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Elba
Elba
(Italian: isola d'Elba, pronounced [ˈiːzola ˈdelba]; Latin: Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. It is also part of the Arcipelago Toscano National Park,[2] and the third largest island in Italy, after Sicily
Sicily
and Sardinia. It is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
about 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of the French island of Corsica. The island is part of the province of Livorno
Livorno
and is divided into eight municipalities, with a total population of about 30,000 inhabitants which increases considerably during the summer. The municipalities are Portoferraio
Portoferraio
(which is also the island's principal town), Campo nell'Elba, Capoliveri, Marciana, Marciana
Marciana
Marina, Porto Azzurro, and Rio.

Contents

1 Geology

1.1 Hydrography 1.2 Climate

2 History 3 Transportation

3.1 Cycling

4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Geology[edit] Elba
Elba
is the largest remaining stretch of land from the ancient tract that once connected the Italian peninsula to Corsica. The northern coast faces the Ligurian Sea, the eastern coast the Piombino
Piombino
Channel, the southern coast the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Corsica
Corsica
Channel divides the western tip of the island from neighbouring Corsica. The island itself is made up of slices of rocks which once formed part of the ancient Tethyan seafloor.[3] These rocks have been through at least two orogenies, the Alpine orogeny
Alpine orogeny
and the Apennine orogeny. The second of these two events was associated with subduction of the Tethyan oceanic crust underneath Italy
Italy
and the obduction of parts of the ancient seafloor onto the continents. Later extension within the stretched inner part of the Apennine mountains
Apennine mountains
caused adiabatic melting and the intrusion of the Mount Capanne
Mount Capanne
and the La Serra-Porto Azzuro granitoids. These igneous bodies brought with them skarn fluids which dissolved and replaced some of the carbonate units, precipitating iron-rich minerals in their place. One of the iron-rich minerals, ilvaite, was first identified on the island and takes its name from the Latin
Latin
word for Elba. More recently, high-angle faults formed within the tectonic pile, allowing for the migration of iron-rich fluids through the crust. The deposits left behind by these fluids formed the island's rich seams of iron ore. The terrain is quite varied, and is thus divided into several areas based on geomorphology. The mountainous and most recent part of the island can be found to the west, the centre of which is dominated by Mount Capanne
Mount Capanne
(1,018 metres/3,340 ft), also called the "roof of the Tuscan Archipelago". The mountain is home to many animal species including the mouflon and wild boar, two species that flourish despite the continuous influx of tourists. The central part of the island is a mostly flat section with the width being reduced to just four kilometres (2.5 miles). It is where the major centres can be found: Portoferraio, Campo nell'Elba. To the east is the oldest part of the island, formed over 3 million years ago.[4] In the hilly area, dominated by Monte Calamita, are the deposits of iron that made Elba famous. Hydrography[edit] Rivers rarely exceed 3 kilometres (2 miles) in length, and it is common for the shorter ones to dry up during the summer. The largest rivers, sorted by length, are:

Fosso San Francesco 6.5 kilometres (4.0 mi); Fosso Barion, 5.1 kilometres (3.2 mi); Fosso Redinoce, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi)

Between Poggio and Marciana, at the foot of Mount Capanne, is a spring called Fonte Napoleone, known for its quality. Climate[edit] The climate of the island is predominantly Mediterranean, except for Mount Capanne, where winters tend to be moderately cold. Precipitation is concentrated in autumn and comprises a normal rainfall. The island lies in the rain shadow of the large and mountainous island of Corsica, so precipitation totals are somewhat reduced from the mainland (most of the island receives less than 750 mm (30 inches) annually). Snowfall in winter is rare in the lowlands, and melts quickly. The table below shows the average temperatures for the islands by month.

Climate data for Elba

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.2 (61.2) 18.0 (64.4) 20.0 (68) 22.4 (72.3) 29.6 (85.3) 32.0 (89.6) 34.3 (93.7) 36.1 (97) 32.0 (89.6) 25.0 (77) 24.6 (76.3) 16.8 (62.2) 36.1 (97)

Average high °C (°F) 9.6 (49.3) 10.0 (50) 12.0 (53.6) 14.2 (57.6) 18.8 (65.8) 22.7 (72.9) 26.5 (79.7) 26.7 (80.1) 22.6 (72.7) 18.0 (64.4) 13.4 (56.1) 10.5 (50.9) 17.08 (62.76)

Daily mean °C (°F) 7.4 (45.3) 7.5 (45.5) 9.2 (48.6) 11.4 (52.5) 15.6 (60.1) 19.3 (66.7) 22.7 (72.9) 23.1 (73.6) 19.5 (67.1) 15.4 (59.7) 11.2 (52.2) 8.5 (47.3) 14.23 (57.63)

Average low °C (°F) 5.3 (41.5) 5.0 (41) 6.3 (43.3) 8.5 (47.3) 12.3 (54.1) 15.8 (60.4) 19.0 (66.2) 19.5 (67.1) 16.4 (61.5) 12.9 (55.2) 9.0 (48.2) 6.5 (43.7) 11.38 (52.46)

Record low °C (°F) −7.4 (18.7) −4.4 (24.1) −5.4 (22.3) 1.2 (34.2) 3.4 (38.1) 5.0 (41) 12.2 (54) 11.6 (52.9) 7.6 (45.7) 2.0 (35.6) −1.0 (30.2) −5.4 (22.3) −7.4 (18.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.5 (2.343) 75.6 (2.976) 56.2 (2.213) 57.8 (2.276) 31.6 (1.244) 26.8 (1.055) 13.8 (0.543) 41.5 (1.634) 75.0 (2.953) 101.6 (4) 88.7 (3.492) 50.5 (1.988) 678.6 (26.717)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.7 6.2 6.9 7.0 5.0 3.5 1.6 2.4 5.0 7.9 7.3 5.8 65.3

Average relative humidity (%) 77 76 75 76 76 73 68 72 76 80 81 79 75.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 133.3 118.7 155.0 183.0 195.3 237.0 275.9 257.3 201.0 151.9 117.0 114.7 2,140.1

Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico (temperature and precipitation data 1971-2000)[5]

Source #2: Servizio Meteorologico (relative humidity and sun data 1961-1990)[6]

History[edit]

The map of Elba
Elba
in The Rise and Fall of Napoleon, 1814 cartoon by Johann Michael Voltz

Napoleon
Napoleon
on Elba

Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
leaving Elba
Elba
on 26 February 1815

The island was originally inhabited by Ligures
Ligures
Ilvates who gave it the ancient name Ilva. It was well known from very ancient times for its iron resources and its valued mines. The Greeks
Greeks
called it Aethalia (Αιθαλία, "fume") after the fumes of the furnaces for the production of metal. Apollonius of Rhodes mentions it in his epic poem Argonautica, describing that the Argonauts
Argonauts
rested here during their travels. He writes that signs of their visit were still visible in his day, including skin-coloured pebbles that they dried their hands on and large stones which they used at discus. Strabo
Strabo
(5.2.6) presents a slightly different account: "because the scrapings, which the Argonauts
Argonauts
formed when they used their strigils, became congealed, the pebbles on the shore remain variegated still to this day."[7] The island was invaded by the Etruscans and later (after 480 BC) by the Romans. In the middle ages, it was invaded by the Ostrogoths and the Lombards, and then it became a possession of the Republic of Pisa. After the battle of Meloria, the Republic of Genova
Republic of Genova
took possession of Elba, but it was regained by Pisa in 1292.[8] The island was retained for two centuries by the Appiani family, Lords of Piombino
Piombino
when they sold Pisa to the house of Visconti of Milan in 1399. In 1544, the Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
from North Africa devastated Elba
Elba
and the coasts of Tuscany.[9] In 1546, part of the island was handed over to Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who fortified Portoferraio and renamed it "Cosmopoli", while the rest of the island was returned to the Appiani in 1577. In 1596, Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
captured Porto Azzurro and had two fortresses built there. A part of Elba
Elba
came into the power of the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
through the State of the Presidi, including Porto Longone. In 1736, the whole of Elba
Elba
with the principality of Piombino
Piombino
passed under the jurisdiction of Kingdom of Naples. The British landed on the Island of Elba
Elba
in 1796, after the occupation of Livorno
Livorno
by the French Republican troops, to protect the 4,000 French royalists who had found asylum in Portoferraio
Portoferraio
two years earlier. In 1801, the Peace of Luneville
Peace of Luneville
gave Elba
Elba
to the Kingdom of Etruria, and it was transferred to France in 1802 by the Peace of Amiens.[10][11] French Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
was exiled to Elba
Elba
after his forced abdication following the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814), and he arrived at Portoferraio
Portoferraio
on 30 May 1814. He was allowed to keep a personal guard of 600 men. He was nominally sovereign of Elba, although the nearby sea was patrolled by the French and British navies. During the months that Napoleon
Napoleon
stayed on the island, he carried out a series of economic and social reforms to improve the quality of life. He stayed on Elba
Elba
for 300 days, then escaped to France on 26 February 1815. At the Congress of Vienna, Elba
Elba
was restored to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In 1860, it became part of the new unified Kingdom of Italy. The island was liberated from the Germans by the French 1er Corps d'Armée on 17 June 1944 in Opération Brassard. Faulty intelligence and strong defences made the battle more difficult than expected.[12]

Schiaccia briaca (drunken cake) from Elba
Elba
and Aleatico (Elban wine) used in the recipe

More recently, the island has become famed for its wine and is a noted tourist destination.[13] Transportation[edit] The island is connected to the mainland via the four ferry companies, Toremar, Moby Lines, Blunavy and Corsica
Corsica
Ferries - Sardinia Ferries,[14] all offering routes between Piombino
Piombino
and Portoferraio, the capital located in the north, Cavo, Rio Marina
Rio Marina
and Porto Azzurro, on the east coast of the island.[15][16][17][18][19] There is an airport on the island, Marina di Campo Airport. It is served by SkyWork Airlines
SkyWork Airlines
and Silver Air with flights to the Italian mainland and Switzerland[20] Cycling[edit] The island has a network of trails for road racers looking for more technical routes for their training, trails and dirt roads for bikers to have fun on, and accessible routes for families with children who need safe and relaxing routes. On the road from Rio nell'Elba
Rio nell'Elba
going to Porto Azzurro
Porto Azzurro
is the “Fonte di Coppi”. Towards the end of his career Fausto Coppi, the “campionissimo”, came here to train on the roads of Elba. He still retained a celebrity status but was no longer at the peak of his career that ended with his death a few years later. The plaque on the fountain reads: "1960–2010, here the champion quenched his thirst, since fifty years on the run". Gallery[edit]

Enfola Beach

West coast of Elba

Aerial view of Elba

Mount Capanne

Lighthouse in Portoferraio

Marciana
Marciana
Marina

Capoliveri

Capoliveri

Fetovaia beach

Flag of Elba

See also[edit]

Tuscan Archipelago

References[edit]

^ "Istat official population estimates". Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ "Elba". Parco nazionale dell'Arcipelago Toscano. 16 February 2009. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2012.  ^ "The association of continental crust rocks with ophiolites in the Northern Apennines (Italy): implications for the continent-ocean transition in the Western Tethys" (PDF). els-cdn.com.  ^ http://ofioliti.it/index.php/ofioliti/article/view/137/137 ^ "ELBA/M. CALAMITA" (PDF). Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ "MONTE CALAMITA - ELBA". Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ Race, W. H. Apollonius Rhodius: Argonautica, Loeb Classical Library (2008), II. 654–58, pp. 381–3; see note 95 p. 383 for Strabo quote. ^ of Elba
Elba
Island ^ David, Robert C. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ISBN 1-4039-4551-9 ^ Catholic Encyclopedia ^ History of Elba
Elba
Island ^ McGrann, Bill. "Operation Brassard The Invasion Of Elba". BBC. Retrieved 16 March 2010.  ^ "Food and Wine". Elba
Elba
Island World. Archived from the original on 2010-03-16. Retrieved 16 March 2010.  ^ "Traversate traghetti Sardegna, Corsica
Corsica
e Isola d'Elba". CorsicaFerries / SardiniaFerries.  ^ "Ferries to Elba". Tuscany
Tuscany
Live. Retrieved 16 March 2010.  ^ "Ferries to the island of Elba". Ferry Elba
Elba
Reservation. Retrieved 16 March 2010.  ^ "Blunavy ticket reservation (EN)". Blunavy. Archived from the original on 2011-06-19. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ " Toremar
Toremar
ticket reservation (IT)". Toremar. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ " Moby Lines
Moby Lines
ticket reservation (EN)". Moby Lines. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ "Home - Elba
Elba
Island Airport". Retrieved 16 July 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Chandler, David G. (1990). The Illustrated Napoleon. New York: Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 0-8050-0442-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Elba.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elba.

Elba
Elba
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) 5 Amazing Ways To Experience Italy’s Elba
Elba
Island

Italy
Italy
portal Geography portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 315127