrangements for their own group. The Chairman for the Irish Lobby for Immigration Reform has stated that "the Irish Lobby will push for any special arrangement it can get—'as will every other ethnic group in the country.'"[221][222] The irredentist and ethnic separatist movements for Reconquista and Aztlán see immigration from Mexico as strengthening their cause.[223][224]

The book Ethnic Lobbies and US Foreign Policy (2009) states that several ethnic special interest groups are involved in pro-immigration lobbying. Ethnic lobbies also influence foreign policy. The authors write that "Increasingly, ethnic tensions surface in electoral races, with House, Senate, and gubernatorial contests serving as proxy battlegrounds for antagonistic ethnoracial groups and communities. In addition, ethnic politics affect party politics as well, as groups compete for relative political power within a party". However, the authors argue that currently ethnic interest groups, in general, do not have too much power in foreign policy and can balance other special interest groups.[225]

In a 2012 news story, Reuters reported, "Strong support from Hispanics, the fastest-growing demographic in the United States, helped tip President Barack Obama's fortunes as he secured a second term in the White House, according to Election Day polling."[226]

Lately, there is talk among several Republican leaders, such as governors Bobby Jindal and Susana Martinez, of taking a new, friendlier approach to immigration. Former US Secretary of Commerce Carlos Gutierrez is promoting the creation of Republicans for Immigration Reform.[227][228]

Bernie Sanders opposes guest worker programs[229] and is also skeptical about skilled immigrant (H-1B) visas, saying, "Last year, the top 10 employers of H-1B guest workers were all offshore outsourcing companies. These firms are responsible for shipping large numbers of American information technology jobs to India and other countries."[122][230] In an interview with Vox he stated his opposition to an open borders immigration policy, describing it as:

... a right-wing proposal, which says essentially there is no United States ... you're doing away with the concept of a nation-state. What right-wing people in this country would love is an open-border policy. Bring in all kinds of people, work for $2 or $3 an hour, that would be great for them. I don’t believe in that. I think we have to raise wages in this country, I think we have to do everything we can to create millions of jobs.[231][232]


The issue of the health of immigrants and the associated cost to the public has been largely discussed. On average, per capita health care spending is lower for immigrants than it is for native-born Americans.[233] The non-emergency use of emergency rooms ostensibly indicates an incapacity to pay, yet some studies allege disproportionately lower access to unpaid health care by immigrants.[234] For this and other reasons, there have been various disputes about how much immigration is costing the United States public health system.[235] University of Maryland economist and Cato Institute scholar Julian Lincoln Simon concluded in 1995 that while immigrants probably pay more into the health system than they take out, this is not the case for elderly immigrants and refugees, who are more dependent on public services for survival.[236]

Immigration from areas of high incidences of disease is thought to have fueled the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB), chagas, and hepatitis in areas of low incidence.[237] According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), TB cases among foreign-born individuals remain disproportionately high, at nearly nine times the rate of U.S.-born persons.[238][239] To reduce the risk of diseases in low-incidence areas, the main countermeasure has been the screening of immigrants on arrival.[240] HIV/AIDS entered the United States in around 1969, likely through a single infected immigrant from Haiti.[241][242] Conversely, many new HIV infections in Mexico can be traced back to the United States.[243] People infected with HIV were banned from entering the United States in 1987 by executive order, but the 1993 statute supporting the ban was lifted in 2009. The executive branch is expected to administratively remove HIV from the list of infectious diseases barring immigration, but immigrants generally would need to show that they would not be a burden on public welfare.[244] Researchers have also found what is known as the "healthy immigrant effect", in which immigrants in general tend to be healthier than individuals born in the U.S.[245][246] Immigrants are more likely than native-born Americans to have a medical visit labeled uncompensated care.[247]


There is no empirical evidence that immigration increases crime in the United States.[7][248] In fact, a majority of studies in the U.S. have found lower crime rates among immigrants than among non-immigrants, and that higher concentrations of immigrants are associated with lower crime rates.[8][248] Explanations proposed to account for this relationship have included ethnic enclaves, self-selection, and the hypothesis that immigrants revitalize communities to which they emigrate.[249]

Some research even suggests that increases in immigration may partly explain the reduction in the U.S. crime rate.[250][251][252][253][254] A 2005 study showed that immigration to large U.S. metropolitan areas does not increase, and in some cases decreases, crime rates there.[255] A 2009 study found that recent immigration was not associated with homicide in Austin, Texas.[256] The low crime rates of immigrants to the United States despite having lower levels of education, lower levels of income and residing in urban areas (factors that should lead to higher crime rates) may be due to lower rates of antisocial behavior among immigrants.[257] A 2015 study found that Mexican immigration to the United States was associated with an increase in aggravated assaults and a decrease in property crimes.[258] A 2016 study finds no link between immigrant populations and violent crime, although there is a small but significant association between undocumented immigrants and drug-related crime.[259]

Research finds that Secure Communities, an immigration enforcement program which led to a quarter of a million of detentions (when the study was published; November 2014), had no observable impact on the crime rate.[260] A 2015 study found that the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, which legalized almost 3 million immigrants, led to "decreases in crime of 3–5 percent, primarily due to decline in property crimes, equivalent to 120,000-180,000 fewer violent and property crimes committed each year due to legalization".[261] According to one study, sanctuary cities—which adopt policies designed to not prosecute people solely for being an illegal immigrant—have no statistically meaningful effect on crime.[262]

One of the first political analyses in the U.S. of the relationship between immigration and crime was performed in the beginning of the 20th century by the Dillingham Commission, which found a relationship especially for immigrants from non-Northern European countries, resulting in the sweeping 1920s immigration reduction acts, including the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, which favored immigration from northern and western Europe.[263] Recent research is skeptical of the conclusion drawn by the Dillingham Commission. One study finds that "major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses."[264]

For the early twentieth century, one study found that immigrants had "quite similar" imprisonment rates for major crimes as natives in 1904 but lower for major crimes (except violent offenses; the rate was similar) in 1930.[264] Contemporary commissions used dubious data and interpreted it in questionable ways.[264]

Research suggests that police practices, such as racial profiling, over-policing in areas populated by minorities and in-group bias may result in disproportionately high numbers of immigrants among crime suspects.[265][170][266][172] Research also suggests that there may be possible discrimination by the judicial system, which contributes to a higher number of convictions for immigrants.[173][174][175][176][177]


Crimmigration has emerged as a field in which critical immigration scholars conceptualize the current immigration law enforcement system. Crimmigration is broadly defined as the convergence of the criminal justice system and immigration enforcement [267], where immigration law enforcement has adopted the “criminal” law enforcement approach. This frames undocumented immigrants as “criminal” deviants and security risks[268]. Crime and migration control have become completely intertwined, so much so that both undocumented and documented individuals suspected of being a noncitizen may be targeted[268].

Using a "crimmigration" point of thought, César Cuauhtémoc García Hernández[268] explains the criminalization of undocumented immigrants began in the aftermath of the civil rights movement[268]. Michelle Alexander explores how the U.S. criminal justice system is made of “colorblind” policies and law enforcement practices that have shaped the mass incarceration of people of color into an era of “The New Jim Crow"[269]As Alexander and García Hernández state, overt racism and racist laws became culturally scorned, and covert racism became the norm[268][269]. This new form of racism focuses on penalizing criminal activity and promoting “neutral” rhetoric[269][268].

"Crimmigration" recognizes how laws and policies throughout different states contribute to the convergence of criminal law enforcement and immigration law. For example, states are implementing a variety of immigration related criminal offenses that are punishable by imprisonment. California, Oregon, and Wyoming criminalize the use of fraudulent immigration or citizenship documents[270]. Arizona allows judges to confine witnesses in certain “criminal” cases if they are suspected of being in the U.S. without documentation[270]. The most common violations of immigration law on the federal level are unauthorized entry (a federal misdemeanor) and unauthorized reentry (a federal felony). These “offenses” deemed as “crimes” under immigration law set the tone of "crimmigration" and for what García Hernández refers to as the “removal pipeline” of immigrants[270].

Some scholars focus on the organization of "crimmigration" as it relates to the mass removal of certain immigrants. Jennifer Chacón finds that immigration law enforcement is being decentralized[271]. Customs and Border Patrol (CBP), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are the central law enforcement agencies in control of enforcing immigration law. However, other federal, state and local law enforcement agencies, such as sheriff’s offices, municipal police departments, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug and Enforcement Agency (DEA), aid in immigrant removal[271]. In 1996, Congress expanded power to state and local law enforcement agencies to enforce federal immigration law. These agencies keep people locked up in jails or prison when they receive an "immigration detainer" from ICE[270], and therefore aid in interior enforcement[271]. In addition, some agencies participate in the State Criminal Alien Assistance Program (“SCAAP”), which gives these agencies financial incentives to cooperate with ICE in identifying immigrants in their custody[270]. These are direct example of how "crimmigration" works within the U.S. immigration system. With immigration enforcement reaching all levels of enforcement agencies, the Immigration Industrial Complex (which is similar to the Prison Industrial Complex) and concept of "crimmigration" thrives.


Scientific laboratories and startup internet opportunities have been a powerful American magnet. By 2000, 23% of scientists with a PhD in the U.S. were immigrants, including 40% of those in engineering and computers.[272] Roughly a third of the United State's college and universities graduate students in STEM fields are foreign nationals—in some states it is well over half of their graduate students. On Ash Wednesday, March 5, 2014, the presidents of 28 Catholic and Jesuit colleges and universities, joined the "Fast for Families" movement.[273] The "Fast for Families" movement reignited the immigration debate in the fall of 2013 when the movement's leaders, supported by many members of Congress and the President, fasted for twenty-two days on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.[274]

A study on public schools in California found that white enrollment declined in response to increases in the number of Spanish-speaking Limited English Proficient and Hispanic students. This white flight was greater for schools with relatively larger proportions of Spanish-speaking Limited English Proficient.[98]

A North Carolina study found that the presence of Latin American children in schools had no significant negative effects on peers, but that students with limited English skills had slight negative effects on peers.[275]

Science and Engineering

In the United States of America, a significant proportion of scientists and engineers are foreign-born, as well as students in science and engineering programs. However, this is not unique to the US since foreigners make up significant amounts of scientists and engineers in other countries. As of 2011, 28% of graduate students in science, engineering, and health are foreign. [276] The number of science and engineering (S&E) bachelor's degrees has risen steadily over the past 15 years, reaching a new peak of about half a million in 2009. Since 2000, foreign born students in the United States have consistently earned a small share (3%-4%) of S&E degrees at the bachelor's level. Foreign students make up a much higher proportion of S&E master's degree recipients than of bachelor's or associate degree recipients. In 2009, foreign students earned 27% of S&E master's degrees and 33% in doctorate degrees. Significant numbers of foreign born students in science and engineering are not unique to America since foreign students now account for nearly 60% of graduate students in mathematics, computer sciences, and engineering globally. In Switzerland and the United Kingdom, more than 40% of doctoral students are foreign. A number of other countries, including New Zealand, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Canada, and the United States, have relatively high percentages (more than 20%) of doctoral students who are foreign. Foreign student enrollment in the United Kingdom has been increasing. In 2008, foreign students made up 47% of all graduate students studying S&E in the United Kingdom (an increase from 32% in 1998). Top destinations for international students include the United Kingdom (12%), Germany (9%), and France (9%). Together with the U.S.,these countries receive more than half of all internationally mobile students worldwide. Although the United States continues to attract the largest number and fraction of foreign students worldwide, its share of foreign students has decreased in recent years.[277]

55% of Ph.D. students in engineering in the United States are foreign born (2004).[278] Between 1980 and 2000, the percentage of Ph.D. scientists and engineers employed in the United States who were born abroad has increased from 24% to 37%.[278] 45% of Ph.D. physicists working in the United States are foreign born in 2004.[278] 80% of total post-doctoral chemical and materials engineering in the United States are foreign-born (1988).[279]

At the undergraduate level, US-born engineering students constitute upwards of 90-95% of the student population (most foreign born candidates for engineering graduate schools are trained in their home countries). However, the pool of BS engineering graduates with US citizenship is much larger than the number who apply to engineering graduate schools.[279] The proportion of foreign-born engineers among assistant professors younger than 35 years has increased from 10% in 1972 to 50%-55% in 1983-1985, illustrating a dramatic increase on US dependence on foreign-born students in the US college system. The increase in non-citizen assistant professors of engineering is the result of the fact that, in recent years, foreign-born engineers received close to 50 percent of newly awarded engineering doctorates (naturalized citizens accounted for about 4 percent) and, furthermore, they entered academe in disproportionately large numbers.[279] 33% of all U.S. Ph.D.s in science and engineering are now awarded to foreign born graduate students as of 2004.[278]

In 1982, foreign-born engineers constituted about 3.6% of all engineers employed in the United States, 13.9% of which were naturalized; and foreign-born Phds in Engineering constituted 15% and 20% were naturalized.[279] In 1985, foreign-born Phds represented almost 33% of the engineering post-doctorate researchers in US universities. Foreign-born Phd engineers often accept postdoctoral position because other employment is unavailable until green card is obtained.[279] A system that further incentivising replacement of US-citizens in the upper echelons of academic and private sector engineering firms due to higher educational attainment relative to native-born engineer who for the most part do train beyond undergraduate level.[280]

In recent years, The number of applicants for faculty openings at research universities have increased dramatically. Numbers of 50 to 200 applications for a single faculty opening have become typical, yet even with such high numbers of applicants have yielded a foreign-born component in excess of 50%.[279] 60% of the top science students and 65 percent of the top math students in the United States are the children of immigrants. In addition, foreign-born high school students make up 50 percent of the 2004 U.S.Math Olympiad’s top scorers, 38 percent of the U.S. Physics Team, and 25 percent of the Intel Science Talent Search finalists—the United States’ most prestigious awards for young scientists and mathematicians.[281]

Among 1985 foreign-born engineering doctorate holders, about 40% expected to work in the United States after graduating. An additional 17 percent planned to stay on as post-doctorates, and most of these are likely to remain permanently in the United States. Those, almost 60% of foreign-born engineering doctorate holders are likely to become part of the US engineering labor force within a few years after graduating. The other approximately 40% of foreign born engineering Phds mostly likely find employment working for Multinational corporations outside of the US.[279]

In the 2004 Intel Science Talent Search, more children (18) have parents who entered the country on H-1B (professional) visas than parents born in the United States (16). To place this finding in perspective, note that new H-1B visa holders each year represent less than 0.04 percent of the U.S. population.[281] Foreign born faculty now accounts for over 50% of faculty in engineering (1994).[279]

27 out the 87 (more than 30%) American Nobel Prize winners in Medicine and Physiology between 1901 and 2005 were born outside the US[282]

1993 Median Salaries of U.S. Recipients of Ph.D.s in Science and Engineering: Foreign-Born vs. Native-Born:[283]

Years Since Earning Degree Foreign-Born Native-Born
1–5 years $44,400 $40,000
6–10 years $55,400 $49,200
11–15 years $64,000 $56,000
16–20 years $64,000 $56,000
21 years $70,200 $68,000

Public opinion

The ambivalent feeling of Americans toward immigrants is shown by a positive attitude toward groups that have been visible for a century or more, and much more negative attitude toward recent arrivals. For example, a 1982 national poll by the Roper Center at the University of Connecticut showed respondents a card listing a number of groups and asked, "Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they've been a good or a bad thing for this country," which produced the results shown in the table. "By high margins, Americans are telling pollsters it was a very good thing that Poles, Italians, and Jews immigrated to America. Once again, it's the newcomers who are viewed with suspicion. This time, it's the Mexicans, the Filipinos, and the people from the Caribbean who make Americans nervous."[284][285]

In a 2002 study, which took place soon after the September 11 attacks, 55% of Americans favored decreasing legal immigration, 27% favored keeping it at the same level, and 15% favored increasing it.[286]

In 2006, the immigration-reduction advocacy think tank the Center for Immigration Studies released a poll that found that 68% of Americans think U.S. immigration levels are too high, and just 2% said they are too low. They also found that 70% said they are less likely to vote for candidates that favor increasing legal immigration.[287] In 2004, 55% of Americans believed legal immigration should remain at the current level or increased and 41% said it should be decreased.[288] The less contact a native-born American has with immigrants, the more likely one would have a negative view of immigrants.[288]

One of the most important factors regarding public opinion about immigration is the level of unemployment; anti-immigrant sentiment is where unemployment is highest, and vice versa.[289]

Surveys indicate that the U.S. public consistently makes a sharp distinction between legal and illegal immigrants, and generally views those perceived as "playing by the rules" with more sympathy than immigrants that have entered the country illegally.[290]

According to a Gallup poll in July 2015, immigration is the fourth most important problem facing the United States and seven percent of Americans said it was the most important problem facing America today.[291] In March 2015, another Gallup poll provided insight into American public opinion on immigration; the poll revealed that 39% of people worried about immigration "a great deal."[292] A January poll showed that only 33% of Americans were satisfied with the current state of immigration in America.[293] As an issue that is very important to Americans, polling reveals change in sentiment over time and diverse opinions regarding how to handle immigration.

Before 2012, majority of Americans supported securing United States borders compared to dealing with illegal immigrants in the United States. In 2013, that trend has reversed and 55% of people polled by Gallup revealed that they would choose “developing a plan to deal with immigrants who are currently in the U.S. illegally.” Changes regarding border control are consistent across party lines, with Republicans saying that “securing U.S. borders to halt flow of illegal immigrants” is extremely important decreasing from 68% in 2011 to 56% in 2014. Meanwhile, Democrats who chose extremely important shifted from 42% in 2011 to 31% in 2014.[294] In July 2013, 87% of Americans said they would vote in support of a law that would “allow immigrants already in the country to become U.S. citizens if they meet certain requirements including paying taxes, having a criminal background check and learning English.” However, in the same survey, 83% also said they would support the tightening of U.S. border security.[295]

Donald Trump’s campaign for Presidency focused on a rhetoric of reducing illegal immigration and toughening border security. In July 2015, 48% of Americans thought that Donald Trump would do a poor job of handling immigration problems. In November 2016, 55% of Trump’s voters thought that he would do the right thing in regards to illegal immigration. In general, Trump supporters are not united upon how to handle immigration. In December 2016, Trump voters were polled and 60% said that “undocumented immigrants in the U.S. who meet certain requirements should be allowed to stay legally.”[296]

American opinion regarding how immigrants affect our country and how the government should respond to illegal immigration have changed over time. In 2006, out of all U.S. adults surveyed, 28% declared that they believed the growing number of immigrants helped American workers and 55% believed that it hurt American workers. In 2016, those views had changed, with 42% believing that they helped and 45% believing that they hurt.[297] The PRRI 2015 American Values Atlas showed that between 46% and 53% of Americans believed that “the growing number of newcomers from other countries ... strengthens American society.” In the same year, 57% and 66% of Americans chose that the U.S. should “allow [immigrants living in the U.S. illegally] a way to become citizens provided they meet certain requirements.”[298]

In February 2017, the American Enterprise Institute released a report on recent surveys about immigration issues. In July 2016, 63% of Americans favored the temporary bans of immigrants from areas with high levels of terrorism and 53% said the U.S. should allow fewer refugees to enter the country. In November 2016, 55% of Americans were opposed to building a border wall with Mexico. Since 1994, Pew Research center has tracked a change from 63% of Americans saying that immigrants are a burden on the country to 27%.[299]

Legal issues

Laws concerning immigration and naturalization

A U.S. green card, a document confirming permanent resident status for eligible immigrants, including refugees, political asylum seekers, family-sponsored migrants, employment-based workers and diversity immigrants (DV).

Laws concerning immigration and naturalization include:

AEDPA and IIRARA exemplify many categories of criminal activity for which immigrants, including green card holders, can be deported and have imposed mandatory detention for certain types of cases.

Asylum for refugees

The U.S. offered to resettle 60,000 Bhutanese refugees of ethnic Nepalese descent.[300]

In contrast to economic migrants, who generally do not gain legal admission, refugees, as defined by international law, can gain legal status through a process of seeking and receiving asylum, either by being designated a refugee while abroad, or by physically entering the United States and requesting asylum status thereafter. A specified number of legally defined refugees, who either apply for asylum overseas or after arriving in the U.S., are admitted annually.[quantify] Refugees compose about one-tenth of the total annual immigration to the United States, though some large refugee populations are very prominent.[citation needed] In the year 2014, the number of asylum seekers accepted into the U.S. was about 120,000. This compared with about 31,000 in the UK and 13,500 in Canada.[301] Japan accepted just 41 refugees for resettlement in 2007.[302]

Since 1975, more than 1.3 million refugees from Asia have been resettled in the United States.[303] Since 2000 the main refugee-sending regions have been Somalia, Liberia, Sudan, and Ethiopia.[304] The ceiling for refugee resettlement for fiscal year 2008 was 80,000 refugees. The United States expected to admit a minimum of 17,000 Iraqi refugees during fiscal year 2009.[305] The U.S. has resettled more than 42,000 Bhutanese refugees from Nepal since 2008.[306]

In fiscal year 2008, the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) appropriated over $655 million for long-term services provided to refugees after their arrival in the US.[307] The Obama administration has kept to about the same level.[308]

Miscellaneous documented immigration

In removal proceedings in front of an immigration judge, cancellation of removal is a form of relief that is available for certain long-time residents of the United States.[309] It allows a person being faced with the threat of removal to obtain permanent residence if that person has been physically present in the U.S. for at least ten years, has had good moral character during that period, has not been convicted of certain crimes, and can show that removal would result in exceptional and extremely unusual hardship to his or her U.S. citizen or permanent resident spouse, children, or parent. This form of relief is only available when a person is served with a Notice to Appear to appear in the proceedings in the court.[310][311]

Members of Congress may submit private bills granting residency to specific named individuals. A special committee[which?] vets the requests, which require extensive documentation. The Central Intelligence Agency has the statutory authority to admit up to one hundred people a year outside of normal immigration procedures, and to provide for their settlement and support. The program is called "PL110", named after the legislation that created the agency, Public Law 110, the Central Intelligence Agency Act.

Illegal immigration

The illegal immigrant population of the United States is estimated to be between 11 and 12 million.[312] The population of unauthorized immigrants peaked in 2007 and has declined since that time.[312] The majority of the U.S. unauthorized immigrants are from Mexico, but "their numbers (and share of the total) have been declining" and as of 2016 Mexicans no longer make up a clear majority of unauthorized immigrants, as they did in the past.[313] Unauthorized immigrants made up about 5% of the total U.S. civilian labor force in 2014.[313] By the 2010s, an increasing share of U.S. unauthorized immigrants were long-term residents; in 2015, 66% of adult unauthorized residents had lived in the country for at least ten years, while only 14% had lived in the U.S. for less than five years.[313]

In June 2012, President Obama issued a memorandum instructing officers of the federal government to defer deporting young undocumented immigrants who were brought to the U.S. as children as part of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. Under the program, eligible recipients who applied and were granted DACA status were granted a two-year deferral from deportation and temporary eligibility to work legally in the country.[314] Among other criteria, in order to be eligible a youth applicant must (1) be between age 15 and 31; (2) have come to the United States before the age of 16; (3) have lived in the U.S. continuously for at least five years; (4) be a current student, or have earned a high school diploma or equivalent, or have received an honorable discharge from the U.S. armed services; and (5) must not "have not been convicted of a felony, significant misdemeanor, or three or more misdemeanors, and do not otherwise pose a threat to public safety or national security."[315] The Migration Policy Institution estimated that as of 2016, about 1.3 million unauthorized young adults ages 15 and older were "immediately eligible for DACA"; of this eligible population, 63% had applied as of March 2016.[314]

Children of legal migrants won’t qualify as Dreamers under DACA protection because they entered the country legally[316]. This is highlighted as the biggest contradiction in US immigration policy by many advocates of legal immigrants.

In 2014, President Obama announced a set of executive actions, the Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents. Under this program, "unauthorized immigrants who are parents of U.S. citizens or lawful permanent residents (LPRs) would qualify for deferred action for three years if they meet certain other requirements."[317] A February 2016 Migration Policy Institute/Urban Institute report found that (about 3.6 million people were potentially eligible for DAPA and "more than 10 million people live in households with at least one potentially DAPA-eligible adult, including some 4.3 million children under age 18 - an estimated 85 percent of whom are U.S. citizens."[317] The report also found that "the potentially DAPA eligible are well settled with strong U.S. roots, with 69 percent having lived in the United States ten years or more, and 25 percent at least 20 years."[317]

Although not without precedent under prior presidents,[318] President Obama's authority to create DAPA and expand DACA were challenged in the federal courts by Texas and 25 other states.[317] In November 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, in a 2-1 decision in United States v. Texas, upheld a preliminary injunction blocking the programs from going forward.[319][320] The case was heard by the U.S. Supreme Court, which in June 2016 deadlocked 4-4, thus affirming the ruling of the Fifth Circuit but setting no nationally binding precedent.[321][322]

Military immigration

On November 15, 2013, the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services announced that they would be issuing a new policy memorandum called "parole in place.[323]" Parole in place would offer green cards to immigrant parents, spouses and children of active military duty personnel. Prior to this law relatives of military personnel – excluding husbands and wives – were forced to leave the United States and apply for green cards in their home countries. The law allows for family members to avoid the possible ten-year bar from the United States and remain in the United States while applying for lawful permanent residence.[324] The parole status, given in one year terms, will be subject to the family member being "absent a criminal conviction or other serious adverse factors."[324]

Immigration in popular culture

A cartoon in Puck from 1888 attacked businessmen for welcoming large numbers of low paid immigrants, leaving the American men unemployed.[325]

The history of immigration to the United States is the history of the country itself, and the journey from beyond the sea is an element found in American folklore, appearing over and over again in everything from The Godfather to Gangs of New York to "The Song of Myself" to Neil Diamond's "America" to the animated feature An American Tail.[326]

From the 1880s to the 1910s, vaudeville dominated the popular image of immigrants, with very popular caricature portrayals of ethnic groups. The specific features of these caricatures became widely accepted as accurate portrayals.[327]

In The Melting Pot (1908), playwright Israel Zangwill (1864–1926) explored issues that dominated Progressive Era debates about immigration policies. Zangwill's theme of the positive benefits of the American melting pot resonated widely in popular culture and literary and academic circles in the 20th century; his cultural symbolism – in which he situated immigration issues – likewise informed American cultural imagining of immigrants for decades, as exemplified by Hollywood films.[328][329] The popular culture's image of ethnic celebrities often includes stereotypes about immigrant groups. For example, Frank Sinatra's public image as a superstar contained important elements of the American Dream while simultaneously incorporating stereotypes about Italian Americans that were based in nativist and Progressive responses to immigration.[330]

The process of assimilation has been a common theme of popular culture. For example, "lace-curtain Irish" refers to middle-class Irish Americans desiring assimilation into mainstream society in counterpoint to the older, more raffish "shanty Irish". The occasional malapropisms and left-footed social blunders of these upward mobiles were gleefully lampooned in vaudeville, popular song, and the comic strips of the day such as Bringing Up Father, starring Maggie and Jiggs, which ran in daily newspapers for 87 years (1913 to 2000).[331][332] In The Departed (2006), Staff Sergeant Dignam regularly points out the dichotomy between the lace curtain Irish lifestyle Billy Costigan enjoyed with his mother, and the shanty Irish lifestyle of Costigan's father. In recent years the popular culture has paid special attention to Mexican immigration[333] and the film Spanglish (2004) tells of a friendship of a Mexican housemaid (Paz Vega) and her boss played by Adam Sandler.

Immigration in literature

Maggie and Jiggs from Bringing Up Father (January 7, 1940).

Novelists and writers have captured much of the color and challenge in their immigrant lives through their writings.[334]

Regarding Irish women in the 19th century, there were numerous novels and short stories by Harvey O'Higgins, Peter McCorry, Bernard O'Reilly and Sarah Orne Jewett that emphasize emancipation from Old World controls, new opportunities and expansiveness of the immigrant experience.[335]

On the other hand, Hladnik studies three popular novels of the late 19th century that warned Slovenes not to immigrate to the dangerous new world of the United States.[336]

Jewish American writer Anzia Yezierska wrote her novel Bread Givers (1925) to explore such themes as Russian-Jewish immigration in the early 20th century, the tension between Old and New World Yiddish culture, and women's experience of immigration. A well established author Yezierska focused on the Jewish struggle to escape the ghetto and enter middle- and upper-class America. In the novel, the heroine, Sara Smolinsky, escape from New York City's "down-town ghetto" by breaking tradition. She quits her job at the family store and soon becomes engaged to a rich real-estate magnate. She graduates college and takes a high-prestige job teaching public school. Finally Sara restores her broken links to family and religion.[337]

The Swedish author Vilhelm Moberg in the mid-20th century wrote a series of four novels describing one Swedish family's migration from Småland to Minnesota in the late 19th century, a destiny shared by almost one million people. The author emphasizes the authenticity of the experiences as depicted (although he did change names).[338] These novels have been translated into English (The Emigrants, 1951, Unto a Good Land, 1954, The Settlers, 1961, The Last Letter Home, 1961). The musical Kristina från Duvemåla by ex-ABBA members Björn Ulvaeus and Benny Andersson is based on this story.[339][340]

The Immigrant is a musical by Steven Alper, Sarah Knapp, and Mark Harelik. The show is based on the story of Harelik's grandparents, Matleh and Haskell Harelik, who traveled to Galveston, Texas in 1909.[341]

Documentary films

Film about historical immigration to America from ca. 1970

In their documentary How Democracy Works Now: Twelve Stories, filmmakers Shari Robertson and Michael Camerini examine the American political system through the lens of immigration reform from 2001 to 2007. Since the debut of the first five films, the series has become an important resource for advocates, policy-makers and educators.[342]

That film series premiered nearly a decade after the filmmakers' landmark documentary film Well-Founded Fear which provided a behind-the-scenes look at the process for seeking asylum in the United States. That film still marks the only time that a film-crew was privy to the private proceedings at the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), where individual asylum officers ponder the often life-or-death fate of immigrants seeking asylum.

Legal perspectives

University of North Carolina law professor Hiroshi Motomura has identified three approaches the United States has taken to the legal status of immigrants in his book Americans in Waiting: The Lost Story of Immigration and Citizenship in the United States. The first, dominant in the 19th century, treated immigrants as in transition; in other words, as prospective citizens. As soon as people declared their intention to become citizens, they received multiple low-cost benefits, including the eligibility for free homesteads in the Homestead Act of 1869, and in many states, the right to vote. The goal was to make the country more attractive, so large numbers of farmers and skilled craftsmen would settle new lands. By the 1880s, a second approach took over, treating newcomers as "immigrants by contract". An implicit deal existed where immigrants who were literate and could earn their own living were permitted in restricted numbers. Once in the United States, they would have limited legal rights, but were not allowed to vote until they became citizens, and would not be eligible for the New Deal government benefits available in the 1930s. The third and more recent policy[when?] is "immigration by affiliation", which Motomura argues is the treatment which depends on how deeply rooted people have become in the country. An immigrant who applies for citizenship as soon as permitted, has a long history of working in the United States, and has significant family ties, is more deeply affiliated and can expect better treatment.[343]

Interpretive perspectives

The Statue of Liberty was a common sight to many immigrants who entered the United States through Ellis Island

The American Dream is the belief that through hard work and determination, any United States immigrant can achieve a better life, usually in terms of financial prosperity and enhanced personal freedom of choice.[344] According to historians, the rapid economic and industrial expansion of the U.S. is not simply a function of being a resource rich, hard working, and inventive country, but the belief that anybody could get a share of the country's wealth if he or she was willing to work hard.[345] This dream has been a major factor in attracting immigrants to the United States.[346]

See also


  1. ^ "United Nations Population Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs". Retrieved October 3, 2017. 
  2. ^ "Ausländer in Zahlen". Blick. Retrieved February 22, 2018. 
  3. ^ Foner, Nancy; Fredrickson, George M., eds. (December 8, 2005). "Chapter 6: American Gatekeeping: Race and Immigration Law in the Twentieth Century". Not Just Black and White: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States. Russell Sage Foundation. ISBN 0-87154-270-6. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. 
  4. ^ a b "Per Country Limit". U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. Archived from the original on January 21, 2016.  in 1965.
  5. ^ "Immigrants in the United States and the Current Economic Crisis Archived April 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.", Demetrios G. Papademetriou and Aaron Terrazas, Migration Policy Institute, April 2009.
  6. ^ "Immigration Worldwide: Policies, Practices, and Trends Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.". Uma A. Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas (2010),
  7. ^ a b Jennifer Doleac (February 14, 2017). "Are immigrants more likely to commit crimes?". Econofact. Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017. 
  8. ^ a b
  9. ^ "Leaving England: The Social Background of Indentured Servants in the Seventeenth Century Archived January 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.", The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
  10. ^ "Indentured Servitude in Colonial America Archived December 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.". Deanna Barker, Frontier Resources.
  11. ^ a b "A Look at the Record: The Facts Behind the Current Controversy Over Immigration Archived February 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.". American Heritage Magazine. December 1981. Volume 33, Issue 1.
  12. ^ Schultz, Jeffrey D. (2002). Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-57356-148-8. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  13. ^ "A Nation of Immigrants Archived November 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.". American Heritage Magazine. February/March 1994. Volume 45, Issue 1.
  14. ^ Evans, Nicholas J. (2001). "Indirect passage from Europe: Transmigration via the UK, 1836–1914". Journal for Maritime Research. 3 (1): 70–84. doi:10.1080/21533369.2001.9668313. 
  15. ^ Wilson, Donna M; Northcott, Herbert C (2008). Dying and Death in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-55111-873-4. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. 
  16. ^ Will, George P. (May 2, 2010). "The real immigration scare tactics". Washington Post. Washington, DC. p. A17. Archived from the original on August 25, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Turn of the Century (1900–1910) Archived February 21, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.".
  18. ^ An Introduction to Bilingualism: Principles and Processes Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. Jeanette Altarriba, Roberto R. Heredia (2008). p. 212. ISBN 0-8058-5135-6
  19. ^ "Old fears over new faces Archived August 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.", The Seattle Times, September 21, 2006
  20. ^ Persons Obtaining Legal Permanent Resident Status in the United States of America Archived February 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., Source: US Department of Homeland Security
  21. ^ A Great Depression? Archived September 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., by Steve H. Hanke, Cato Institute
  22. ^ Thernstrom, Harvard Guide to American Ethnic Groups (1980)
  23. ^ The Great Depression and New Deal Archived March 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., by Joyce Bryant, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
  24. ^ "Jewish refugees from the German Reich, 1933–1939". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved August 20, 2014. 
  25. ^ Navarro, Armando (2005). Mexicano Political Experience in Occupied Aztlán. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press. ISBN 0-7591-0566-9. 
  26. ^ (U.S. Senate, Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, Washington, D.C., February 10, 1965. pp. 1–3.)
  27. ^ a b c Peter S. Canellos (November 11, 2008). "Obama victory took root in Kennedy-inspired Immigration Act". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved November 14, 2008. 
  28. ^ Trends in International Migration 2002: Continuous Reporting System on Migration Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (2003). OECD Publishing. p. 280. ISBN 92-64-19949-7
  29. ^ Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans Archived September 19, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.. Jeffrey D. Schultz (2000). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 282. ISBN 1-57356-148-7
  30. ^ The Paper curtain: employer sanctions' implementation, impact, and reform Archived September 19, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.. Michael Fix (1991). The Urban Institute. p. 304. ISBN 0-87766-550-8
  31. ^ a b Gonzales, Daniel (March 13, 2016). "How we got here:The many attempts to reform immigration, secure the border". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. p. 1A. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. Retrieved March 13, 2016. 
  32. ^ "New Limits In Works on Immigration / Powerful commission focusing on families of legal entrants Archived January 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.". San Francisco Chronicle. June 2, 1995
  33. ^ Plummer Alston Jones (2004). Still struggling for equality: American public library services with minorities Archived February 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.. Libraries Unlimited. p. 154. ISBN 1-59158-243-1
  34. ^ Mary E. Williams, Immigration. 2004. p. 69.
  35. ^ "Immigrant Population at Record 40 Million in 2010". Yahoo! News. October 6, 2011.
  36. ^ "Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2013". Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013. United States Department of Homeland Security. 2013. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  37. ^ Neil Shah (May 3, 2015). "Immigrants to U.S. From China Top Those From Mexico". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on May 5, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2015. China was the country of origin for 147,000 recent U.S. immigrants in 2013, while Mexico sent just 125,000, according to a Census Bureau study by researcher Eric Jensen and others. India, with 129,000 immigrants, also topped Mexico, though the two countries' results weren't statistically different from each other. 
  38. ^ "CBO: 748,000 Foreign Nationals Granted U.S. Permanent Residency Status in 2009 Because They Had Immediate Family Legally Living in America Archived January 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.". January 11, 2011
  39. ^ "Study: Immigration grows, reaching record numbers". USA Today. December 12, 2005.
  40. ^ "Immigration surge called 'highest ever' Archived May 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.". Washington Times. December 12, 2005.
  41. ^ "A Reagan Legacy: Amnesty For Illegal Immigrants Archived November 23, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.". NPR: National Public Radio. July 4, 2010
  42. ^ Meyer, Guillaume (February 27, 2009). "Crisis hits Hispanic community hard". France24. Archived from the original on February 12, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2014. 
  43. ^ "Immigrants top native born in U.S. job hunt Archived November 3, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.". October 29, 2010.
  44. ^ "U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: 2011" Archived August 17, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. Office of Immigration Statistics Annual Flow Report.
  45. ^ Archibold, Randal C. (February 9, 2007). "Illegal Immigrants Slain in an Attack in Arizona". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 16, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2008. 
  46. ^ "Why Don't They Just Get In Line?". Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Council. 
  47. ^ Cheryl Sullivan (January 15, 2011). "US Cancels 'virtual fence'". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on January 20, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  48. ^ Fact Sheet: The President's Proclamation on Enhancing Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats, United States Department of Homeland Security, 24 September 2017.
  49. ^ "Trump travel ban to take effect after Supreme Court ruling". The New York Times. 4 December 2017. 
  50. ^ "Trump orders clamp down on immigrant 'sanctuary cities,' pushes border wall". Archived from the original on January 27, 2017. 
  51. ^ "Table 1. Persons obtaining lawful permanent resident status: fiscal years 1820 to 2016". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 14, 2018. 
  52. ^ The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. p. 5253.
  53. ^ The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. p. 54.
  54. ^ The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. p. 56.
  55. ^ The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. p. 58 ("Immigrants have always moved to relatively few places, settling where they have family or friends, or where there are people from their ancestral country or community.").
  56. ^ 2009 report available for download, "A Place to Call Home: What Immigrants Say Now About Life in America"
  57. ^ "Americans Return to Tougher Immigration Stance". Archived from the original on November 7, 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2011. 
  58. ^ "Public Agenda Confidence in U.S. Foreign Policy Index". Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  59. ^ "Table of contents for Who are we? : the challenges to America's national identity / Samuel P. Huntington". Library of Congress. 
  60. ^ "Samuel Huntington — on Immigration and the American Identity -Podcast Interview". Thoughtcast. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. 
  61. ^ Hope Yen (April 24, 2012). "Mexican Migration Appears To Be In Reverse". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  62. ^ Ruben Navarrette Jr (April 27, 2012). "Navarrette: The Mexican reverse migration". Newsday. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  63. ^ "Mexicans feeling persecuted flee U.S." CNN. November 27, 2012. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. 
  64. ^ "L.A. Now". Los Angeles Times. October 23, 2012. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. 
  65. ^ Preston, Julia (July 31, 2008). "Decline Seen in Numbers of People Here Illegally". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  66. ^ "Net Migration from Mexico Falls to Zero – and Perhaps Less". Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. April 23, 2012. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  67. ^ "Governor candidates oppose sanctuary cities Archived September 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.". San Francisco Chronicle. August 4, 2010.
  68. ^ "Sanctuary Cities, USA". Ohio Jobs & Justice PAC. Archived from the original on August 12, 2007. 
  69. ^ a b U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: 2016
  70. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 22, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2016. 
  71. ^ "Profiles on Lawful Permanent Residents 2015 Country - Homeland Security". Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. 
  72. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 30, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2017. 
  73. ^ Nativity of the Population and Place of Birth of the Native Population: 1850 to 2000 – .xls Archived October 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., .csv Archived July 23, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.
  74. ^ Population by Nativity Status and Citizenship: 2010 Archived February 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. (estimated to nearest thousand)
  75. ^ "Place of Birth for the Foreign-born in the United States". 2016. Archived from the original on February 9, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2017. 
  76. ^ Mary E. Williams, Immigration. (San Diego: GreenHaven Press) 2004. p. 82.
  77. ^ "Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants in the United States Archived March 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.", Aaron Terrazas and Jeanne Batalova, Migration Policy Institute, October 2009.
  78. ^ "Global Migration: A World Ever More on the Move Archived June 30, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.". The New York Times. June 25, 2010.
  79. ^ "Illegal Immigrants Estimated to Account for 1 in 12 U.S. Births". The Wall Street Journal. August 12, 2010.
  80. ^ Know the flow – economics of immigration
  81. ^ "Illegal immigrants in the US: How many are there?". May 16, 2006. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  82. ^ Passel, Jeffrey S. "Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 7, 2015. Retrieved March 16, 2015. 
  83. ^ "Characteristics of the Foreign Born in the United States: Results from Census 2000". Archived from the original on April 10, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  84. ^ "US population to 'double by 2100'". BBC News – Americas. Archived from the original on May 9, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  85. ^ "Latinos and the Changing Face of America – Population Reference Bureau". August 20, 2004. Archived from the original on May 19, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  86. ^ Moscoso, Eunice (September 7, 2001). "More than 100 million Latinos in the U.S. by 2050". The Border Line: An Immigration Blog. Archived from the original on December 29, 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2015. 
  87. ^ US – Census figures show dramatic growth in Asian, Hispanic populations Archived September 12, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
  88. ^ Knickerbocker, Brad (May 14, 2006). "Population Growth And Immigration". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on August 27, 2006. Retrieved March 16, 2015. 
  89. ^ Place of birth for the foreign-born population in the United States, U.S. Census Bureau, 2016.
  90. ^ Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
  91. ^ a b Colby, Sandra L.; Ortman, Jennifer M. (March 2015). Projections of the Size and Composition of the U.S. Population: 2014 to 2060 (PDF) (Report). U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration U.S. Census Bureau. pp. 8–9. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016. 
  92. ^ a b Modern Immigration Wave Brings 59 Million to U.S., Driving Population Growth and Change Through 2065 (Report). Pew Research Center. September 28, 2015. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 11, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016. 
  93. ^ U.S. Hispanic population to triple by 2050 Archived June 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., USA Today
  94. ^ Asthana, Anushka (August 21, 2006). "Changing Face of Western Cities". Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2007. 
  95. ^ Whites Now A Minority In California, Census: Non-Hispanic Whites Now 47% Of State's Population Archived December 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., CBS News
  96. ^ "California QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau:". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 28, 2009. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  97. ^ Cutler, David M.; Glaeser, Edward L.; Vigdor, Jacob L. (2008). "Is the Melting Pot Still Hot? Explaining the Resurgence of Immigrant Segregation". Review of Economics and Statistics. 90 (3): 478–497. doi:10.1162/rest.90.3.478. 
  98. ^ a b Hook, J.; Snyder, J. (2007). "Immigration, ethnicity, and the loss of white students from California public schools, 1990–2000". Population Research and Policy Review. 26 (3): 259–77. doi:10.1007/s11113-007-9035-8. 
  99. ^ "Poll Results IGM Forum". Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 19, 2015. 
  100. ^ "Poll Results IGM Forum". Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 19, 2015. 
  101. ^ Card, David; Dustmann, Christian; Preston, Ian (February 1, 2012). "Immigration, Wages, and Compositional Amenities". Journal of the European Economic Association. 10 (1): 78–119. doi:10.1111/j.1542-4774.2011.01051.x. ISSN 1542-4774. 
  102. ^ Bodvarsson, Örn B; Van den Berg, Hendrik (January 1, 2013). The economics of immigration: theory and policy. New York; Heidelberg [u.a.]: Springer. p. 157. ISBN 9781461421153. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. 
  103. ^
  104. ^ "IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor". Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 6, 2017. 
  105. ^ Pia m. Orrenius, P. M.; Zavodny, M. (2009). "Do Immigrants Work in Riskier Jobs?". Demography. 46 (3): 535–51. doi:10.1353/dem.0.0064. PMC 2831347Freely accessible. PMID 19771943. 
  106. ^ Toussaint-Comeau, Maude (2005). "Do Enclaves Matter in Immigrants' Self-Employment Decision?" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Working Paper 2005-23. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 20, 2012. 
  107. ^ Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P.; Peri, Giovanni (January 1, 2006). "The economic value of cultural diversity: evidence from US cities". Journal of Economic Geography. 6 (1): 9–44. doi:10.1093/jeg/lbi002. ISSN 1468-2702. 
  108. ^ Peri, Giovanni (October 7, 2010). "The Effect Of Immigration On Productivity: Evidence From U.S. States". Review of Economics and Statistics. 94 (1): 348–58. doi:10.1162/REST_a_00137. ISSN 0034-6535. 
  109. ^ a b Alesina, Alberto; Harnoss, Johann; Rapoport, Hillel (February 17, 2016). "Birthplace diversity and economic prosperity". Journal of Economic Growth. 21 (2): 101–38. doi:10.1007/s10887-016-9127-6. ISSN 1381-4338. 
  110. ^ "Multiculturalism and Growth: Skill-Specific Evidence from the Post-World War II Period" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on December 20, 2016. 
  111. ^ Bove, Vincenzo; Elia, Leandro (January 1, 2017). "Migration, Diversity, and Economic Growth". World Development. 89: 227–39. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.08.012. 
  112. ^ Bove, Vincenzo; Elia, Leandro (November 16, 2016). "Cultural heterogeneity and economic development". Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2016. 
  113. ^ Sequeira, Sandra; Nunn, Nathan; Qian, Nancy (March 1, 2017). "Migrants and the Making of America: The Short- and Long-Run Effects of Immigration during the Age of Mass Migration". NBER Working Paper No. 23289. doi:10.3386/w23289. 
  114. ^ "Migrants and the Making of America: The Short- and Long-Run Effects of Immigration during the Age of Mass Migration". Retrieved February 7, 2017. 
  115. ^ Aner, Emilie; Graneli, Anna; Lodefolk, Magnus (October 14, 2015). "Cross-border movement of persons stimulates trade". Centre for Economic Policy Research. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2015. 
  116. ^ Bratti, Massimiliano; Benedictis, Luca De; Santoni, Gianluca (April 18, 2014). "On the pro-trade effects of immigrants". Review of World Economics. 150 (3): 557–94. doi:10.1007/s10290-014-0191-8. ISSN 1610-2878. 
  117. ^ Foley, C. Fritz; Kerr, William R. (2013). "Ethnic Innovation and U.S. Multinational Firm Activity". Management Science. 59 (7): 1529–1544. doi:10.1287/mnsc.1120.1684. 
  118. ^ Dany, Bahar; Rapoport, Hillel. "Migration, knowledge diffusion and the comparative advantage of nations". 
  119. ^ Burchardi, Konrad B.; Chaney, Thomas; Hassan, Tarek A. (January 2016). "Migrants, Ancestors, and Investment". NBER Working Paper No. 21847. doi:10.3386/w21847. 
  120. ^ a b Basso, Gaetano; Peri, Giovanni; Rahman, Ahmed (October 2017). "Computerization and Immigration: Theory and Evidence from the United States". NBER Working Paper No. 23935. doi:10.3386/w23935. 
  121. ^ a b Basso, Gaetano; Peri, Giovanni; Rahman, Ahmed (2018-01-12). "The impact of immigration on wage distributions in the era of technical automation". Retrieved 2018-01-12. 
  122. ^ a b c Kerr, Sari Pekkala; Kerr, William R. (2011). "Economic Impacts of Immigration: A Survey" (PDF). Finnish Economic Papers. 24 (1): 1–32. 
  123. ^ "New Report Assesses the Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration". Retrieved April 3, 2017. 
  124. ^ "The case for immigration". Vox. Archived from the original on April 3, 2017. Retrieved April 3, 2017. 
  125. ^ a b c "The Impact of Unauthorized Immigrants on the Budgets of State and Local Governments". December 6, 2007. Archived from the original on July 22, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2016. 
  126. ^ "The Immigration Debate / Effect on Economy". San Francisco Chronicle. May 21, 2006. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  127. ^ James p. Smith, Chair. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration (1997) Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (CBASSE), National Academy of Sciences. p. 5
  128. ^ "Report to Congressional Requesters: January 2009:". United States Government Accountability Office. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. 
  129. ^ Card, David (April 1, 2009). "Immigration and Inequality". American Economic Review. 99 (2): 1–21. doi:10.1257/aer.99.2.1. ISSN 0002-8282. 
  130. ^ Green, Alan G.; Green, David A. (June 1, 2016). "Immigration and the Canadian Earnings Distribution in the First Half of the Twentieth Century". The Journal of Economic History. 76 (02): 387–426. doi:10.1017/S0022050716000541. ISSN 1471-6372. 
  131. ^ Xu, Ping; Garand, James C.; Zhu, Ling (September 23, 2015). "Imported Inequality? Immigration and Income Inequality in the American States". State Politics & Policy Quarterly. 16: 1532440015603814. doi:10.1177/1532440015603814. ISSN 1532-4400. 
  132. ^ Palivos, Theodore (June 4, 2008). "Welfare effects of illegal immigration". Journal of Population Economics. 22 (1): 131–44. doi:10.1007/s00148-007-0182-3. ISSN 0933-1433. 
  133. ^ Liu, Xiangbo (December 1, 2010). "On the macroeconomic and welfare effects of illegal immigration". Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control. 34 (12): 2547–67. doi:10.1016/j.jedc.2010.06.030. 
  134. ^ Chassamboulli, Andri; Peri, Giovanni (October 1, 2015). "The labor market effects of reducing the number of illegal immigrants". Review of Economic Dynamics. 18 (4): 792–821. doi:10.1016/ 
  135. ^ "The Economic Effects of Granting Legal Status and Citizenship to Undocumented Immigrants" (PDF). 
  136. ^ Edwards, Ryan; Ortega, Francesc (November 2016). "The Economic Contribution of Unauthorized Workers: An Industry Analysis". NBER Working Paper No. 22834. doi:10.3386/w22834. 
  137. ^ "Fear vs. Facts: Examining the Economic Impact of Undocumented Immigrants in the U.S." Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017. 
  138. ^ "CATO Institute Finds $180 Billion Benefit to Legalizing Illegal Immigrants". Archived from the original on September 12, 2009. 
  139. ^ Riley, Jason. Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-59240-349-3. 
  140. ^ "Immigration" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 10, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  141. ^ Mundra, Kusum (2010). "Immigrant Networks and the U.S. Bilateral Trade: The Role of Immigrant Income". In Epstein, Gil S.; Gang, Ira N. Migration and Culture. Frontiers of Economics and Globalization. 8. Emerald Group. pp. 357–373. doi:10.1108/S1574-8715(2010)0000008021. ISBN 978-0-85724-153-5. 
  142. ^ "Study Details Lives of Illegal Immigrants in U.S. Archived December 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.". NPR. June 14, 2005.
  143. ^ "H-2A Temporary Agricultural Workers". U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.
  144. ^ "Georgia General Assembly: HB 87 – Illegal Immigration Reform and Enforcement Act of 2011". Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  145. ^ Guardian newspaper: Kansas prepares for clash of wills over future of unauthorised immigrants Archived February 8, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. – Coalition of top [Kansas] businesses launch new legislation that would help undocumented Hispanics gain federal work permission. February 2, 2012
  146. ^ "Economic Impact of Refugees in the Cleveland Area" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on November 6, 2015. 
  147. ^ Cortes, Kalena E. (March 1, 2004). "Are Refugees Different from Economic Immigrants? Some Empirical Evidence on the Heterogeneity of Immigrant Groups in the United States". Rochester, NY. SSRN 524605Freely accessible. 
  148. ^ a b Evans, William N.; Fitzgerald, Daniel (June 2017). "The Economic and Social Outcomes of Refugees in the United States: Evidence from the ACS". NBER Working Paper No. 23498. doi:10.3386/w23498. 
  149. ^ a b Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Sengupta, Somini (September 18, 2017). "Trump Administration Rejects Study Showing Positive Impact of Refugees". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 19, 2017. 
  150. ^ Giovanni Peri. "'No reasons to reject refugees'". SoundCloud. Retrieved January 27, 2016. 
  151. ^ Bevelander, Pieter; Malmö, University of (May 1, 2016). "Integrating refugees into labor markets". IZA World of Labor. doi:10.15185/izawol.269. 
  152. ^ Fairlie, Robert W.; Lofstrom, Magnus (January 1, 2013). "Immigration and Entrepreneurship". Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. 
  153. ^ Akcigit, Ufuk; Grigsby, John; Nicholas, Tom (2017). "Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity". American Economic Review. 107 (5): 327–331. doi:10.1257/aer.p20171021. 
  154. ^ Kerr, Sari Pekkala; Kerr, William R. (2017). "Immigrant Entrepreneurship". In Haltiwanger; Hurst; Miranda; Schoar. Measuring Entrepreneurial Businesses: Current Knowledge and Challenges. doi:10.3386/w22385. 
  155. ^ Hornung, Erik (2014). "Immigration and the Diffusion of Technology: The Huguenot Diaspora in Prussia". American Economic Review. 104 (1): 84–122. doi:10.1257/aer.104.1.84. 
  156. ^ Moser, Petra; Voena, Alessandra; Waldinger, Fabian (2014). "German Jewish Émigrés and US Invention". American Economic Review. 104 (10): 3222–55. doi:10.1257/aer.104.10.3222. 
  157. ^ Kerr, William R. (January 1, 2010). "Breakthrough inventions and migrating clusters of innovation". Journal of Urban Economics. Special Issue: Cities and EntrepreneurshipSponsored by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation ( 67 (1): 46–60. doi:10.1016/j.jue.2009.09.006. 
  158. ^ "Immigrants and Billion Dollar Startups" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on November 7, 2016. 
  159. ^ Stuen, Eric T.; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq; Maskus, Keith E. (December 1, 2012). "Skilled Immigration and Innovation: Evidence from Enrolment Fluctuations in US Doctoral Programmes". The Economic Journal. 122 (565): 1143–76. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2012.02543.x. ISSN 1468-0297. 
  160. ^ "Immigrants Play a Key Role in STEM Fields". 
  161. ^ "Executive Office of the President: Council of Economic Advisers: Immigration's Economic Impact" (PDF). June 20, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 12, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  162. ^ Elstrom, Peter (June 7, 2007). "Immigration: Google Makes Its Case". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on February 1, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  163. ^ "Fazlur R. Khan". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Archived from the original on May 21, 2014. Retrieved May 21, 2014. 
  164. ^ "Sears Tower – Fazlur Khan – Structural Artist of Urban Building Forms". Archived from the original on February 26, 2015. Retrieved May 21, 2014. 
  165. ^ "Willis Tower – The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013. 
  166. ^ a b c d e "IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor". Archived from the original on September 17, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016. 
  167. ^ Ayres, Ian; Siegelman, Peter (January 1, 1995). "Race and Gender Discrimination in Bargaining for a New Car". American Economic Review. 85 (3): 304–21. Archived from the original on April 3, 2016. 
  168. ^ Doleac, Jennifer L.; Stein, Luke C.D. (November 1, 2013). "The Visible Hand: Race and Online Market Outcomes". The Economic Journal. 123 (572): F469–F492. doi:10.1111/ecoj.12082. ISSN 1468-0297. 
  169. ^ Warren, Patricia Y.; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald (May 1, 2009). "Racial profiling and searches: Did the politics of racial profiling change police behavior?". Criminology & Public Policy. 8 (2): 343–69. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9133.2009.00556.x. ISSN 1745-9133. 
  170. ^ a b Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2008/09 Archived October 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., p.p 8, 22
  171. ^ a b West, Jeremy (February 2018). "Racial Bias in Police Investigations" (PDF). Working paper. 
  172. ^ a b Donohue III, John J.; Levitt, Steven D. (January 1, 2001). "The Impact of Race on Policing and Arrests". The Journal of Law & Economics. 44 (2): 367–94. doi:10.1086/322810. JSTOR 10.1086/322810. 
  173. ^ a b Abrams, David S.; Bertrand, Marianne; Mullainathan, Sendhil (June 1, 2012). "Do Judges Vary in Their Treatment of Race?". The Journal of Legal Studies. 41 (2): 347–83. doi:10.1086/666006. ISSN 0047-2530. 
  174. ^ a b Mustard, David B. (April 1, 2001). "Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the U.S. Federal Courts". The Journal of Law and Economics. 44 (1): 285–314. doi:10.1086/320276. ISSN 0022-2186. 
  175. ^ a b c Anwar, Shamena; Bayer, Patrick; Hjalmarsson, Randi (May 1, 2012). "The Impact of Jury Race in Criminal Trials". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 127 (2): 1017–55. doi:10.1093/qje/qjs014. ISSN 0033-5533. 
  176. ^ a b Daudistel, Howard C.; Hosch, Harmon M.; Holmes, Malcolm D.; Graves, Joseph B. (February 1, 1999). "Effects of Defendant Ethnicity on Juries' Dispositions of Felony Cases1". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 29 (2): 317–36. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb01389.x. ISSN 1559-1816. 
  177. ^ a b c Depew, Briggs; Eren, Ozkan; Mocan, Naci (2017). "Judges, Juveniles, and In-Group Bias". Journal of Law and Economics. 60 (2): 209–239. doi:10.1086/693822. 
  178. ^ Milkman, Katherine L.; Akinola, Modupe; Chugh, Dolly (November 1, 2015). "What happens before? A field experiment exploring how pay and representation differentially shape bias on the pathway into organizations". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 100 (6): 1678–1712. doi:10.1037/apl0000022. ISSN 1939-1854. PMID 25867167. 
  179. ^ "Espenshade, T.J. and Radford, A.W.: No Longer Separate, Not Yet Equal: Race and Class in Elite College Admission and Campus Life. (eBook, Paperback and Hardcover)". Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016. 
  180. ^ Ondrich, Jan; Ross, Stephen; Yinger, John (November 1, 2003). "Now You See It, Now You Don't: Why Do Real Estate Agents Withhold Available Houses from Black Customers?". Review of Economics and Statistics. 85 (4): 854–73. doi:10.1162/003465303772815772. ISSN 0034-6535. 
  181. ^ "Housing Discrimination against Racial and Ethnic Minorities 2012: Full Report". Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  182. ^ Riach, P. A.; Rich, J. (November 1, 2002). "Field Experiments of Discrimination in the Market Place". The Economic Journal. 112 (483): F480–F518. doi:10.1111/1468-0297.00080. ISSN 1468-0297. 
  183. ^ a b c Zschirnt, Eva; Ruedin, Didier (May 27, 2016). "Ethnic discrimination in hiring decisions: a meta-analysis of correspondence tests 1990–2015". Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 42 (7): 1115–34. doi:10.1080/1369183X.2015.1133279. ISSN 1369-183X. 
  184. ^ Bertrand, Marianne; Mullainathan, Sendhil (2004). "Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination". American Economic Review. 94 (4): 991–1013. doi:10.1257/0002828042002561. 
  185. ^ Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce; Bonikowski, Bart (October 1, 2009). "Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market A Field Experiment". American Sociological Review. 74 (5): 777–99. doi:10.1177/000312240907400505. ISSN 0003-1224. PMC 2915472Freely accessible. PMID 20689685. 
  186. ^ Ofari, Earl (November 25, 2007). "The black-Latino blame game". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 26, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  187. ^ Quinones, Sam (October 18, 2007). "Gang rivalry grows into race war". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 26, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  188. ^ "Racial Tension Rising in Dallas Against Korean Community". The Chosun Ilbo. January 31, 2012. Archived from the original on February 10, 2016. 
  189. ^ "Race relations Where black and brown collide". The Economist. August 2, 2007. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  190. ^ "Riot Breaks Out At Calif. High School, Melee Involving 500 People Erupts At Southern California School". Archived from the original on August 1, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  191. ^ "Paper Chase: Race riot put down at California state prison". December 31, 2006. Archived from the original on March 7, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  192. ^ Racial segregation continues in California prisons Archived August 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  193. ^ Paul Harris (March 18, 2007). "A bloody conflict between Hispanic and black American gangs is spreading across Los Angeles". London: Archived from the original on July 9, 2008. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  194. ^ Hutchinson, Earl Ofari (January 5, 2007). "The Hutchinson Report: Thanks to Latino Gangs, There's a Zone in L.A. Where Blacks Risk Death if They Enter". Black America Web. Archived from the original on January 17, 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2015. 
  195. ^ Dyer, Ervin (December 31, 1969). "African immigrants face bias from blacks". Archived from the original on October 10, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  196. ^ a b Duncan, Brian; Trejo, Stephen J (2011). "Tracking Intergenerational Progress for Immigrant Groups: The Problem of Ethnic Attrition". American Economic Review. 101 (3): 603–08. doi:10.1257/aer.101.3.603. 
  197. ^ Alba, Richard; Islam, Tariqul (January 1, 2009). "The Case of the Disappearing Mexican Americans: An Ethnic-Identity Mystery". Population Research and Policy Review. 28 (2): 109–21. doi:10.1007/s11113-008-9081-x. JSTOR 20616620. 
  198. ^ Duncan, Brian; Trejo, Stephen (2017). "The Complexity of Immigrant Generations: Implications for Assessing the Socioeconomic Integration of Hispanics and Asians". ILR Review. 70 (5): 1146–1175. doi:10.1177/0019793916679613. 
  199. ^ "Achieving the American Dream: Cultural Distance, Cultural Diversity and Economic Performance Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers Working Papers". Archived from the original on August 7, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016. 
  200. ^ Charles H. Lippy, Faith in America: Organized religion today (2006) ch 6 pp 107–27
  201. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of U.S. Immigrants: Majority Christian, Rising Share of Other Faiths". Pew Research Center. May 17, 2013. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013. 
  202. ^ Collomp, Catherine (October 1988). "Unions, civics, and National identity: organized Labor's reaction to immigration, 1881–1897". Labor History. Taylor and Francis. 29 (4): 450–474. doi:10.1080/00236568800890311. 
  203. ^ a b Mink, Gwendolyn (1990). Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political Development: Union, Party, and State, 1875–1920. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9680-2. 
  204. ^ Lane, A.T. (January 1984). "American trade unions, mass immigration and the literacy test: 1900–1917". Labor History. 25 (1): 5–25. doi:10.1080/00236568408584739. 
  205. ^ "Today in History: August 22". Library of Congress:American Memory. 19 January 2011. 
  206. ^ Gutiérrez, David Gregory (1995). Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants and the Politics of Ethnicity. San Diego: University of California Press. pp. 97–98. ISBN 9780520916869. 
  207. ^ Irvine, Reed; Kincaid, Cliff. "Why Journalists Support Illegal Immigration". Accuracy in the Media. Archived from the original on December 3, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2014. 
  208. ^ Wells, Miriam J. (1996). Strawberry Fields: Politics, Class, and Work in California Agriculture. New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 89–90. ISBN 9780801482793. 
  209. ^ Baird, Peter; McCaughan, Ed. Beyond the Border: Mexico & the U.S. Today. North American Congress on Latin America. p. 169. ISBN 9780916024376. 
  210. ^ Farmworker Collective Bargaining, 1979: Hearings Before the Committee on Labor Human Resources Hearings held in Salinas, Calif., April 26, 27, and Washington, D.C., May 24, 1979
  211. ^ "PBS Airs Chávez Documentary" Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., University of California at Davis – Rural Migration News.
  212. ^ Etulain, Richard W. (2002). Cesar Chavez: A Brief Biography with Documents. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 18. ISBN 9780312294274. 
  213. ^ Arellano, Gustavo. "The year in Mexican-bashing". OC Weekly. Archived from the original on June 9, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014. 
  214. ^ Navarrette, Jr., Ruben (March 30, 2005). "The Arizona Minutemen and César Chávez". San Diego Union Tribune. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. 
  215. ^ Page, Susan (June 29, 2007). "Hispanics turning back to Democrats for 2008". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  216. ^ Fung, Margaret (November 9, 2006). "AALDEF Exit Poll of 4,600 Asian American Voters Reveals Robust Support for Democratic Candidates in Key Congressional and State Races". American Legal Defense and Education Fund. Archived from the original on August 7, 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2015. 
  217. ^ "USC Knight Chair in Media and Religion". September 16, 2008. Archived from the original on February 26, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  218. ^ a b Facchini, Giovanni; Mayda, Anna Maria; Mishra, Prachi (2011). "Do interest groups affect US immigration policy?". Journal of International Economics. 85 (1): 114–128. doi:10.1016/j.jinteco.2011.05.006. 
  219. ^ Facchini, Giovanni; Steinhardt, Max Friedrich (2011). "What drives U.S. immigration policy? Evidence from congressional roll call votes" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 95 (7–8): 734–743. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2011.02.008. ISSN 0047-2727. 
  220. ^ "Polling And Experts Make Clear: Latino Voters Showed Up & Saved The Senate For The Democrats". November 4, 2010. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  221. ^ An Irish Face on the Cause of Citizenship, Nina Bernstein, March 16, 2006, The New York Times. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-19. 
  222. ^ National Council of La Raza, Issues and Programs » Immigration » Immigration Reform, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 13, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2011. 
  223. ^ "Loaded rhetoric harms immigration movement", Bridget Johnson, USA Today, February 5, 2006
  224. ^ Mexican aliens seek to retake 'stolen' land, The Washington Post, April 16, 2006.
  225. ^ Ethnic Lobbies and US Foreign Policy, David M. Paul and Rachel Anderson Paul, 2009, Lynne Rienner Publishers
  226. ^ "Hispanic vote tilts strongly to Obama in win Archived November 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.," Reuters, November 7, 2012.
  227. ^ Peter Wallsten (November 17, 2012). "New super PAC hopes to give cover to pro-immigration Republicans". Washington Post. 
  228. ^ "New Mexico Gov. Susana Martinez: Comments like Romney's set 'us back as a party' Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.", Yahoo News, November 15, 2012
  229. ^ Jamieson, Dave (June 19, 2013). "Senator Sounds Alarm On Teen Unemployment". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on June 17, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015. 
  230. ^ Thibodeau, Patrick (May 1, 2015). "Meet Bernie Sanders, H-1B skeptic". Computerworld. Archived from the original on June 17, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015. 
  231. ^ Bier, Daniel. "Bernie Sanders on Immigrants: Silly, Tribal and Economically Illiterate". Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016. 
  232. ^ Cory Massimino. "Bernie Sanders is wrong on open borders; they'd help boost the economy - Cory Massimino". the Guardian. Archived from the original on April 9, 2017. 
  233. ^ Mohanty, Sarita A.; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U.; Pati, Susmita; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Bor, David H. (2005-08-01). "Health Care Expenditures of Immigrants in the United States: A Nationally Representative Analysis". American Journal of Public Health. 95 (8): 1431–1438. doi:10.2105/ajph.2004.044602. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 1449377Freely accessible. PMID 16043671. 
  234. ^ Brown, Richard, et al. (1998) "Access to Health Insurance and Health Care for Mexican American Children in Immigrant Families" In Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco, ed. Crossings: Mexican Immigration in Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies and Harvard University Press pp. 225–47
  235. ^ in fact, Simon, Juliana (1995) "Immigration: The Demographic and Economic Facts". Washington, D.C.: The Cato Institute and National Immigration Forum (available here "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 1, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010. ) finds that estimates of the cost of public health care provided to undocumented immigrants that have been used by the press have been extremely inflated
  236. ^ Simon (1995)
  237. ^ National Institutes of Health. Medical Encyclopedia Archived October 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed September 25, 2006
  238. ^ Tuberculosis in the United States, 2004 Archived April 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  239. ^ "CDC - Tuberculosis (TB)". Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  240. ^ "Tuberculosis among US Immigrants". Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  241. ^ Dunham, Will (October 29, 2007). "AIDS virus invaded U.S. from Haiti: study". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 21, 2008. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  242. ^ Bowdler, Neil (October 30, 2007). "Key HIV strain 'came from Haiti'". BBC News. Archived from the original on May 21, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  243. ^ "Mexican Migrants Carry H.I.V. Home". The New York Times. July 17, 2007. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  244. ^ "Lifting Of HIV Ban Leaves Many Immigrants In Limbo". NPR. October 10, 2009. Archived from the original on April 21, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  245. ^ "What Happens to the "Healthy Immigrant Effect"". Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  246. ^ notably, National Research Council. (1997) "From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families". Washington D.C.: National Academy Press (Available here [1])
  247. ^ Stimpson, Jim P.; Wilson, Fernando A.; Eschbach, Karl (March 2010). "Trends in health care spending for immigrants in the United States". Health Affairs (Project Hope). 29 (3): 544–550. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0400. ISSN 1544-5208. PMID 20150234. 
  248. ^ a b Gomez, Alan (31 January 2018). "Trump painted a dark picture of immigrants, despite the facts". USA TODAY. Retrieved 1 February 2018. All available national crime statistics show immigrants commit fewer crimes, not more, than those born in the U.S. 
  249. ^ Kubrin, Charis (2018). Theoretical Perspectives on the Immigration-Crime Relationship. Rochester, NY. 
  250. ^ Wadsworth, Tim (June 1, 2010). "Is Immigration Responsible for the Crime Drop? An Assessment of the Influence of Immigration on Changes in Violent Crime Between 1990 and 2000". Social Science Quarterly. 91 (2): 531–53. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00706.x. ISSN 1540-6237. 
  251. ^ Stowell, Jacob I.; Messner, Steven F.; Mcgeever, Kelly F.; Raffalovich, Lawrence E. (August 1, 2009). "Immigration and the Recent Violent Crime Drop in the United States: A Pooled, Cross-Sectional Time-Series Analysis of Metropolitan Areas". Criminology. 47 (3): 889–928. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00162.x. ISSN 1745-9125. 
  252. ^ Sampson, Robert J. (2008-02-01). "Rethinking Crime and Immigration". Contexts. 7 (1): 28–33. doi:10.1525/ctx.2008.7.1.28. ISSN 1536-5042. 
  253. ^ Ferraro, Vincent (February 14, 2015). "Immigration and Crime in the New Destinations, 2000–2007: A Test of the Disorganizing Effect of Migration". Journal of Quantitative Criminology. 32 (1): 23–45. doi:10.1007/s10940-015-9252-y. ISSN 0748-4518. 
  254. ^ Stansfield, Richard (August 2014). "Safer Cities: A Macro-level analysis of Recent Immigration, Hispanic-owned Businesses, and Crime Rates in the United States". Journal of Urban Affairs. 36 (3): 503–18. doi:10.1111/juaf.12051. 
  255. ^ Reid, Lesley Williams; Weiss, Harald E.; Adelman, Robert M.; Jaret, Charles (December 2005). "The immigration–crime relationship: Evidence across US metropolitan areas". Social Science Research. 34 (4): 757–80. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2005.01.001. 
  256. ^ Akins, S.; Rumbaut, R. G.; Stansfield, R. (June 10, 2009). "Immigration, Economic Disadvantage, and Homicide: A Community-level Analysis of Austin, Texas". Homicide Studies. 13 (3): 307–14. doi:10.1177/1088767909336814. 
  257. ^ Vaughn, Michael G.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; DeLisi, Matt; Maynard, Brandy R. (November 29, 2013). "The immigrant paradox: immigrants are less antisocial than native-born Americans". Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 49 (7): 1129–37. doi:10.1007/s00127-013-0799-3. ISSN 0933-7954. PMC 4078741Freely accessible. PMID 24292669. 
  258. ^ Chalfin, Aaron (May 2015). "The Long-Run Effect of Mexican Immigration on Crime in US Cities: Evidence from Variation in Mexican Fertility Rates". American Economic Review. 105 (5): 220–25. doi:10.1257/aer.p20151043. 
  259. ^ Green, David (May 1, 2016). "The Trump Hypothesis: Testing Immigrant Populations as a Determinant of Violent and Drug-Related Crime in the United States". Social Science Quarterly: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/ssqu.12300. ISSN 1540-6237. 
  260. ^ Miles, Thomas J.; Cox, Adam B. (October 21, 2015). "Does Immigration Enforcement Reduce Crime? Evidence from Secure Communities". The Journal of Law and Economics. 57 (4): 937–973. doi:10.1086/680935. 
  261. ^ Baker, Scott R. (2015). "Effects of Immigrant Legalization on Crime". American Economic Review. 105 (5): 210–13. doi:10.1257/aer.p20151041. 
  262. ^ "Sanctuary cities do not experience an increase in crime". Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 3, 2016. Retrieved October 3, 2016. 
  263. ^ "Open Collections Program: Immigration to the US, Dillingham Commission (1907-1910)". Archived from the original on January 25, 2013. 
  264. ^ a b c Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison (November 1, 2009). "Immigration, crime, and incarceration in early twentieth-century america". Demography. 46 (4): 739–63. doi:10.1353/dem.0.0076. ISSN 0070-3370. 
  265. ^ Warren, Patricia Y.; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald (May 1, 2009). "Racial profiling and searches: Did the politics of racial profiling change police behavior?". Criminology & Public Policy. 8 (2): 343–69. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9133.2009.00556.x. ISSN 1745-9133. 
  266. ^ West, Jeremy. "Racial Bias in Police Investigations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2016. 
  267. ^ Armenta, Amanda (2016). "Radicalizing Crimmigration: Structural Racism, Colorblindness, and the Institutional Production of Immigrant Criminality". Sociology of Race and Ethnicity. 3. 
  268. ^ a b c d e f García Hernández, César Cuauhtémoc (2013). "Creating Crimmigration". Brigham Young University Law Review 1457. 
  269. ^ a b c Alexander, Michelle (2012). The New Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindnes. The New Press. 
  270. ^ a b c d e García Hernández, César Cuauhtémoc (2017). "Abolishing Immigration Prisons". Boston University Law Review. 97: 17 – 05. 
  271. ^ a b c Chacón, Jennifer (2010). "A Diversion of Attention? Immigration Courts and the Adjudication of Fourth and Fifth Amendment Rights". Duke Law Journal. 59: 1563–1633. 
  272. ^ Michael Crane (2004). The Political Junkie. SP Books. p. 319. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. 
  273. ^ Rymer, Nataliya (March 17, 2014). "Leaders in Higher Education Call for Immigration Reform". The National Law Review. Greenberg Traurig, LLP. ISSN 2161-3362. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2014. 
  274. ^ Foley, Elise (February 3, 2014). "The Man Who Kept Immigration Reform Alive". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on September 11, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2014. 
  275. ^ "Gender and Racial Differences in Peer Effects of Limited English Students: A Story of Language or Ethnicity?". Archived from the original on January 28, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2016. 
  276. ^ "Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 2011" (PDF). National Science Foundation. 2013. p. 22. 
  277. ^ "Ch. 2 Higher Education in Science and Engineering" (PDF). National Science Foundation. 2012. 
  278. ^ a b c d William A. Wulf, President, National Academy of Engineering, Speaking before the 109th US Congress, September 15, 2005
  279. ^ a b c d e f g h 'Foreign and Foreign-Born Engineers in the United States: Infusing Talent, Raising Issues', Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, 1988. online text
  280. ^ Walker, 'Incentivizing Replacement of Native Talent in the Upper Echelons of Science and Technology', Flattening the United States. 2004.
  281. ^ a b Anderson, 'The Multiplier Effect', International Educator. 2004.
  282. ^ Vilcek J. and Cronstein B.N. FASEB Journal 20:1281-1283, 2006
  283. ^ Unpublished National Science Foundation tabulation of the 1993 Survey of Doctoral Recipients and the 1993 National Survey of College Graduates. Foreign-Born includes naturalized U.S. citizens, permanent residents and workers on temporary visas (including H-1B visas).
  284. ^ Mary E. Williams, Immigration. (San Diego: GreenHaven Press, 2004). p. 85.
  285. ^ Rita James Simon and Mohamed Alaa Abdel-Moneim, Public opinion in the United States: studies of race, religion, gender, and issues that matter (2010) pp. 61–62
  286. ^ "Worldviews 2002 Survey of American and European Attitudes and Public Opinion on Foreign Policy: US Report" Archived August 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  287. ^ New Poll Shows Immigration High Among US Voter Concerns[permanent dead link]
  288. ^ a b "Summary" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on January 28, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  289. ^ Espenshade, Thomas J. and Belanger, Maryanne (1998) "Immigration and Public Opinion." In Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco, ed. Crossings: Mexican Immigration in Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies and Harvard University Press, pp. 365–403
  290. ^ "Legal vs. Illegal Immigration". Public Agenda. December 2007.
  291. ^ Riffkin, Rebecca. "Racism Edges Up Again as Most Important U.S. Problem". Gallup Inc. Retrieved 17 November 2017. 
  292. ^ McCarthy, Justin. "In U.S., Worries About Terrorism, Race Relations Up Sharply". Gallup Inc. Retrieved 17 November 2017. 
  293. ^ Saad, Lydia. "U.S. Mood on Economy Up, Race Relations Sharply Down". Gallup Inc. Retrieved 17 November 2017. 
  294. ^ Jones, Jeffrey M. "In U.S., Border Security, Immigrant Status Equally Important". Gallup Inc. Retrieved 17 November 2017. 
  295. ^ Newport, Frank; Wilke, Joy. "Immigration Reform Proposals Garner Broad Support in U.S." Gallup Inc. Retrieved 17 November 2017. 
  296. ^ Gramlich, John (29 November 2016). "Trump voters want to build the wall, but are more divided on other immigration questions". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 17 November 2017. 
  297. ^ Rainie, Lee; Brown, Anna (7 October 2016). "Americans less concerned than a decade ago over immigrants' impact on workforce". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 17 November 2017. 
  298. ^ Cooper, Betsy; Cox, Daniel; Lienesch, Rachel; Jones, Robert P. "How Americans View Immigrants, and What They... PRRI". Public Religion Research Institute. Retrieved 17 November 2017. 
  299. ^ Bowman, Karlyn; O'Neil, Eleanor; Sims, Heather. "Welcome to America? Public Opinion on Immigration Issues" (PDF). AEI Political Report. AEI. Retrieved 24 November 2017. 
  300. ^ "First of 60,000 refugees from Bhutan arrive in U.S". CNN. March 25, 2008. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. 
  301. ^ "Asylum Trends 2014" (PDF). UNHCR. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 17, 2015. 
  302. ^ "Refugees in Japan". Japan Times. October 12, 2008. Archived from the original on October 13, 2008. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  303. ^ "Refugee Admissions Program for East Asia" (PDF). Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2015. 
  304. ^ "A New Era Of Refugee Resettlement". October 11, 2006. Archived from the original on June 19, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  305. ^ U.S. Goals for Iraqi Refugees are Inadequate Archived September 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Refugees International
  306. ^ "Resettlement programme for refugees from Bhutan passes 50,000 mark Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.". UNHCR. August 17, 2011
  307. ^ "Office of Refugee Resettlement: Programs Archived July 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.". United States Department of Health and Human Services.
  308. ^ Haines, David W. (2010). Safe Haven?: A History of Refugees in America. Kumarian Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-56549-394-0. 
  309. ^ Gania, Edwin T. (2004). U.S. Immigration Step by Step. Sphinx. p. 65. ISBN 1-57248-387-3. 
  310. ^ Immigration and Nationality Act, Section 240A online Archived November 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  311. ^ Ivan Vasic, The Immigration Handbook (2008) p. 140
  312. ^ a b Amy Sherman (July 28, 2015). "Donald Trump wrongly says the number of illegal immigrants is 30 million or higher". PolitiFact. Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. 
  313. ^ a b c Jens Manuel Krogstaf, Jeffrey S. PAssel & D'Vera Cohn, 5 facts about illegal immigration in the U.S. Archived April 28, 2017, at the Wayback Machine., Pew Research Center (April 27, 2017).
  314. ^ a b Faye Hipsman, Bárbara Gómez-Aguiñaga, & Randy Capps, Policy Brief: DACA at Four: Participation in the Deferred Action Program and Impacts on Recipients Archived May 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine., Migration Policy Institute (August 2016).
  315. ^ Jeanne Batalova, Sarah Hooker & Randy Capps, DACA at the Two-Year Mark: A National and State Profile of Youth Eligible and Applying for Deferred Action Archived May 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine., Migration Policy Institute (August 2014), p. 3.
  316. ^
  317. ^ a b c d Randy Capps, Heather Koball, James D. Bachmeier, Ariel G. Ruiz Soto, Jie Zong & Julia Gelatt, Deferred Action for Unauthorized Immigrant Parents: Analysis of DAPA's Potential Effects on Families and Children Archived April 28, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. (February 2016), Migration Policy Institute.
  318. ^ Julie Hirschfeld Davis, "Obama's Immigration Decision Has Precedents, but May Set a New One Archived January 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine., New York Times (November 20, 2014).
  319. ^ State of Texas v. United States, 809 F.3d 134 (5th Cir. 2015).
  320. ^ Matt Ford, A Ruling Against the Obama Administration on Immigration Archived November 12, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., The Atlantic (November 10, 2015).
  321. ^ Adam Liptak & Michael D. Shear, Supreme Court Tie Blocks Obama Immigration Plan Archived June 25, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., New York Times (June 23, 2016).
  322. ^ United States v. Texas, 136 S. Ct. 906 (U.S. 2016 (per curiam)).
  323. ^ "Policy Memorandum" (PDF). November 15, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  324. ^ a b York, Harlan (November 15, 2013). ""Parole in Place" for Immigrant Relatives of Military-What To Know". Archived from the original on June 14, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  325. ^ James H. Dormon, "Ethnic Stereotyping in American Popular Culture: The Depiction of American Ethnics in the Cartoon Periodicals of the Gilded Age," Amerikastudien, 1985, Vol. 30 Issue 4, pp. 489–507
  326. '^ Rachel Rupin and Jeffrey Melnick, Immigration and American Popular Culture: An Introduction (2006)
  327. ^ James H. Dorman, "American Popular Culture and the New Immigration Ethnics: The Vaudeville Stage and the Process of Ethnic Ascription," Amerikastudien, 1991, Vol. 36#2 pp. 179–93
  328. ^ Yasmeen Abu-Laban and Victoria Lamont, "Crossing borders: Interdisciplinary, immigration and the melting pot in the American cultural imaginary," Canadian Review of American Studies, 1997, Vol. 27#2, pp. 23–43
  329. ^ Michael Rogin, Blackface White Noise: Jewish Immigrants in the Hollywood Melting Pot (1996)
  330. ^ Michael Frontani, "'From the Bottom to the Top': Frank Sinatra, the American Myth of Success, and the Italian-American Image," Journal of American Culture, June 2005, Vol. 28 Issue 2, pp. 216–30
  331. ^ William H. A. Williams, "Green Again: Irish-American Lace-Curtain Satire," New Hibernia Review, Winter 2002, Vol. 6 Issue 2, pp. 9–24
  332. ^ Kerry Soper, "Performing 'Jiggs': Irish Caricature and Comedic Ambivalence Toward Assimilation and the American Dream in George Mcmanus's 'Bringing Up Father'", Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, April 2005, Vol. 4#2, pp. 173–213,
  333. ^ David R. Maciel and María Herrera-Sobek, Culture across Borders: Mexican Immigration and Popular Culture (1998)
  334. ^ Thomas J. Ferraro, Ethnic Passages: Literary Immigrants in Twentieth-Century America (1993)
  335. ^ Eva Roa White, "Emigration as Emancipation: Portrayals of the Immigrant Irish Girl in Nineteenth-Century Fiction," New Hibernia Review, Spring 2005, Vol. 9 Issue 1, pp. 95–108
  336. ^ Miran Hladnik, "Slovene Popular Novels about Emigration in the Nineteenth Century," Slovene Studies, 1985, Vol. 7 Issue 1/2, pp. 57–62
  337. ^ Thomas J. Ferraro, "'Working ourselves up' in America: Anzia Yezierska's Bread Givers", South Atlantic Quarterly, Summer 19 90, Vol. 89 Issue 3, pp. 547–91. reprinted in Ferraro, Ethnic Passages, pp. 53–86
  338. ^ Helmer Lång, and Michael Brook, "Moberg, the Emigrant Saga and Reality," Swedish Pioneer Historical Quarterly, 1972, Vol. 23 Issue 1, pp. 3–24
  339. ^ Philip J. Anderson, "Introduction to Vilhelm Moberg's 'Why I Wrote the Novel about Swedish Emigrants'", Swedish-American Historical Quarterly, July 2008, Vol. 59#3 pp. 137–44
  340. ^ Roger McKnight, "Vilhelm Moberg, the Emigrant Novels, and their Changing Readers," Swedish-American Historical Quarterly, July 1998, Vol. 49 Issue 3, pp. 245–56
  341. ^ "A Note From the Bookwriter" Archived July 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. The Immigrant
  342. ^ in Current Affairs, Film (May 3, 2010). "Immigrationprof Blog: Acclaimed Political Documentary Series 'How Democracy Works Now' Announces Washington D.C. Screenings". Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2011. 
  343. ^ Hiroshi Motomura. Americans in Waiting: The Lost Story of Immigration and Citizenship in the United States (2006)
  344. ^ Gabor S. Boritt, Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream (1994) p. 1
  345. ^ Elizabeth Baigent, "Swedish immigrants in McKeesport, Pennsylvania: Did the Great American Dream come true?" Journal of Historical Geography, April 2000, Vol. 26 Issue 2, pp. 239–72
  346. ^ Jim Cullen, The American Dream : A Short History of an Idea that Shaped a Nation. 2004. ISBN 0-19-517325-2.

Cite error: A list-defined reference named "" is not used in the content (see the help page).

Further reading


  • Anbinder, Tyler. City of Dreams: The 400-Year Epic History of Immigrant New York (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016). 766 pp.
  • Archdeacon, Thomas J. Becoming American: An Ethnic History (1984)
  • Bankston, Carl L. III and Danielle Antoinette Hidalgo, eds. Immigration in U.S. History Salem Press, (2006)
  • Barkan, Elliott Robert, ed. (2001). Making it in America: A Sourcebook on Eminent Ethnic Americans. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576070987.  short scholarly biographies With bibliographies; 448 pp.
  • Bodnar, John. The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America Indiana University Press, (1985)
  • Daniels, Roger. Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850 University of Washington Press, (1988)
  • Daniels, Roger. Coming to America 2nd ed. (2005)
  • Daniels, Roger. Guarding the Golden Door : American Immigration Policy and Immigrants since 1882 (2005)
  • Diner, Hasia. The Jews of the United States, 1654 to 2000 (2004)
  • Dinnerstein, Leonard, and David M. Reimers. Ethnic Americans: a history of immigration (1999) online
  • Gerber, David A. American Immigration: A Very Short Introduction (2011).
  • Gjerde, Jon, ed. Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History (1998).
  • Glazier, Michael, ed. The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America (1999).
  • Jones, Maldwyn A. American immigration (1960) online
  • Joselit, Jenna Weissman. Immigration and American religion (2001) online
  • Parker, Kunal M. Making Foreigners: Immigration and Citizenship Law in America, 1600–2000. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • Sowell, Thomas. Ethnic America: A History (1981).
  • Thernstrom, Stephan, ed. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (1980).

Before 1920

  • Alexander, June Granatir. Daily Life in Immigrant America, 1870–1920: How the Second Great Wave of Immigrants Made Their Way in America (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2007. xvi, 332 pp.)
  • Berthoff, Rowland Tappan. British Immigrants in Industrial America, 1790–1950 (1953).
  • Briggs, John. An Italian Passage: Immigrants to Three American Cities, 1890–1930 Yale University Press, (1978)
  • Diner, Hasia. Hungering for America: Italian, Irish, and Jewish Foodways in the Age of Migration (2003)
  • Dudley, William, ed. Illegal immigration: opposing viewpoints (2002) online
  • Eltis, David; Coerced and Free Migration: Global Perspectives (2002) emphasis on migration to Americas before 1800
  • Greene, Victor R. A Singing Ambivalence: American Immigrants Between Old World and New, 1830–1930 (2004), coving musical traditions
  • Isaac Aaronovich Hourwich. Immigration and Labor: The Economic Aspects of European Immigration to the United States (1912) (full text online)
  • Joseph, Samuel; Jewish Immigration to the United States from 1881 to 1910 Columbia University Press, (1914)
  • Kulikoff, Allan; From British Peasants to Colonial American Farmers (2000), details on colonial immigration
  • Meagher, Timothy J. The Columbia Guide to Irish American History. (2005)
  • Miller, Kerby M. Emigrants and Exiles (1985), influential scholarly interpretation of Irish immigration
  • Motomura, Hiroshi. Americans in Waiting: The Lost Story of Immigration and Citizenship in the United States (2006), legal history
  • Pochmann, Henry A. and Arthur R. Schultz; German Culture in America, 1600–1900: Philosophical and Literary Influences (1957)
  • Waters, Tony. Crime and Immigrant Youth Sage Publications (1999), a sociological analysis.
  • U.S. Immigration Commission, Abstracts of Reports, 2 vols. (1911); the full 42-volume report is summarized (with additional information) in Jeremiah W. Jenks and W. Jett Lauck, The Immigrant Problem (1912; 6th ed. 1926)
  • Wittke, Carl. We Who Built America: The Saga of the Immigrant (1939), covers all major groups
  • Yans-McLaughlin, Virginia ed. Immigration Reconsidered: History, Sociology, and Politics Oxford University Press. (1990)

Recent: post 1965

External links


Immigration policy

Current immigration

Economic impact

Retrieved from "