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An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.[1] This includes countries that may become developed markets in the future or were in the past.[2] The term "frontier market" is used for developing countries with slower economies than "emerging".[3][4] The economies of China
China
and India
India
are considered to be the largest emerging markets.[5] According to The Economist, many people find the term outdated, but no new term has gained traction.[6] Emerging market hedge fund capital reached a record new level in the first quarter of 2011 of $121 billion.[7] The four largest emerging and developing economies by either nominal or PPP-adjusted GDP are the BRIC
BRIC
countries (Brazil, Russia, India
India
and China).

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Commonly listed 3 BBVA
BBVA
Research 4 Emerging Market Bond Index Global 5 Emerging Markets Index

5.1 Emerging Markets Index
Emerging Markets Index
2008 top 65

6 Global Growth Generators 7 Estimating Demand in Emerging Markets 8 Economy 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

Terminology[edit]

   Developing countries
Developing countries
that are neither part of the least developed countries, nor of the newly industrialized countries

In the 1970s, "less developed countries" (LDCs) was the common term for markets that were less "developed" (by objective or subjective measures) than the developed countries such as the United States, Japan, and those in Western Europe. These markets were supposed to provide greater potential for profit but also more risk from various factors like patent infringement. This term was replaced by emerging market. The term is misleading[according to whom?] in that there is no guarantee that a country will move from "less developed" to "more developed"; although that is the general trend in the world, countries can also move from "more developed" to "less developed". Originally coined in 1981 by then World Bank
World Bank
economist Antoine Van Agtmael,[8][9] the term is sometimes loosely used as a replacement for emerging economies, but really signifies a business phenomenon that is not fully described by or constrained to geography or economic strength; such countries are considered to be in a transitional phase between developing and developed status. Examples of emerging markets include many countries in Africa, most countries in Eastern Europe, some countries of Latin America, some countries in the Middle East, Russia
Russia
and some countries in Southeast Asia. Emphasizing the fluid nature of the category, political scientist Ian Bremmer
Ian Bremmer
defines an emerging market as "a country where politics matters at least as much as economics to the markets".[10] The research on emerging markets is diffused within management literature. While researchers including, George Haley, Vladimir Kvint, Hernando de Soto, Usha Haley, and several professors from Harvard Business School and Yale School of Management
Management
have described activity in countries such as India
India
and China, how a market emerges is little understood. In 2009, Dr. Kvint published this definition: "Emerging market country is a society transitioning from a dictatorship to a free-market-oriented-economy, with increasing economic freedom, gradual integration with the Global Marketplace and with other members of the GEM (Global Emerging Market), an expanding middle class, improving standards of living, social stability and tolerance, as well as an increase in cooperation with multilateral institutions"[11] In 2008 Emerging Economy Report,[12] the Center for Knowledge Societies defines Emerging Economies as those "regions of the world that are experiencing rapid informationalization under conditions of limited or partial industrialization." It appears that emerging markets lie at the intersection of non-traditional user behavior, the rise of new user groups and community adoption of products and services, and innovations in product technologies and platforms. More critical scholars have also studied key emerging markets like Mexico
Mexico
and Turkey. Thomas Marois (2012, 2) argues that financial imperatives have become much more significant and has developed the idea of 'emerging finance capitalism' - an era wherein the collective interests of financial capital principally shape the logical options and choices of government and state elites over and above those of labor and popular classes.[13] Julien Vercueil recently proposed an pragmatic definition of the "emerging economies", as distinguished from "emerging markets" coined by an approach heavily influenced by financial criteria. According to his definition, an emerging economy displays the following characteristics:[14]

Intermediate income: its PPP per capita income is comprised between 10% and 75% of the average EU per capita income. Catching-up growth: during at least the last decade, it has experienced a brisk economic growth that has narrowed the income gap with advanced economies. Institutional transformations and economic opening: during the same period, it has undertaken profound institutional transformations which contributed to integrate it more deeply into the world economy. Hence, emerging economies appears to be a by-product of the current globalization.

At the beginning of the 2010s, more than 50 countries, representing 60% of the world's population and 45% of its GDP, matched these criteria.[14]:10 Among them, the BRICs.

Newly industrialized countries as of 2013. This is an intermediate category between fully developed and developing.

The term "rapidly developing economies" is being used to denote emerging markets such as The United Arab Emirates, Chile
Chile
and Malaysia that are undergoing rapid growth. In recent years, new terms have emerged to describe the largest developing countries such as BRIC
BRIC
that stands for Brazil, Russia, India, and China,[15] along with BRICET ( BRIC
BRIC
+ Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Turkey), BRICS
BRICS
( BRIC
BRIC
+ South Africa), BRICM ( BRIC
BRIC
+ Mexico), MINT (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria
Nigeria
and Turkey), Next Eleven
Next Eleven
(Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Korea, Turkey, and Vietnam) and CIVETS
CIVETS
(Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey
Turkey
and South Africa).[16] These countries do not share any common agenda, but some experts believe that they are enjoying an increasing role in the world economy and on political platforms. Lists of emerging (or developed) markets vary; guides may be found in such investment information sources as EMIS (a Euromoney Institutional Investor Company), The Economist, or market index makers (such as MSCI). In an Opalesque.TV video, hedge fund manager Jonathan Binder discusses the current and future relevance of the term "emerging markets" in the financial world. Binder says that in the future investors will not necessarily think of the traditional classifications of "G10" (or G7) versus "emerging markets". Instead, people should look at the world as countries that are fiscally responsible and countries that are not. Whether that country is in Europe or in South America should make no difference, making the traditional "blocs" of categorization irrelevant. Guégan et al. (2014) also discuss the relevance of the terminology "emerging country" comparing the credit worthiness of so-called emerging countries to so-called developed countries. According to their analysis, depending on the criteria used, the term may not always be appropriate.[17] The 10 Big Emerging Markets (BEM) economies are (alphabetically ordered): Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, South Africa, South Korea
South Korea
and Turkey.[18] Egypt, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, and Thailand
Thailand
are other major emerging markets. Newly industrialized countries are emerging markets whose economies have not yet reached developed status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts. Individual investors can invest in emerging markets by buying into emerging markets or global funds. If they want to pick single stocks or make their own bets they can do it either through ADRs (American depositor Receipts - stocks of foreign companies that trade on US stock exchanges) or through exchange traded funds (exchange traded funds or ETFs hold basket of stocks). The exchange traded funds can be focused on a particular country (e.g., China, India) or region (e.g., Asia-Pacific, Latin America). Commonly listed[edit] Various sources list countries as "emerging economies" as indicated by the table below. A few countries appear in every list (BRICS, Mexico, Turkey). Indonesia
Indonesia
and Turkey
Turkey
are categorized with Mexico
Mexico
and Nigeria
Nigeria
as part of the MINT economies. While there are no commonly agreed upon parameters on which the countries can be classified as "Emerging Economies", several firms have developed detailed methodologies to identify the top performing emerging economies every year[19]

Emerging Markets by Each Group of Analysts

Country IMF[20] BRICS+ Next Eleven FTSE[21] MSCI[22] S&P[23] EM bond index[24] Dow Jones[23] Russell[25] Columbia University EMGP[26]

 Argentina Y

Y

Y

 Bangladesh Y Y

Y Y

 Brazil Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Bulgaria Y

 Chile Y

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 China Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Colombia Y

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Czech Republic

Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Egypt

Y Y Y Y Y Y

Y

 Greece

Y Y Y

Y Y

 Hungary Y

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 India Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Indonesia Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Iran

Y

 Israel

Y

Y

 Malaysia Y

Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Mauritius

Y

 Mexico Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Nigeria

Y

Y

 Oman

Y

 Pakistan Y Y Y Y

Y

 Peru Y

Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Philippines Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Poland Y

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Qatar

Y

Y Y

 Romania Y

Y

 Russia Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Slovenia

Y

 South Africa Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 South Korea

Y

Y

Y

  Taiwan
Taiwan
(China)

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Thailand Y

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Turkey Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

 Ukraine Y

Y

 United Arab Emirates

Y Y

Y Y Y Y

 Venezuela Y

Y

 Vietnam

Y

Y

BBVA
BBVA
Research[edit] In November 2010, BBVA
BBVA
Research introduced a new economic concept, to identify key emerging markets.[27] This classification is divided into two sets of developing economies. As of March 2014, the groupings are as follows: EAGLEs (emerging and growth-leading economies): Expected Incremental GDP in the next 10 years to be larger than the average of the G7 economies, excluding the US.

 Brazil  China  India  Indonesia  Mexico  Russia  Turkey

NEST: Expected Incremental GDP in the next decade to be lower than the average of the G6 economies (G7 excluding the US) but higher than Italy’s.

 Argentina  Bangladesh  Chile  Colombia  Egypt  Iran  Iraq  Kazakhstan  Malaysia  Nigeria  Pakistan  Peru  Philippines  Poland  Qatar  Saudi Arabia  South Africa  Thailand  Vietnam

Other emerging markets[28]

 Bahrain  Bulgaria  Czech Republic  Estonia  Hungary  Jordan  Kuwait  Latvia  Lithuania  Mauritius  Oman  Romania  Slovakia  Sri Lanka  Sudan  Tunisia  United Arab Emirates  Ukraine  Venezuela

Emerging Market Bond Index Global[edit] The Emerging Market Bond Index Global (EMBI Global) by J.P. Morgan was the first comprehensive EM sovereign index in the market, after the EMBI+. It provides full coverage of the EM asset class with representative countries, investable instruments (sovereign and quasi-sovereign), and transparent rules. The EMBI Global includes only USD-denominated emerging markets sovereign bonds and uses a traditional, market capitalization weighted method for country allocation.[29] As of March end 2016, the EMBI Global's market capitalization was $692.3bn.[24] For country inclusion, a country’s GNI per capita must be below the Index Income Ceiling (IIC) for three consecutive years to be eligible for inclusion to the EMBI Global. J.P. Morgan defines the Index Income Ceiling (IIC) as the GNI per capita level that is adjusted every year by the growth rate of the World GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$), provided by the World Bank
World Bank
annually. An existing country may be considered for removal from the index if its GNI per capita is above the Index Income Ceiling (IIC) for three consecutive years as well as the country’s long term foreign currency sovereign credit rating (the available ratings from all three agencies: S&P, Moody’s & Fitch) is A-/A3/A- (inclusive) or above for three consecutive years.[29] J.P. Morgan has introduced what is called an “Index Income Ceiling” (IIC), defined as the income level that is adjusted every year by the growth rate of the World GNI per capita, provided by the World Bank
World Bank
as “GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) annually.” Once a country has GNI per capita below or above the IIC level for three consecutive years, the country eligibility will be determined.[29]

J.P. Morgan has established the base IIC level in 1987 to match the World Bank
World Bank
High Income threshold at US$6,000 GNI per capita. Every year, growth in the World GNI per capita figure is applied to the IIC, establishing a new IIC that is dynamic over time. This approach ensures that J.P. Morgan's cutoff for index removal is adjusted by the World income growth rate, and not by the inflation rate of a smaller sample of Developed economies. This metric essentially incorporates real global growth, global inflation, and currency exchange rate (current USD-denominated) changes. Essentially, the introduction of the IIC establishes a higher, more appropriate threshold for country eligibility in the EMBI Global/Diversified.

Emerging Markets Index[edit] The Emerging Markets Index
Emerging Markets Index
by MasterCard is a list of the top 65 cities in emerging markets. The following countries had cities featured on the list (as of 2008): Countries
Countries
with cities included in the Emerging Markets Index
Emerging Markets Index
2008 by Continent

Continent Country

Asia  China

 India

 Indonesia

 Lebanon

 Malaysia

 Pakistan

 Philippines

 Thailand

 Vietnam

Africa  Egypt

 Kenya

 Morocco

 Senegal

 South Africa

 Tunisia

Europe  Bulgaria

 Hungary

 Poland

 Romania

 Russia

 Turkey

 Ukraine

North America  Mexico

 Dominican Republic

South America  Argentina

 Brazil

 Chile

 Colombia

 Ecuador

 Peru

 Uruguay

 Venezuela

Emerging Markets Index
Emerging Markets Index
2008 top 65[edit]

Shanghai Beijing Budapest Kuala Lumpur Santiago Guangzhou Mexico
Mexico
City Warsaw Bangkok Shenzhen Johannesburg São Paulo Buenos Aires Moscow Istanbul Xiamen Chengdu Dalian Mumbai Tianjin Nanjing Hangzhou Wuhan Chongqing Qingdao Xi'an Harbin Chennai Monterrey Sofia Montevideo Bucharest Cape Town Lima Bogotá Rio de Janeiro Durban New Delhi Bangalore Tunis St. Petersburg Brasilia Jakarta Cairo Manila Hyderabad Recife Kolkata Curitiba Ankara Santo Domingo Pune Casablanca Coimbatore Quito Ho Chi Minh City Kiev Medellin Yekaterinburg Beirut Caracas Novosibirsk Nairobi Karachi Dakar

Global Growth Generators[edit] "Global Growth Generators", or 3G (countries), is an alternative classification determined by Citigroup
Citigroup
analysts as being countries with the most promising growth prospects for 2010-2050. These consist of Indonesia, Egypt, seven other emerging countries, and two countries not previously listed before, specifically Iraq
Iraq
and Mongolia. There has been disagreement about the reclassification of these countries, among others, for the purpose of acronym creation as was seen with the BRICS. Estimating Demand in Emerging Markets[edit] Estimating the demand for products or services in emerging markets and developing economies can be complex and challenging for managers. These countries have unique commercial environments and may be limited in terms of reliable data, market research firms, and trained interviewers. Consumers in some of these countries may consider surveys an invasion of privacy.[30] Survey respondents may try to please researchers by telling them what they want to hear rather than providing honest answers to their questions. However some companies have dedicated their entire business units for understanding the dynamics of emerging markets owing to their peculiarity[31] Economy[edit] The following table lists the 20 largest countries by GDP (nominal) and GDP (PPP) in their respective peak year. See also: List of countries by past and projected GDP (nominal) and List of countries by past and projected GDP (PPP)

Rank Country GDP (nominal, Peak Year) millions of USD Peak Year

1  China 11,937,562 2017

2  Brazil 2,614,027 2011

3  India 2,439,008 2017

4  Russia 2,297,125 2013

5  South Korea 1,529,743 2017

6  Mexico 1,298,466 2014

7  Indonesia 1,010,937 2017

8  Turkey 950,328 2013

9  Saudi Arabia 756,350 2014

10  Argentina 631,621 2015

11  Iran 577,214 2011

12  Taiwan 571,453 2017

13  Nigeria 568,496 2014

14  Poland 545,053 2014

15  Thailand 437,807 2017

16  South Africa 416,879 2011

17  Egypt 408,045 2017

18  United Arab Emirates 403,198 2014

19  Colombia 380,170 2013

20  Greece 356,140 2008

Rank Country GDP (PPP, Peak Year) millions of USD Peak Year

1  China 23,122,027 2017

2  India 9,446,789 2017

3  Russia 4,000,096 2017

4  Brazil 3,306,709 2014

5  Indonesia 3,242,966 2017

6  Mexico 2,406,087 2017

7  Turkey 2,132,717 2017

8  South Korea 2,026,651 2017

9  Saudi Arabia 1,789,264 2017

10  Iran 1,630,859 2017

11  Thailand 1,228,941 2017

12  Egypt 1,199,013 2017

13  Taiwan 1,175,308 2017

14  Nigeria 1,118,434 2017

15  Poland 1,110,735 2017

16  Pakistan 1,056,392 2017

17  Malaysia 926,081 2017

18  Argentina 911,466 2017

19  Philippines 874,518 2017

20  South Africa 757,334 2017

See also[edit]

Next Eleven Emerging market debt Developed market Frontier markets North–South divide Tehran Stock Exchange Emerging and growth-leading economies BRIC BRICS Vladimir Kvint HKUST Institute for Emerging Market Studies Free trade area

References[edit]

^ " MSCI
MSCI
Market Classification Framework" (PDF).  ^ " Greece
Greece
First Developed Market Cut to Emerging at MSCI
MSCI
- Bloomberg".  ^ MSCI
MSCI
will downgrade Argentina
Argentina
to frontier market - MarketWatch MarketWatch ^ Russia
Russia
Faces Specter of Index Demotion…Again - Yahoo Finance ^ "Emerging Economies and the Transformation of International Business" By Subhash Chandra Jain. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006 p. 384. ^ "Acronyms BRIC
BRIC
out all over". The Economist. The Economist. September 18, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2011.  ^ http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/brics-is-passe-time-now-for-%5C3g%5C-citi/126725/on ^ FT.com / Columnists / John Authers - The Long View: How adventurous are emerging markets? ^ Simon Cox (5 October 2017). "Defining emerging markets". The Economist.  ^ [1][permanent dead link] ^ Kvint, Vladimir (2009). The Global Emerging Market: Strategic Management
Management
and Economics. New York, London: Routledge.  ^ Emerging Economy Report ^ Marois, Thomas (2012). States, Banks and Crisis: Emerging Finance Capitalism in Mexico
Mexico
and Turkey. Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, UK: Edward Elgar.  ^ a b Vercueil, Julien: "Les pays émergents. Brésil - Russie - Inde - Chine... Mutations économiques et nouveaux défis " (Emerging Countries. Brazil
Brazil
- Russia
Russia
- India
India
- China.. Economic change and new challenges", in French). Paris: Bréal, 3rd Edition, 2012, 232 p. ^ Five Years of China’s WTO Membership. EU and US Perspectives on China’s Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism, Legal Issues of Economic Integration, Kluwer Law International, Volume 33, Number 3, pp. 263-304, 2006. by Paolo Farah ^ "After BRICs, look to CIVETS
CIVETS
for growth - HSBC CEO" ^ Guégan, D.; Hassani, B.K.; Zhao, X. (2014). "Emerging Countries Sovereign Rating Adjustment using Market Information: Impact on Financial Institutions Investment Decisions". In El Hedi Arouri, M.; Boubaker, S.; Khuong Nguyen, D. Emerging Markets and the Global Economy: A Handbook. Oxford, UK: Academic Press. pp. 17–49.  ^ "The Big Ten". Retrieved 13 February 2015.  ^ "Boston Analytics - Pathways to identifying top performing Emerging Markets".  ^ As of October, 2015. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2015/02/pdf/text.pdf ^ Advanced and Secondary Emerging Markets listed at: "FTSE Annual Country Classification Review" (PDF). FTSE Group. September 2014. Retrieved 2015-02-04.  ^ " MSCI
MSCI
Emerging Markets Indexes". Retrieved 2015-02-02.  ^ a b http://www.spindices.com/documents/index-news-and-announcements/20131030-spdji-country-classification-results.pdf ^ a b J.P. Morgan (April 1, 2016). "Emerging Markets Bond Index Monitor March 2016". J.P. Morgan. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "Russell construction methodology" (PDF). October 2014. Retrieved 2015-02-02.  ^ "Emerging Market Global Players (EMGP)". Retrieved 2015-02-02.  ^ https://www.bbvaresearch.com/KETD/fbin/mult/2014_EAGLEs_Economic_Outllok-Annual_tcm348-437158.pdf?ts=3132014 ^ [2][dead link] EAGLEs_Outlook_Annual_Report_2012 (20 February 2012), page 9 ^ a b c J.P. Morgan (2015). EMBI Global and EMBI Global Diversified Rules and Methodology. J.P. Morgan. pp. 10 pp.  ^ Cavusgil, Tamer (2008). International business: strategy, management, and the new realities. Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-173860-7.  ^ "Boston Analytics - Doing Business in Emerging Markets Framework". 

Sources[edit]

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (January 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Goldman Sachs Paper No.134 BRIMC (in English) CIVETS
CIVETS
countries - Colombia
Colombia
Official Investment Portal
Portal
(in English) Michael Pettis, The Volatility Machine: Emerging Economies and the Threat of Financial Collapse (2001) ISBN 0-19-514330-2 Marc Lubaszka Emerging Market Funds and Technology

External links[edit]

Look up emerging market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Emerging Markets Review Emerging Markets: A Review of Business and Legal Issues Emerging markets: leading the way to recovery Grant Thornton International Business Report Winning in Emerging Markets: Five Key Supply Chain Capabilities by Edgar E. Blanco. MIT Center for Transportation & Logistics. Investment Issues in Emerging Markets - Research Foundation of CFA Institute

v t e

South–South cooperation and Third Worldism

Global South

Development

Landlocked developing countries Least Developed Countries Heavily indebted poor countries

Markets

Emerging markets Newly industrialized country Transition economy

Worlds Theory

First World Second World Third World Fourth World

Geopolitics

Decolonization Cold War Neocolonialism Multipolarity World Conference against Racism

Durban
Durban
I Durban
Durban
II Durban
Durban
III

Globalization

BRICS

Brazil–Russia–India–China–South Africa
Africa
(BRICS) BASIC ( BRICS
BRICS
less Russia) BRIC
BRIC
( BRICS
BRICS
less South Africa) India–Brazil–South Africa
Africa
Dialogue Forum (IBSA)

Finance

Debt Asian Clearing Union Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Asian Development Bank Arab Monetary Fund BancoSur Caribbean Development Bank Common Fund for Commodities

Trade and development

Developmental state Flying geese paradigm Infrastructure-based development Sustainable development Global System of Trade Preferences Protocol on Trade Negotiations New International Economic Order New World Information and Communication Order United Nations
United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Development Organization

Public health

Generic drugs

biosimilar

Pharmaceutical patents

criticism

Test data exclusivity Doha Declaration World Health Organization

Organizations and groups

G-77 G-15 D-8 G20 developing nations
G20 developing nations
(G-20) G-24 G33 developing countries (G-33) G-11 G-90 Non-Aligned Movement African, Caribbean and Pacific Group African Union Afro–Asian Conference Association of Southeast Asian Nations Colombo Plan Community of Latin American and Caribbean States International Solar Alliance Like Minded Group Melanesian Spearhead Group Next Eleven North–South Summit Polynesian Leaders Group South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Small Island Developing States South Centre Third World
Third World
Network

North–South divide

Brandt Report Global financial system

International Monetary Fund World Bank World Trade Organization

Fair trade Financial regulation Global digital divide

v t e

Power in international relations

Types

Economic Energy Food Hard National Power politics Realpolitik Smart Soft Sharp

Status

Emerging Small Middle Regional Great Super Hyper

Geopolitics

American Asian British Chinese Indian Pacific

History

List of ancient great powers List of medieval great powers List of modern great powers International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

Theory

Balance of power

European

Center of power Hegemonic stability theory Philosophy of power Polarity Power projection Power transition theory Second Superpower Sphere of influence Superpower
Superpower
collapse Superpower
Superpower
disengagement

Studies

Composite Index of National Capability Comprehensive National Power

Organizations and groups by region or regions affected

Africa

African Union Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–Asia

Arab League Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
(GCC) Organization of Islamic Cooperation
Organization of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC)

Americas

Mercosur North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur)

Asia

Asia Cooperation Dialogue
Asia Cooperation Dialogue
(ACD) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) China–Japan– South Korea
South Korea
trilateral summits Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) Shanghai
Shanghai
Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

Europe

Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(CE) European Union
European Union
(EU) Nordic Council Visegrád Group

Eurasia

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO) Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EaEU) Turkic Council

North America–Europe

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Arctic Council

Africa–Asia–Europe

Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–South America

South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone

Oceania-Pacific

Australia–New Zealand–United States Security Treaty (ANZUS) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Melanesian Spearhead Group
Melanesian Spearhead Group
(MSG) Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
(PIF) Polynesian Leaders Group
Polynesian Leaders Group
(PLG)

Non-regional

Brazil–Russia–India–China–South Africa
Africa
(BRICS) Commonwealth of Nations Francophonie Colombia–Indonesia–Vietnam–Egypt–Turkey–South Africa (CIVETS) E7 E9 G4 G7 G8 G8+5 G20 G24 G77 India–Brazil–South Africa
Africa
Dialogue Forum (IBSA) Mexico–Indonesia–Nigeria– Turkey
Turkey
(MINT) Next Eleven
Next Eleven
(N-11) Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Uniting for Consensus

Global

U