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Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(/ˈɛdɪnb(ə)rə/ ( listen);[6][7][8] Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann [ˈt̪uːn ˈeːtʲən̪ˠ]; Scots: Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland
Scotland
and one of its 32 council areas. It is located in Lothian
Lothian
on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland
Scotland
since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland. The city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the Monarchy in Scotland. Historically part of the county of Midlothian, the city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, literature, the sciences and engineering. It is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom[9] and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year.[10] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom. The official population estimates are 464,990 (2012) for the Locality of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
( Edinburgh
Edinburgh
pre 1975 regionalisation plus Currie
Currie
and Balerno),[1] 507,170 (2016) for the City of Edinburgh,[2] and 1,339,380 (2014) for the city region.[2][3] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
lies at the heart of the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Edinburgh, Fife, Midlothian, Scottish Borders
Scottish Borders
and West Lothian.[11] The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. It is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland
Scotland
and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, was placed 23rd in the QS World University Rankings in 2018.[12] The city is also famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
include Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, and the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th century. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site,[13] which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 17th century 2.3 18th century 2.4 19th and 20th centuries

3 Geography

3.1 Cityscape 3.2 Areas 3.3 Climate

4 Demography

4.1 Current 4.2 Historical 4.3 Religion

5 Economy 6 Culture

6.1 Festivals and celebrations

6.1.1 Edinburgh
Edinburgh
festival 6.1.2 Edinburgh's Hogmanay

6.2 Music, theatre and film 6.3 Media 6.4 Museums, libraries and galleries 6.5 Shopping

7 Governance

7.1 Local government 7.2 Scottish Parliament 7.3 UK Parliament

8 Transport 9 Education 10 Healthcare 11 Sport

11.1 Football

11.1.1 Men's 11.1.2 Women's

11.2 Rugby 11.3 Other sports

12 Notable residents 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns and sister cities

14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Etymology[edit] Main article: Etymology of Edinburgh "Edin", the root of the city's name, is most likely of Brittonic Celtic origin, from the Cumbric language
Cumbric language
or a variation of it that would have been spoken by the earliest known people of the area, an Iron Age
Iron Age
tribe known to the Romans as the Votadini, and latterly in sub-Roman history as the Gododdin. It appears to derive from the place name Eidyn mentioned in the Old Welsh epic poem Y Gododdin.[14][15][16] The poem names Din Eidyn as a hill fort (Din meaning "dun") in the territory of the Gododdin.[17] The change in nomenclature, from Din Eidyn to Edinburgh, reflects changes in the local language from Cumbric to Old English, the Germanic language of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia
Bernicia
that permeated the area from the mid-7th century and is regarded as the ancestor of modern Scots. The Celtic element din was dropped and replaced by the Old English
Old English
burh.[18] The first documentary evidence of the medieval burgh is a royal charter, c. 1124–1127, by King David I granting a toft in burgo meo de Edenesburg to the Priory of Dunfermline.[19] In modern Gaelic, the city is called Dùn Èideann (often rendered Dunedin
Dunedin
by English-speakers). History[edit] Main article: History of Edinburgh Early history[edit]

Edinburgh, showing Arthur's Seat, one of the earliest known sites of human habitation in the area

The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithic
Mesolithic
camp site dated to c. 8500 BC.[20] Traces of later Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and Iron Age
Iron Age
settlements have been found on Castle Rock, Arthur's Seat, Craiglockhart
Craiglockhart
Hill and the Pentland Hills.[21] When the Romans arrived in Lothian
Lothian
at the end of the 1st century AD, they found a Celtic Brittonic tribe whose name they recorded as the Votadini.[22] At some point before the 7th century AD, the Gododdin, who were presumably descendants of the Votadini, built the hill fort of Din Eidyn or Etin. Although its location has not been identified, it seems likely they would have chosen a commanding position like the Castle Rock, Arthur's Seat, or Calton Hill.[23] In 638, the Gododdin
Gododdin
stronghold was besieged by forces loyal to King Oswald of Northumbria, and around this time control of Lothian
Lothian
passed to the Angles. Their influence continued for the next three centuries until around 950, when, during the reign of Indulf, son of Constantine II, the "burh" (fortress), named in the 10th century Pictish Chronicle as oppidum Eden,[24] was abandoned to the Scots. It thenceforth remained under their jurisdiction.[25] The royal burgh was founded by King David I in the early 12th century on land belonging to the Crown, though the precise date is unknown.[26] By the middle of the 14th century, the French chronicler Jean Froissart
Jean Froissart
was describing it as the capital of Scotland
Scotland
(c. 1365), and James III (1451–88) referred to it in the 15th century as "the principal burgh of our kingdom".[27] Despite the destruction caused by an English assault in 1544, the town slowly recovered,[28] and was at the centre of events in the 16th century Scottish Reformation[29] and 17th century Wars of the Covenant.[30] 17th century[edit]

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
in the 17th century

In 1603, King James VI of Scotland
Scotland
succeeded to the English throne, uniting the crowns of Scotland
Scotland
and England
England
in a personal union known as the Union of the Crowns, though Scotland
Scotland
remained, in all other respects, a separate kingdom.[31] In 1638, King Charles I's attempt to introduce Anglican church forms in Scotland
Scotland
encountered stiff Presbyterian opposition culminating in the conflicts of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.[32] Subsequent Scottish support for Charles Stuart's restoration to the throne of England
England
resulted in Edinburgh's occupation by Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth of England
Commonwealth of England
forces – the New Model Army
New Model Army
– in 1650.[33] In the 17th century, Edinburgh's boundaries were still defined by the city's defensive town walls. As a result, the city's growing population was accommodated by increasing the height of the houses. Buildings of 11 storeys or more were common,[34] and have been described as forerunners of the modern-day skyscraper.[35] Most of these old structures were replaced by the predominantly Victorian buildings seen in today's Old Town. 18th century[edit] Following the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
in 1706, the Parliaments of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
passed Acts of Union in 1706 and 1707 respectively, uniting the two kingdoms in the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
effective from 1 May 1707.[36] As a consequence, the Parliament of Scotland
Scotland
merged with the Parliament of England
Parliament of England
to form the Parliament of Great Britain, which sat at Westminster in London. The Union was opposed by many Scots, resulting in riots in the city.[37] By the first half of the 18th century, despite rising prosperity evidenced by its growing importance as a banking centre, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
was described as one of Europe's most densely populated, overcrowded and unsanitary towns.[38][39] Visitors were struck by the fact that the various social classes shared the same urban space, even inhabiting the same tenement buildings; although here a form of social segregation did prevail, whereby shopkeepers and tradesmen tended to occupy the cheaper-to-rent cellars and garrets, while the more well-to-do professional classes occupied the more expensive middle storeys.[40]

A painting showing Edinburgh
Edinburgh
characters (based on John Kay's caricatures) behind St Giles' Cathedral
St Giles' Cathedral
in the late 18th century

During the Jacobite rising of 1745, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
was briefly occupied by the Jacobite "Highland Army" before its march into England.[41] After its eventual defeat at Culloden, there followed a period of reprisals and pacification, largely directed at the rebellious clans.[42] In Edinburgh, the Town Council, keen to emulate London
London
by initiating city improvements and expansion to the north of the castle,[43] reaffirmed its belief in the Union and loyalty to the Hanoverian monarch George III by its choice of names for the streets of the New Town: for example, Rose Street
Rose Street
and Thistle Street; and for the royal family, George Street, Queen Street, Hanover Street, Frederick Street and Princes Street
Princes Street
(in honour of George's two sons).[44] In the second half of the century, the city was at the heart of the Scottish Enlightenment,[45] when thinkers like David Hume, Adam Smith, James Hutton
James Hutton
and Joseph Black
Joseph Black
were familiar figures in its streets. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
became a major intellectual centre, earning it the nickname "Athens of the North" because of its many neo-classical buildings and reputation for learning, recalling ancient Athens.[46] In the 18th century novel The Expedition of Humphry Clinker by Tobias Smollett
Tobias Smollett
one character describes Edinburgh
Edinburgh
as a "hotbed of genius".[47] Edinburgh was also a major centre for the Scottish book trade. The highly successful London
London
bookseller Andrew Millar was apprenticed there to James McEuen.[48] From the 1770s onwards, the professional and business classes gradually deserted the Old Town in favour of the more elegant "one-family" residences of the New Town, a migration that changed the city's social character. According to the foremost historian of this development, "Unity of social feeling was one of the most valuable heritages of old Edinburgh, and its disappearance was widely and properly lamented."[49] 19th and 20th centuries[edit]

Edinburgh Castle
Edinburgh Castle
from the Grassmarket, photographed by George Washington Wilson in 1865

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(1914) by Robert Louis Stevenson

Although Edinburgh's traditional industries of printing, brewing and distilling continued to grow in the 19th century, and were joined by new rubber works and engineering works, there was little industrialisation compared with other cities in Britain. By 1821, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
had been overtaken by Glasgow
Glasgow
as Scotland's largest city.[50] The city centre between Princes Street
Princes Street
and George Street became a major commercial and shopping district, a development partly stimulated by the arrival of railways in the 1840s. The Old Town became an increasingly dilapidated, overcrowded slum with high mortality rates.[51] Improvements carried out under Lord Provost William Chambers in the 1860s began the transformation of the area into the predominantly Victorian Old Town seen today.[52] More improvements followed in the early 20th century as a result of the work of Patrick Geddes,[53] but relative economic stagnation during the two world wars and beyond saw the Old Town deteriorate further before major slum clearance in the 1960s and 1970s began to reverse the process. University building developments which transformed the George Square and Potterrow areas proved highly controversial.[54]

Standard Life
Standard Life
Aberdeen
Aberdeen
headquarters building in the Edinburgh Financial District

Since the 1990s a new "financial district", including a new Edinburgh International Conference Centre, has grown mainly on demolished railway property to the west of the castle, stretching into Fountainbridge, a run-down 19th-century industrial suburb which has undergone radical change since the 1980s with the demise of industrial and brewery premises. This ongoing development has enabled Edinburgh to maintain its place as the United Kingdom's second largest financial and administrative centre after London.[55][56] Financial services now account for a third of all commercial office space in the city.[57] The development of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Park, a new business and technology park covering 38 acres (15 ha), 4 mi (6 km) west of the city centre, has also contributed to the District Council's strategy for the city's major economic regeneration.[57] In 1998, the Scotland
Scotland
Act, which came into force the following year, established a devolved Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
and Scottish Executive (renamed the Scottish Government
Scottish Government
since September 2007[58]). Both based in Edinburgh, they are responsible for governing Scotland
Scotland
while reserved matters such as defence, taxation and foreign affairs remain the responsibility of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in London.[59] Geography[edit] Cityscape[edit] Situated in Scotland's Central Belt, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
lies on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. The city centre is 2 1⁄2 miles (4.0 km) southwest of the shoreline of Leith
Leith
and 26 miles (42 km) inland, as the crow flies, from the east coast of Scotland
Scotland
and the North Sea
North Sea
at Dunbar.[60] While the early burgh grew up near the prominent Castle Rock, the modern city is often said to be built on seven hills, namely Calton Hill, Corstorphine
Corstorphine
Hill, Craiglockhart
Craiglockhart
Hill, Braid Hill, Blackford Hill, Arthur's Seat
Arthur's Seat
and the Castle Rock,[61] giving rise to allusions to the seven hills of Rome.[62] Occupying a narrow gap between the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
to the north and the Pentland Hills
Pentland Hills
and their outrunners to the south, the city sprawls over a landscape which is the product of early volcanic activity and later periods of intensive glaciation. [63] Igneous activity between 350 and 400 million years ago, coupled with faulting, led to the creation of tough basalt volcanic plugs, which predominate over much of the area.[63] One such example is the Castle Rock which forced the advancing icesheet to divide, sheltering the softer rock and forming a 1-mile-long (1.6 km) tail of material to the east, thus creating a distinctive crag and tail formation.[63] Glacial erosion on the north side of the crag gouged a deep valley later filled by the now drained Nor Loch. These features, along with another hollow on the rock's south side, formed an ideal natural strongpoint upon which Edinburgh Castle
Edinburgh Castle
was built.[63] Similarly, Arthur's Seat
Arthur's Seat
is the remains of a volcano dating from the Carboniferous period, which was eroded by a glacier moving west to east during the ice age.[63] Erosive action such as plucking and abrasion exposed the rocky crags to the west before leaving a tail of deposited glacial material swept to the east.[64] This process formed the distinctive Salisbury
Salisbury
Crags, a series of teschenite cliffs between Arthur's Seat
Arthur's Seat
and the location of the early burgh.[65] The residential areas of Marchmont
Marchmont
and Bruntsfield
Bruntsfield
are built along a series of drumlin ridges south of the city centre, which were deposited as the glacier receded.[63] Other prominent landforms such as Calton Hill
Calton Hill
and Corstorphine
Corstorphine
Hill are also products of glacial erosion.[63] The Braid Hills
Braid Hills
and Blackford Hill
Blackford Hill
are a series of small summits to the city's south west that command expansive views looking northwards over the urban area to the Forth.[63]

View of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
from Blackford Hill

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is drained by the river named the Water of Leith, which rises at the Colzium Springs in the Pentland Hills
Pentland Hills
and runs for 29 kilometres (18 mi) through the south and west of the city, emptying into the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
at Leith.[66] The nearest the river gets to the city centre is at Dean Village
Dean Village
on the north-western edge of the New Town, where a deep gorge is spanned by Thomas Telford's Dean Bridge, built in 1832 for the road to Queensferry.[66] The Water of Leith
Leith
Walkway is a mixed use trail that follows the course of the river for 19.6 kilometres (12.2 mi) from Balerno
Balerno
to Leith.[67]

Panorama of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
from Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Castle, with the New Town in the center and Calton Hill
Calton Hill
to the right

Excepting the shoreline of the Firth of Forth, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is encircled by a green belt, designated in 1957, which stretches from Dalmeny
Dalmeny
in the west to Prestongrange
Prestongrange
in the east.[68] With an average width of 3.2 kilometres (2 mi) the principal objectives of the green belt were to contain the outward expansion of the city and to prevent the agglomeration of urban areas.[68] Expansion affecting the green belt is strictly controlled but developments such as Edinburgh Airport
Edinburgh Airport
and the Royal Highland Showground at Ingliston
Ingliston
lie within the zone.[68] Similarly, suburbs such as Juniper Green
Juniper Green
and Balerno
Balerno
are situated on green belt land.[68] One feature of the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
green belt is the inclusion of parcels of land within the city which are designated green belt, even though they do not connect with the peripheral ring. Examples of these independent wedges of green belt include Holyrood Park and Corstorphine
Corstorphine
Hill.[68]

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Old Town Skyline Panorama

Areas[edit] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
comprises distinct areas that retain much of their original character as settlements in existence before they were absorbed into the sprawling city of the nineteenth century.[69] Many areas, such as Dalry contain residences that are multi-occupancy buildings known as tenements, although the more southern and western parts of the city have traditionally been more affluent with a greater number of detached and semi-detached villas.[70]

Map showing the areas of central Edinburgh

The historic centre of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is divided in two by the broad green swathe of Princes Street
Princes Street
Gardens. To the south the view is dominated by Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Castle, built high on the castle rock, and the long sweep of the Old Town descending towards Holyrood Palace. To the north lie Princes Street
Princes Street
and the New Town. The West End includes the financial district, with insurance and banking offices as well as the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
International Conference Centre. Edinburgh's Old and New Towns were listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site in 1995 in recognition of the unique character of the Old Town with its medieval street layout and the planned Georgian New Town, including the adjoining Dean Village
Dean Village
and Calton Hill
Calton Hill
areas. There are over 4,500 listed buildings within the city,[13] a higher proportion relative to area than any other city in the United Kingdom. The Old Town runs downhill and terminates at Holyrood Palace. Minor streets (called closes or wynds) lie on either side of the main spine forming a herringbone pattern.[71] The street has several fine public buildings such as the church of St Giles, the City Chambers and the Law Courts. Other places of historical interest nearby are Greyfriars Kirkyard and the Grassmarket. The street layout is typical of the old quarters of many northern European cities. The castle perches on top of a rocky crag (the remnant of an extinct volcano) and the Royal Mile
Royal Mile
runs down the crest of a ridge from it. Due to space restrictions imposed by the narrowness of this landform, the Old Town became home to some of the earliest "high rise" residential buildings. Multi-storey dwellings known as lands were the norm from the 16th century onwards with ten and eleven storeys being typical and one even reaching fourteen or fifteen storeys.[72] Numerous vaults below street level were inhabited to accommodate the influx of incomers, particularly Irish immigrants, during the Industrial Revolution. The New Town was an 18th-century solution to the problem of an increasingly crowded city which had been confined to the ridge sloping down from the castle. In 1766 a competition to design a "New Town" was won by James Craig, a 27-year-old architect.[73] The plan was a rigid, ordered grid, which fitted in well with Enlightenment ideas of rationality. The principal street is George Street, running along the natural ridge to the north of what became known as the "Old Town". To either side of it are two other main streets: Princes Street
Princes Street
and Queen Street. Princes Street
Princes Street
has become Edinburgh's main shopping street and now has few of its original Georgian buildings. The three main streets are connected by a series of streets running perpendicular to them. The east and west ends of George Street are terminated by St Andrew Square and Charlotte Square
Charlotte Square
respectively. The latter, designed by Robert Adam, influenced the architectural style of the New Town into the early 19th century.[74] Bute House, the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland, is on the north side of Charlotte Square.[75] The hollow between the Old and New Towns was formerly the Nor Loch, which was created for the town's defence but came to be used by the inhabitants for dumping their sewage. It was drained by the 1820s as part of the city's northward expansion. Craig's original plan included an ornamental canal on the site of the loch,[44] but this idea was abandoned.[76] Soil excavated while laying the foundations of buildings in the New Town was dumped on the site of the loch to create the slope connecting the Old and New Towns known as The Mound. In the middle of the 19th century the National Gallery of Scotland
Scotland
and Royal Scottish Academy Building
Royal Scottish Academy Building
were built on The Mound, and tunnels for the railway line between Haymarket and Waverley stations were driven through it. The Southside is a popular residential part of the city, which includes the districts of St Leonards, Marchmont, Morningside, Newington, Sciennes, the Grange and Blackford. The Southside is broadly analogous to the area covered formerly by the Burgh
Burgh
Muir, and grew in popularity as a residential area after the opening of the South Bridge in the 1780s. The Southside is particularly popular with families (many state and private schools are here), young professionals and students (the central University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
campus is based around George Square just north of Marchmont
Marchmont
and the Meadows), and Napier University
Napier University
(with major campuses around Merchiston and Morningside). The area is also well provided with hotel and "bed and breakfast" accommodation for visiting festival-goers. These districts often feature in works of fiction. For example, Church Hill in Morningside, was the home of Muriel Spark's Miss Jean Brodie,[77] and Ian Rankin's Inspector Rebus
Inspector Rebus
lives in Marchmont
Marchmont
and works in St Leonards.[78]

The Shore, Leith

Leith
Leith
was historically the port of Edinburgh, an arrangement of unknown date that was reconfirmed by the royal charter Robert the Bruce granted to the city in 1329.[79] The port developed a separate identity from Edinburgh, which to some extent it still retains, and it was a matter of great resentment when the two burghs merged in 1920 into the City of Edinburgh.[80] Even today the parliamentary seat is known as " Edinburgh
Edinburgh
North and Leith". The loss of traditional industries and commerce (the last shipyard closed in 1983) resulted in economic decline.[81] The Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Waterfront development has transformed old dockland areas from Leith
Leith
to Granton into residential areas with shopping and leisure facilities and helped rejuvenate the area. With the redevelopment, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has gained the business of cruise liner companies which now provide cruises to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands. The coastal suburb of Portobello is characterised by Georgian villas, Victorian tenements, a popular beach and promenade and cafés, bars, restaurants and independent shops. There are rowing and sailing clubs and a restored Victorian swimming pool, including Turkish baths. The urban area of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is almost entirely within the City of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Council boundary, merging with Musselburgh
Musselburgh
in East Lothian. Towns within easy reach of the city boundary include Dalkeith, Bonnyrigg, Loanhead, Newtongrange, Prestonpans, Tranent, Penicuik, Haddington, Livingston, Broxburn and Dunfermline. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
lies at the heart of the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
& South East Scotland
Scotland
City region with a population in 2014 of 1,339,380.[2][3] Climate[edit] Like most of Scotland, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has a temperate, maritime climate which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude.[82] Winter daytime temperatures rarely fall below freezing and are milder than places such as Moscow
Moscow
and Labrador
Labrador
which lie at similar latitudes.[82] Summer temperatures are normally moderate, rarely exceeding 22 °C (72 °F).[82] The highest temperature ever recorded in the city was 31.4 °C (88.5 °F) on 4 August 1975[82] at Turnhouse
Turnhouse
Airport. The lowest temperature recorded in recent years was −14.6 °C (5.7 °F) during December 2010 at Gogarbank.[83] In an average year, the temperature will drop to a minimum of −7.3 ºC (18.9 ºF).[84] The city's proximity to the sea mitigates any large variations in temperature or extremes of climate. Given Edinburgh's position between the coast and hills, it is renowned as "the windy city", with the prevailing wind direction coming from the south west, which is often associated with warm, unstable air from the North Atlantic Current that can give rise to rainfall – although considerably less than cities to the west, such as Glasgow.[82] Rainfall is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year.[82] Winds from an easterly direction are usually drier but considerably colder, and may be accompanied by haar, a persistent coastal fog. Vigorous Atlantic depressions, known as European windstorms, can affect the city between October and May.[82] There is also a weather station in Gogarbank on the city's outskirts.[85] This slightly inland station has a slightly wider temperature span between seasons, is cloudier and somewhat wetter, but differences are minor.

Climate data for Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(Royal Botanic Gardens)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.0 (59) 15.2 (59.4) 20.0 (68) 22.8 (73) 29.0 (84.2) 27.8 (82) 30.0 (86) 31.4 (88.5) 26.7 (80.1) 24.4 (75.9) 20.6 (69.1) 15.4 (59.7) 31.4 (88.5)

Average high °C (°F) 7.0 (44.6) 7.5 (45.5) 9.5 (49.1) 11.8 (53.2) 14.7 (58.5) 17.2 (63) 19.1 (66.4) 18.9 (66) 16.5 (61.7) 13.1 (55.6) 9.6 (49.3) 7.0 (44.6) 12.66 (54.79)

Average low °C (°F) 1.4 (34.5) 1.5 (34.7) 2.8 (37) 4.3 (39.7) 6.8 (44.2) 9.7 (49.5) 11.5 (52.7) 11.4 (52.5) 9.4 (48.9) 6.5 (43.7) 3.7 (38.7) 1.3 (34.3) 5.86 (42.53)

Record low °C (°F) −15.5 (4.1) −11.7 (10.9) −11.1 (12) −6.1 (21) −2.4 (27.7) 1.1 (34) 4.4 (39.9) 2.2 (36) −1.1 (30) −3.7 (25.3) −8.3 (17.1) −11.5 (11.3) −15.5 (4.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 67.5 (2.657) 47.0 (1.85) 51.7 (2.035) 40.5 (1.594) 48.9 (1.925) 61.3 (2.413) 65.0 (2.559) 60.2 (2.37) 63.7 (2.508) 75.6 (2.976) 62.1 (2.445) 60.8 (2.394) 704.3 (27.726)

Average rainy days 12.5 9.4 9.9 8.8 9.6 9.6 9.5 9.7 10.2 12.4 11.2 11.4 124.2

Mean monthly sunshine hours 53.5 78.5 114.8 144.6 188.4 165.9 172.2 161.5 128.8 101.2 71.0 46.2 1,426.6

Source: Met Office[86]

Climate data for Edinburgh/Burbank

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 7.0 (44.6) 9.0 (48.2) 11.6 (52.9) 14.6 (58.3) 17.2 (63) 19.2 (66.6) 19.1 (66.4) 16.6 (61.9) 12.9 (55.2) 9.2 (48.6) 6.6 (43.9) 12.5 (54.5)

Average low °C (°F) 1.1 (34) 1.3 (34.3) 2.6 (36.7) 4.1 (39.4) 6.5 (43.7) 9.1 (48.4) 10.9 (51.6) 10.8 (51.4) 9.2 (48.6) 6.2 (43.2) 3.6 (38.5) 1.1 (34) 5.6 (42.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 76.3 (3.004) 53.8 (2.118) 55.9 (2.201) 46.1 (1.815) 49.0 (1.929) 61.5 (2.421) 64.1 (2.524) 67.8 (2.669) 58.0 (2.283) 84.5 (3.327) 73.7 (2.902) 63.6 (2.504) 754.2 (29.693)

Average rainy days 13.6 9.8 11.8 9.8 11.4 10.4 10.2 11.2 10.4 12.8 13.0 12.9 137.2

Mean monthly sunshine hours 45.5 69.6 106.9 136.3 188.3 154.1 170.7 149.0 125.5 96.1 65.2 35.3 1,342.7

Source: Met Office[87]

Demography[edit] Current[edit]

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
compared[88][89]

UK Census 2011 Edinburgh Scotland

Total population 476,626 5,295,000

Population growth 2001–2011 6.2% 5.0%

White 91.7% 96.0%

Asian 5.5% 2.7%

Black 1.4% 0.8%

Christian 43.0% 54.0%

Muslim 2.6% 1.4%

The most recent official population estimates are 464,990 (2012) for the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Locality[1] and 507,170 (2016) for the local authority area.[2] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
lies at the heart of the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
& South East Scotland
Scotland
City region with a population in 2014 of 1,339,380.[2][3] This makes Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Scotland's second largest city after Glasgow
Glasgow
and the seventh largest in Britain. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has a high proportion of young adults, with 19.5% of the population in their 20s (exceeded only by Aberdeen) and 15.2% in their 30s which is the highest in Scotland. The proportion of Edinburgh's population born in the UK fell from 92% to 84% between 2001 and 2011, while the proportion born in Scotland
Scotland
fell from 78% to 70%. Of those Edinburgh
Edinburgh
residents born in the UK, 335,000 or 83% were born in Scotland, with 58,000 or 14% being born in England.[90] The proportion of people born outside the UK was 15.9% comparing with 8% in 2001. Countries accounting for the largest number of Edinburgh citizens born overseas are: Poland
Poland
(13,000), Republic of Ireland (8,603), China
China
(8,076), India
India
(6,470), Pakistan (5,858), United States (3,700), Germany
Germany
(3,500), Australia
Australia
(2,100), France
France
(2,000) Spain (2,000), South Africa (1,800) and Canada
Canada
(1,800). 47% of the non-UK-born population in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is of European origin, which is amongst the highest for any UK city.[90] Some 13,000 people or 2.7% of the city's population are Polish. 39,500 people or 8.2% of Edinburgh's population class themselves as Non-White which is an increase from 4% in 2001. Of the Non-White population, the largest group by far are Asian, totalling 26,264 people. Within the Asian population, the Chinese are now the largest sub-group, with 8,076 people, amounting to about 1.7% of the city's total population. The city's Indian population amounts to 6,470 (1.4% of the total population), while there are some 5,858 Pakistanis (1.2% of the total population). Although they account for only 1,277 people or 0.3% of the city's population, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has the highest number and proportion of Bangladeshis in Scotland. Over 7,000 people were born in African countries (1.6% of the total population) and nearly 7,000 in the Americas. With the notable exception of Inner London, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has a higher number of people born in the United States
United States
(over 3,700) than any other city in the UK.[90] Historical[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1592 8,003 —    

1751 49,000 +512.3%

1801 82,560 +68.5%

1811 102,987 +24.7%

1821 138,235 +34.2%

1831 161,909 +17.1%

1841 166,450 +2.8%

1851 193,929 +16.5%

1901 394,898 +103.6%

1911 400,806 +1.5%

1921 420,264 +4.9%

1931 439,010 +4.5%

1951 466,761 +6.3%

1991 418,748 −10.3%

2001 448,624 +7.1%

2011 476,626 +6.2%

Source: [91][not in citation given]

A census by the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
presbytery in 1592 recorded a population of 8,003 adults spread equally north and south of the High Street which runs along the spine of the ridge sloping down from the Castle.[92] In the 18th and 19th centuries, the population expanded rapidly, rising from 49,000 in 1751 to 136,000 in 1831, primarily due to migration from rural areas.[93] As the population grew, problems of overcrowding in the Old Town, particularly in the cramped tenements that lined the present day Royal Mile
Royal Mile
and the Cowgate, were exacerbated.[93] Poor sanitary arrangements resulted in a high incidence of disease,[93] with outbreaks of cholera occurring in 1832, 1848 and 1866.[94] The construction of the New Town from 1767 onwards witnessed the migration of the professional and business classes from the difficult living conditions in the Old Town to the lower density, higher quality surroundings taking shape on land to the north. [95] Expansion southwards from the Old Town saw more tenements being built in the 19th century, giving rise to Victorian suburbs such as Dalry, Newington, Marchmont
Marchmont
and Bruntsfield.[95] Early 20th century population growth coincided with lower-density suburban development. As the city expanded to the south and west, detached and semi-detached villas with large gardens replaced tenements as the predominant building style. Nonetheless, the 2001 census revealed that over 55% of Edinburgh's population were still living in tenements or blocks of flats, a figure in line with other Scottish cities, but much higher than other British cities, and even central London.[96] From the early to mid 20th century the growth in population, together with slum clearance in the Old Town and other areas, such as Dumbiedykes, Leith, and Fountainbridge, led to the creation of new estates such as Stenhouse and Saughton, Craigmillar
Craigmillar
and Niddrie, Pilton and Muirhouse, Piershill, and Sighthill.[97] Religion[edit]

The High Kirk of Edinburgh, known colloquially as St Giles' Cathedral

The Church of Scotland
Scotland
claims the largest membership of any single religious denomination in Edinburgh. In 2010 there were 83 congregations in the Presbytery of Edinburgh.[98] Its most prominent church is St Giles on the Royal Mile, first dedicated in 1243 but believed to date from before the 12th century.[99] Saint Giles
Saint Giles
is historically the patron saint of Edinburgh.[100] St Cuthbert's, situated at the west end of Princes Street
Princes Street
Gardens in the shadow of Edinburgh Castle
Edinburgh Castle
and St Giles' can lay claim to being the oldest Christian sites in the city,[101] though the present St Cuthbert's, designed by Hippolyte Blanc, was dedicated in 1894.[102] Other Church of Scotland
Scotland
churches include Greyfriars Kirk, the Canongate Kirk, St Andrew's and St George's West Church and the Barclay Church. The Church of Scotland
Scotland
Offices are in Edinburgh,[103] as is the Assembly Hall where the annual General Assembly is held.[104] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St Andrews and Edinburgh
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St Andrews and Edinburgh
has 27 parishes across the city.[105] The Archbishop of the Archdiocese of St Andrews and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has his official residence in Greenhill,[106] and the diocesan offices are in nearby Marchmont.[107] The Diocese of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
of the Scottish Episcopal Church
Scottish Episcopal Church
has over 50 churches, half of them in the city.[108] Its centre is the late 19th century Gothic style St Mary's Cathedral in the West End's Palmerston Place.[109] There are several independent churches in the city, both Catholic
Catholic
and Protestant, including Charlotte Chapel, Carrubbers Christian Centre, Bellevue Chapel
Bellevue Chapel
and Sacred Heart.[110] There are also churches belonging to Quakers, Christadelphians,[111] Seventh-day Adventists, Church of Christ, Scientist
Church of Christ, Scientist
and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Edinburgh Central Mosque
Edinburgh Central Mosque
– Edinburgh's main mosque and Islamic Centre – is in Potterrow, on the city's Southside, near Bristo Square. Construction was largely financed by a gift from King Fahd of Saudi Arabia[112] and was completed in 1998. There are other mosques in Annandale Street Lane, off Leith
Leith
Walk, and in Queensferry Road, Blackhall as well as other Islamic centres across the city.[113] There is also an active presence of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim community.[114] The first recorded presence of a Jewish community in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
dates back to the late 18th century.[115] Edinburgh's Orthodox synagogue, opened in 1932, is in Salisbury
Salisbury
Road and can accommodate a congregation of 2000. A Liberal Jewish congregation also meets in the city. There are a Sikh
Sikh
gurdwara and a Hindu
Hindu
mandir, both in Leith, and a Brahma Kumaris centre[116] in the Polwarth area. The Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Buddhist Centre, run by the Triratna Buddhist Community, formerly situated in Melville Terrace, now runs sessions at the Healthy Life Centre, Bread Street.[117] Other Buddhist traditions are represented by groups which meet in the capital: the Community of Interbeing (followers of Thich Nhat Hanh), Rigpa, Samye Dzong, Theravadin, Pure Land and Shambala. There is a Sōtō Zen
Sōtō Zen
Priory in Portobello[118] and a Theravadin
Theravadin
Thai Buddhist Monastery in Slateford
Slateford
Road.[119] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is home to an active Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Community,[120] and a Theosophical Society
Theosophical Society
meets in Great King Street.[121] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has an active Inter-Faith Association.[122] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Edinburgh

The Bank of Scotland's head office in central Edinburgh.

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has the strongest economy of any city in the United Kingdom outside London
London
and the highest percentage of professionals in the UK with 43% of the population holding a degree-level or professional qualification.[123] According to the Centre for International Competitiveness, it is the most competitive large city in the United Kingdom.[124] It also has the highest gross value added per employee of any city in the UK outside London, measuring £57,594 in 2010.[125] It was named European Best Large City of the Future for Foreign Direct Investment and Best Large City for Foreign Direct Investment Strategy in the Financial Times
Financial Times
fDi magazine awards 2012/13. In the 19th century, Edinburgh's economy was known for banking, publishing and brewing. Today, its economy is based mainly on financial services, scientific research, higher education, and tourism.[126] In March 2010, unemployment in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
was comparatively low at 3.6%, and it remains consistently below the Scottish average of 4.5%.[127] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is the 2nd most visited city by foreign visitors in the UK after London. Banking has been a mainstay of the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
economy for over 300 years, since the Bank of Scotland
Scotland
(now part of the Lloyds Banking Group) was established by an act of the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
in 1695. Today, the financial services industry, with its particularly strong insurance and investment sectors, and underpinned by Edinburgh-based firms such as Scottish Widows
Scottish Widows
and Standard Life, accounts for the city being the UK's second financial centre after London
London
and Europe's fourth in terms of equity assets.[128] The Royal Bank of Scotland opened new global headquarters at Gogarburn
Gogarburn
in the west of the city in October 2005, and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is home to the headquarters of Bank of Scotland, Sainsbury's Bank,[129] Tesco Bank,[130] TSB Bank and Virgin Money.[131]

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Park

Tourism is also an important element in the city's economy. As a World Heritage Site, tourists visit historical sites such as Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse
Palace of Holyroodhouse
and the Old and New Towns. Their numbers are augmented in August each year during the Edinburgh Festivals, which attracts 4.4 million visitors,[127] and generates over £100m for the local economy.[132] As the centre of Scotland's government and legal system, the public sector plays a central role in Edinburgh's economy. Many departments of the Scottish Government
Scottish Government
are in the city. Other major employers include NHS Scotland
Scotland
and local government administration.[126] Culture[edit] Festivals and celebrations[edit] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
festival[edit] Main article: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Festival The city hosts a series of festivals that run between the end of July and early September each year. The best known of these events are the Edinburgh Festival
Edinburgh Festival
Fringe, the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo
Edinburgh Military Tattoo
and the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
International Book Festival.[133]

Pipers emerging from Edinburgh Castle
Edinburgh Castle
during the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Military Tattoo

The longest established of these festivals is the Edinburgh International Festival, which was first held in 1947[134] and consists mainly of a programme of high-profile theatre productions and classical music performances, featuring international directors, conductors, theatre companies and orchestras.[135] This has since been overtaken both in size and popularity by the Edinburgh Fringe
Edinburgh Fringe
which began as a programme of marginal acts alongside the "official" Festival and has become the world's largest performing arts festival. In 2017, nearly 3400 different shows were staged in 300 venues across the city.[136][137] Comedy has become one of the mainstays of the Fringe, with numerous well-known comedians getting their first 'break' there, often by being chosen to receive the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Comedy Award.[138] The Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Military Tattoo, occupies the Castle Esplanade every night, with massed pipers and military bands drawn from around the world. Performances end with a short fireworks display. As well as the various summer festivals, many other festivals are held during the rest of the year, including the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
International Film Festival[139] and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
International Science Festival.[140] Edinburgh's Hogmanay[edit] Main article: Edinburgh's Hogmanay

A Viking longship being burnt during Edinburgh's annual Hogmanay celebrations.

The annual Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Hogmanay
Hogmanay
celebration was originally an informal street party focused on the Tron Kirk
Tron Kirk
in the Old Town's High Street. Since 1993, it has been officially organised with the focus moved to Princes Street. In 1996, over 300,000 people attended, leading to ticketing of the main street party in later years up to a limit of 100,000 tickets.[141] Hogmanay
Hogmanay
now covers four days of processions, concerts and fireworks, with the street party beginning on Hogmanay. Alternative tickets are available for entrance into the Princes Street Gardens concert and Cèilidh, where well-known artists perform and ticket holders can participate in traditional Scottish cèilidh dancing. The event attracts thousands of people from all over the world.[141] On the night of 30 April the Beltane Fire Festival
Beltane Fire Festival
takes place on Calton Hill, involving a procession followed by scenes inspired by pagan old spring fertility celebrations.[142] At the beginning of October each year the Dussehra Hindu
Hindu
Festival is also held on Calton Hill.[143] Music, theatre and film[edit]

Edinburgh Festival
Edinburgh Festival
Theatre

Outside the Festival season, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
supports several theatres and production companies. The Royal Lyceum Theatre
Royal Lyceum Theatre
has its own company, while the King's Theatre, Edinburgh Festival
Edinburgh Festival
Theatre and Edinburgh Playhouse stage large touring shows. The Traverse Theatre
Traverse Theatre
presents a more contemporary repertoire. Amateur theatre companies productions are staged at the Bedlam Theatre, Church Hill Theatre
Church Hill Theatre
and King's Theatre among others.[144] The Usher Hall
Usher Hall
is Edinburgh's premier venue for classical music, as well as occasional popular music concerts.[145] It was the venue for the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
1972. Other halls staging music and theatre include The Hub, the Assembly Rooms and the Queen's Hall. The Scottish Chamber Orchestra is based in Edinburgh.[146]

Traverse Theatre

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has two repertory cinemas, the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Filmhouse and The Cameo, as well as the independent Dominion Cinema
Dominion Cinema
and a range of multiplexes.[147] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has a healthy popular music scene. Occasionally large concerts are staged at Murrayfield
Murrayfield
and Meadowbank, while mid-sized events take place at smaller venues such as the Corn Exchange, the Liquid Rooms and the Bongo Club. In 2010, PRS for Music
PRS for Music
listed Edinburgh
Edinburgh
among the UK's top ten 'most musical' cities.[148] Several city pubs are well known for their live performances of folk music. They include 'Sandy Bell's' in Forrest Road, 'The Captain's Bar' in South College Street, and 'Whistlebinkies' in South Bridge. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is home to a flourishing group of contemporary composers such as Nigel Osborne, Peter Nelson, Lyell Cresswell, Hafliði Hallgrímsson, Edward Harper, Robert Crawford, Robert Dow and John McLeod. McLeod's music is heard regularly on BBC Radio 3 and throughout the UK.[149] Rockstar North, formerly DMA Design, known for creating the Grand Theft Auto series, is based in Edinburgh.[150] Media[edit] The Edinburgh Evening News
Edinburgh Evening News
is based in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and published every day except Sunday. Johnston Press
Johnston Press
owns the title and The Scotsman; their corporate headquarters are in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and their national newspaper is the only one published in the city.[151] The city has two commercial radio stations: Forth 1, a station which broadcasts mainstream chart music, and Forth 2
Forth 2
on medium wave which plays classic hits.[152] Capital Radio Scotland
Scotland
and Eklipse Sports Radio also have transmitters covering Edinburgh. Along with the UK national radio stations, Radio Scotland
Scotland
and the Gaelic language service BBC Radio nan Gàidheal
BBC Radio nan Gàidheal
are also broadcast. DAB digital radio is broadcast over two local multiplexes. BFBS
BFBS
Radio broadcasts from studios on the base at Dreghorn Barracks across the city on 98.5FM as part of its UK Bases network STV Edinburgh, a local TV channel for the city, launched on 12 January 2015.[153] Television, along with most radio services, is broadcast to the city from the Craigkelly transmitting station
Craigkelly transmitting station
situated in Fife
Fife
on the opposite side of the Firth of Forth.[154] Museums, libraries and galleries[edit]

National Gallery of Scotland

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has many museums and libraries. These include the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland, National War Museum, the Museum of Edinburgh, Surgeons' Hall
Surgeons' Hall
Museum, the Writers' Museum, the Museum of Childhood and Our Dynamic Earth. The Museum on the Mound has exhibits on money and banking.[155] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Zoo, covering 82 acres (33 ha) on Corstorphine
Corstorphine
Hill, is the second most popular paid tourist attraction in Scotland,[156] and currently home to two giant pandas, Tian Tian and Yang Guang, on loan from the People's Republic of China. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is also home to The Royal Yacht Britannia, decommissioned in 1997 and now a five-star visitor attraction and evening events venue permanently berthed at Ocean Terminal. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
contains Scotland's five National Galleries of Art as well as numerous smaller art galleries.[157] The national collection is housed in the National Gallery of Scotland, located on the Mound, now linked to the Royal Scottish Academy which holds regular major exhibitions of paintings. Contemporary collections are shown in the Scottish National Gallery
Scottish National Gallery
of Modern Art which occupies a split site at Belford. The Scottish National Portrait Gallery
Scottish National Portrait Gallery
on Queen Street focuses on portraits and photography.

National Museum of Scotland

The council-owned City Art Centre in Market Street mounts regular art exhibitions. Across the road, The Fruitmarket Gallery
Fruitmarket Gallery
offers world class exhibitions of contemporary art, featuring work by British and international artists with both emerging and established international reputations.[158] There are many small private galleries, including the Ingleby Gallery. This provides a varied programme including shows by Callum Innes, Peter Liversidge, Ellsworth Kelly, Richard Forster, and Sean Scully.[159] The city hosts several of Scotland's galleries and organisations dedicated to contemporary visual art. Significant strands of this infrastructure include: The Scottish Arts Council, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
College of Art, Talbot Rice Gallery
Talbot Rice Gallery
(University of Edinburgh) and the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Annuale. Shopping[edit] The locale around Princes Street
Princes Street
is the main shopping area in the city centre, with souvenir shops, chain stores such as Boots the Chemist, H&M and Jenners.[160] George Street, north of Princes Street, is the preferred location for some upmarket shops and independent stores.[160] The St. James Centre
St. James Centre
at the east end of Princes Street
Princes Street
is currently being redeveloped, however the John Lewis store remains open.[161] Multrees Walk, adjacent to the St. James Centre, is a recent addition to the central shopping district, dominated by the presence of Harvey Nichols. Shops here include Louis Vuitton, Mulberry and Calvin Klein.[160] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
also has substantial retail parks outside the city centre. These include The Gyle Shopping Centre
The Gyle Shopping Centre
and Hermiston Gait in the west of the city, Cameron Toll
Cameron Toll
Shopping Centre, Straiton Retail Park and Fort Kinnaird
Fort Kinnaird
in the south and east, and Ocean Terminal in the north on the Leith
Leith
waterfront.[162] Governance[edit] Main article: Politics of Edinburgh

The debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament

Local government[edit] Following local government reorganisation in 1996, Edinburgh constitutes one of the 32 council areas of Scotland.[163] Like all other local authorities of Scotland, the council has powers over most matters of local administration such as housing, planning, local transport, parks, economic development and regeneration.[164] The council comprises 58 elected councillors, returned from 17 multi-member electoral wards in the city.[165] Following the 2007 Scottish Local Elections the incumbent Labour Party lost majority control of the council after 23 years to a Liberal Democrat/SNP coalition.[166] The City of Edinburgh Council
City of Edinburgh Council
election, 2012 saw a Scottish Labour/SNP coalition. The City of Edinburgh Council
City of Edinburgh Council
election, 2017, saw a continuation of this administration, but with the SNP as the largest party.

Edinburgh City Chambers
Edinburgh City Chambers
is the headquarters of the City of Edinburgh Council.

The city's coat of arms was registered by the Lord Lyon King of Arms in 1732.[167] Scottish Parliament[edit] Edinburgh, like all of Scotland, is represented in the Scottish Parliament. For electoral purposes, the city is divided into six constituencies which, along with 3 seats outside of the city, form part of the Lothian
Lothian
region.[168] Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
(MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven additional MSPs to produce a result based on a form of proportional representation.[168] As of the 2016 election, the Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party
have three MSPs: Ash Denham for Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Eastern, Ben Macpherson for Edinburgh Northern and Leith
Leith
and Gordon MacDonald for Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Pentlands constituencies. Alex Cole-Hamilton of the Scottish Liberal Democrats represents Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Western, Daniel Johnson of the Scottish Labour Party represents Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Southern constituency, and Scottish Conservative leader Ruth Davidson
Ruth Davidson
currently represents the Edinburgh Central constituency. UK Parliament[edit] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is also represented in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom by five Members of Parliament. The city is divided into Edinburgh
Edinburgh
North and Leith, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
East, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
South, Edinburgh South West, and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
West,[169] each constituency electing one member by the first past the post system. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is currently represented by three MPs affiliated with the Scottish National Party, one Liberal Democrat MP in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
West and one Labour MP in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
South. Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Edinburgh

A Lothian
Lothian
Bus on North Bridge

Edinburgh Airport
Edinburgh Airport
is Scotland's busiest and biggest airport and the principal international gateway to the capital, handling over 12 million passengers in 2016.[170] In anticipation of rising passenger numbers, the former operator of the airport BAA outlined a draft masterplan in 2011 to provide for the expansion of the airfield and the terminal building. In June 2012, Global Infrastructure Partners purchased the airport for £807 million.[171] The possibility of building a second runway to cope with an increased number of aircraft movements has also been mooted.[172] Travel in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is undertaken predominantly by bus. Lothian
Lothian
Buses operate the majority of city bus services within the city and to surrounding suburbs, with the most routes running via Princes Street. Services further afield operate from the Edinburgh Bus Station
Edinburgh Bus Station
off St Andrew Square and Waterloo Place and are operated mainly by Stagecoach East Scotland, Scottish Citylink, National Express Coaches
National Express Coaches
& West Coast Motors. Lothian
Lothian
Buses, as the successor company to the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Corporation Transport Department, also operates all of the city's branded public tour buses, night bus service and airport bus link. [173] In 2010, Lothian
Lothian
Buses recorded 109 million passenger journeys – a 1.9% rise on the previous year.[174]

A train preparing to depart from Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Waverley Station

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Waverley is the second-busiest railway station in Scotland, with only Glasgow
Glasgow
Central handling more passengers. On the evidence of passenger entries and exits between April 2015 and March 2016, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Waverley is the fifth-busiest station outside London; it is also the UK's second biggest station in terms of the number of platforms and area size.[175] Waverley is the terminus for most trains arriving from London
London
King's Cross and the departure point for many rail services within Scotland
Scotland
operated by Abellio ScotRail. To the west of the city centre lies Haymarket Station which is an important commuter stop. Opened in 2003, Edinburgh Park
Edinburgh Park
station serves the Gyle business park in the west of the city and the nearby Gogarburn
Gogarburn
headquarters of the Royal Bank of Scotland. The Edinburgh Crossrail route connects Edinburgh Park
Edinburgh Park
with Haymarket, Edinburgh Waverley and the suburban stations of Brunstane
Brunstane
and Newcraighall
Newcraighall
in the east of the city.[176] There are also commuter lines to South Gyle and Dalmeny, the latter serving South Queensferry
South Queensferry
by the Forth Bridges, and to Wester Hailes
Wester Hailes
and Curriehill
Curriehill
in the south west of the city. To tackle traffic congestion, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is now served by six park and ride sites on the periphery of the city at Sheriffhall (in Midlothian), Ingliston, Riccarton, Inverkeithing
Inverkeithing
(in Fife), Newcraighall
Newcraighall
and Straiton (in Midlothian). A referendum of Edinburgh residents in February 2005 rejected a proposal to introduce congestion charging in the city. [177]

Edinburgh Trams
Edinburgh Trams
in Shandwick Place

Edinburgh Trams
Edinburgh Trams
became operational on 31 May 2014. The city had been without a tram system since Edinburgh Corporation Tramways
Edinburgh Corporation Tramways
ceased on 16 November 1956.[178] Following parliamentary approval in 2007, construction began in early 2008. The first stage of the project was expected to be completed by July 2011[179] but, following delays caused by extra utility work and a long-running contractual dispute between the Council and the main contractor, Bilfinger SE, the project was rescheduled.[180][181][182] The cost of the project rose from the original projection of £545 million to £750 million in mid-2011[183] and some suggest it could eventually exceed £1 billion.[184] The completed line is 8.7 miles (14.0 km) in length, running from Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Airport, west of the city, to its current terminus at York Place in the city centre's East End. It was originally planned to continue down Leith
Leith
Walk to Ocean Terminal and where it would terminate at Newhaven. Should the original plan be taken to completion, trams will also run from Haymarket through Ravelston
Ravelston
and Craigleith to Granton Square on the Waterfront Edinburgh.[185] Long-term proposals envisage a line running west from the airport to Ratho
Ratho
and Newbridge and another connecting Granton Square to Newhaven via Lower Granton Road, thus completing the Line 1 (North Edinburgh) loop.[186] A further line serving the south of the city has also been suggested. Lothian
Lothian
Buses and Edinburgh Trams
Edinburgh Trams
are both owned and operated by Transport for Edinburgh. Education[edit] Further information: List of schools in Edinburgh

Old College of the University of Edinburgh

There are four universities in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(including Queen Margaret University which lies just outwith the city boundary) with students making up around one-fifth of the population.[187] Established by Royal Charter in 1583, the University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
is one of Scotland's ancient universities and is the fourth oldest in the country after St Andrews, Glasgow
Glasgow
and Aberdeen.[188] Originally centred on Old College the university expanded to premises on The Mound, the Royal Mile
Royal Mile
and George Square.[188] Today, the King's Buildings in the south of the city contain most of the schools within the College of Science and Engineering. In 2002, the medical school moved to purpose built accommodation adjacent to the new Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
at Little France. The University placed 17th in the QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
for 2018.[12] Heriot-Watt University
Heriot-Watt University
and Napier Technical College
Napier Technical College
were established in the 1960s.[188] Heriot-Watt began as the world's first Mechanics' Institute, tracing its origins to 1821 when it opened as a school for the technical education of the working classes.[189] The former Napier College was renamed Napier Polytechnic in 1986 and gained university status in 1992.[190] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Napier University
Napier University
has campuses in the south and west of the city, including the former Merchiston Tower
Merchiston Tower
and Craiglockhart
Craiglockhart
Hydropathic.[190] It is home to the Screen Academy Scotland. Queen Margaret University
Queen Margaret University
was located in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
before it moved to a new campus near Musselburgh
Musselburgh
in 2008. Until 2012 further education colleges in the city included Jewel and Esk College
Jewel and Esk College
(incorporating Leith
Leith
Nautical College founded in 1903), Telford College, opened in 1968, and Stevenson College, opened in 1970. These have now been amalgamated to form Edinburgh
Edinburgh
College. Scotland's Rural College
Scotland's Rural College
also has a campus in south Edinburgh. Other institutions include the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
which were established by Royal Charter in 1506 and 1681 respectively. The Trustees Drawing Academy of Edinburgh, founded in 1760, became the Edinburgh College of Art
Edinburgh College of Art
in 1907.[191] There are 18 nursery, 94 primary and 23 secondary schools administered by the City of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Council.[192] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is home to The Royal High School, one of the oldest schools in the country and the world. The city also has several independent, fee-paying schools including Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Academy, Fettes College, George Heriot's School, George Watson's College, Merchiston
Merchiston
Castle School, Stewart's Melville College and The Mary Erskine School. In 2009, the proportion of pupils attending independent schools was 24.2%, far above the Scottish national average of just over 7% and higher than in any other region of Scotland.[193] In August 2013, the City of Edinburgh Council
City of Edinburgh Council
opened the city's first stand-alone Gaelic primary school, Bun-sgoil Taobh na Pàirce.[194] Healthcare[edit]

The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh
Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh
is the main public hospital for the city.

See also: List of hospitals in Edinburgh The main NHS Lothian
Lothian
hospitals serving the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
area are the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, which includes the University of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Medical School, and the Western General Hospital,[195] which has a large cancer treatment centre and nurse-led Minor Injuries Clinic.[196] The Royal Edinburgh Hospital
Royal Edinburgh Hospital
in Morningside specialises in mental health. The Royal Hospital for Sick Children, popularly referred to as 'the Sick Kids', is a specialist paediatrics hospital. There are two private hospitals: Murrayfield
Murrayfield
Hospital in the west of the city and Shawfair Hospital in the south. Both are owned by Spire Healthcare.[195] Sport[edit] Football[edit] Men's[edit] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has three football clubs that play in the Scottish Professional Football League (SPFL): Heart of Midlothian, founded in 1874, Hibernian, founded in 1875 and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
City, founded in 1966. Heart of Midlothian
Midlothian
and Hibernian are known locally as "Hearts" and "Hibs" respectively, both play in the Scottish Premiership.[197] They are the oldest city rivals in Scotland
Scotland
and the Edinburgh derby
Edinburgh derby
is one of the oldest derby matches in world football. Both clubs have won the Scottish league championship four times. Hearts have won the Scottish Cup eight times and the Scottish League Cup four times. Hibs have won the Scottish Cup
Scottish Cup
and the Scottish League Cup three times each. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
City were promoted to the SPFL Scottish League Two
Scottish League Two
in the 2015–16 season, becoming the first club to win promotion to the Scottish Professional Football League
Scottish Professional Football League
via the pyramid system. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
was also home to three other former Scottish Football League clubs: Leith
Leith
Athletic, Meadowbank Thistle and St Bernard's. Meadowbank Thistle played at Meadowbank Stadium
Meadowbank Stadium
until 1995, when the club moved to Livingston and became Livingston F.C.
Livingston F.C.
The Scottish national team has very occasionally played at Easter Road
Easter Road
and Tynecastle, although its normal home stadium is Hampden Park
Hampden Park
in Glasgow. St Bernard's' New Logie Green was used to host the 1896 Scottish Cup
Scottish Cup
Final, the only time the match has been played outside Glasgow.[198] The city also plays host to Lowland Football League
Lowland Football League
clubs Civil Service Strollers, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University and Spartans, as well as junior clubs Edinburgh
Edinburgh
United and Craigroyston, and East of Scotland League clubs Heriot-Watt University, Leith
Leith
Athletic, Lothian
Lothian
Thistle Hutchison Vale and Tynecastle. Women's[edit] In women's football, Hibs and Spartans play in the SWPL 1. Hearts and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Hutchison Vale (EUHV) play in the SWPL 2.[199][200] Rugby[edit] The Scotland
Scotland
national rugby union team and the professional Edinburgh Rugby team play at Murrayfield
Murrayfield
Stadium, which is owned by the Scottish Rugby Union and also used for other events, including music concerts. It is the largest capacity stadium in Scotland, seating 67,144 spectators.[201] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is also home to RBS Premier One rugby teams Boroughmuir RFC, Heriot's Rugby Club, the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Academicals, Currie
Currie
RFC and Watsonians RFC.[202] Rugby league
Rugby league
is represented by the Edinburgh Eagles
Edinburgh Eagles
who play in the Rugby League Conference Scotland
Scotland
Division. Murrayfield Stadium
Murrayfield Stadium
has hosted the Magic Weekend
Magic Weekend
where all Super League
Super League
matches are played in the stadium over one weekend.

Tynecastle Park

Easter Road
Easter Road
Stadium

Murrayfield
Murrayfield
Stadium

Meadowbank Stadium

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Marathon

Murrayfield
Murrayfield
Ice Rink

Other sports[edit] The Scottish cricket team, which represents Scotland
Scotland
internationally, play their home matches at the Grange cricket club.[203] The Edinburgh Capitals
Edinburgh Capitals
are the latest of a succession of ice hockey clubs in the Scottish capital. Previously Edinburgh
Edinburgh
was represented by the Murrayfield Racers and the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Racers. The club play their home games at the Murrayfield Ice Rink
Murrayfield Ice Rink
and have competed in the ten-team professional Elite Ice Hockey League
Elite Ice Hockey League
since the 2005–06 season.[204][205] Caledonia Pride
Caledonia Pride
are the only women's professional basketball team in Scotland. Established in 2016, the team compete in the UK wide Women's British Basketball League and play their home matches at the Oriam National Performance Centre. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
also has several men's basketball teams within the Scottish National League. Boroughmuir Blaze, City of Edinburgh Kings and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University all compete in Division 1 of the National League, and Edinburgh Lions
Edinburgh Lions
and Pleasance B.C. compete in Division 2. Boroughmuir won the league in 2016, and won the playoffs in the same year, beating the University in the final. Right next door to Murrayfield Ice Rink
Murrayfield Ice Rink
is a 7-sheeter dedicated curling facility where curling is played from October to March each season. The Edinburgh Diamond Devils
Edinburgh Diamond Devils
is a baseball club which won its first Scottish Championship in 1991 as the "Reivers." 1992 saw the team repeat the achievement, becoming the first team to do so in league history. The same year saw the start of their first youth team, the Blue Jays. The club adopted its present name in 1999.[206] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has also hosted national and international sports events including the World Student Games, the 1970 British Commonwealth Games,[207] the 1986 Commonwealth Games[207] and the inaugural 2000 Commonwealth Youth Games.[208] For the 1970 Games the city built Olympic standard venues and facilities including Meadowbank Stadium and the Royal Commonwealth Pool. The Pool underwent refurbishment in 2012 and is due to host the Diving competition in the 2014 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
which will be held in Glasgow.[209] In American football, the Scottish Claymores
Scottish Claymores
played WLAF/NFL Europe games at Murrayfield, including their World Bowl 96 victory. From 1995 to 1997 they played all their games there, from 1998 to 2000 they split their home matches between Murrayfield
Murrayfield
and Glasgow's Hampden Park, then moved to Glasgow
Glasgow
full-time, with one final Murrayfield appearance in 2002.[210] The city's most successful non-professional team are the Edinburgh Wolves
Edinburgh Wolves
who play at Meadowbank Stadium.[211] The Edinburgh Marathon
Edinburgh Marathon
has been held annually in the city since 2003 with more than 16,000 runners taking part on each occasion.[212] Its organisers have called it "the fastest marathon in the UK" due to the elevation drop of 40 metres (130 ft).[213] The city also organises a half-marathon, as well as 10 km (6.2 miles) and 5 km (3.1 mi) races, including a 5 km (3 miles) race on 1 January each year. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has a speedway team, the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Monarchs, which, since the loss of its stadium in the city, has raced at the Lothian
Lothian
Arena in Armadale, West Lothian. The Monarchs have won the Premier League championship five times in their history, in 2003[214] and again in 2008,[215] 2010, 2014 and 2015. Notable residents[edit] Main article: List of people from Edinburgh See also: List of University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
people

Sir Walter Scott

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has a long literary tradition, which became especially evident during the Scottish Enlightenment. This heritage and the city's lively literary life in the present led to it being declared the first UNESCO
UNESCO
City of Literature in 2004.[216][217] Famous authors who have lived in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
include the economist Adam Smith, born in Kirkcaldy
Kirkcaldy
and author of The Wealth of Nations, [218] James Boswell, biographer of Samuel Johnson; Sir Walter Scott, creator of the historical novel and author of famous titles such as Rob Roy, Ivanhoe, and Heart of Midlothian; James Hogg, author of The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner; Robert Louis Stevenson, creator of Treasure Island, Kidnapped, and The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde; Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes; Muriel Spark, author of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie; Irvine Welsh, author of Trainspotting, whose novels are mostly set in the city and often written in colloquial Scots; [219] Ian Rankin, author of the Inspector Rebus series of crime thrillers, Alexander McCall Smith, author of the No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency series,[220] and J. K. Rowling, creator of Harry Potter, who began her first book in an Edinburgh
Edinburgh
coffee shop.[221]

Statue of James Clerk Maxwell, George Street, Edinburgh

Scotland
Scotland
has a rich history of science and engineering, with Edinburgh producing a number of famous names. John Napier, inventor of logarithms, was born in Merchiston Tower
Merchiston Tower
and lived and died in the city.[222] His house now forms part of the original campus of Napier University which was named in his honour. He lies buried under St. Cuthbert's Church. James Clerk Maxwell, founder of the modern theory of electromagnetism, was born at 14 India
India
Street (now the home of the James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell
Foundation) and educated at the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Academy and the University of Edinburgh,[218] as was the engineer and telephone pioneer Alexander Graham Bell.[218] James Braidwood, who organised Britain's first municipal fire brigade, was also born in the city and began his career there. Other names connected with the city include Max Born, physicist and Nobel laureate;[223] Charles Darwin, the biologist who propounded the theory of natural selection;[218] David Hume, philosopher, economist and historian;[218] James Hutton, regarded as the "Father of Geology";[218] Joseph Black, the chemist and one of the founders of thermodynamics;[218] pioneering medical researchers Joseph Lister and James Young Simpson;[218] chemist and discoverer of the element nitrogen Daniel Rutherford; Colin Maclaurin, mathematician and developer of the Maclaurin series,[224] and Ian Wilmut, the geneticist involved in the cloning of Dolly the sheep just outside Edinburgh.[218] The stuffed carcass of Dolly the sheep is now on display in the National Museum of Scotland.[225] The latest in a long line of science celebrities associated with the city is theoretical physicist and Nobel Prizewinner Professor Emeritus Peter Higgs, born in Newcastle but resident in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
for most of his academic career, after whom the Higgs boson
Higgs boson
particle has been named.[226]

Deacon Brodie
Deacon Brodie
on Edinburgh's Royal Mile

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has been the birthplace of actors like Alastair Sim
Alastair Sim
and Sir Sean Connery, famed as the first cinematic James Bond,[227] the comedian and actor Ronnie Corbett, best known as one of The Two Ronnies,[228] and the impressionist Rory Bremner. Famous artists from the city include the portrait painters Sir Henry Raeburn, Sir David Wilkie and Allan Ramsay. The city has produced or been home to some very successful musicians in recent decades, particularly Ian Anderson, front man of the band Jethro Tull, The Incredible String Band, the folk duo The Corries, Wattie Buchan, lead singer and founding member of punk band The Exploited, Shirley Manson, lead singer of the band Garbage, the Bay City Rollers, The Proclaimers, Boards of Canada
Boards of Canada
and Idlewild.

Greyfriars Bobby
Greyfriars Bobby
Fountain

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is the birthplace of former British Prime Minister Tony Blair who attended the city's Fettes College.[229] Notorious criminals from Edinburgh's past include Deacon Brodie, head of a trades guild and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
city councillor by day but a burglar by night, who is said to have been the inspiration for Robert Louis Stevenson's story, the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde,[230] and murderers Burke and Hare
Burke and Hare
who delivered fresh corpses for dissection to the famous anatomist Robert Knox.[231] Another well-known Edinburgh
Edinburgh
resident was Greyfriars Bobby. The small Skye Terrier
Skye Terrier
reputedly kept vigil over his dead master's grave in Greyfriars Kirkyard
Greyfriars Kirkyard
for 14 years in the 1860s and 1870s, giving rise to a story of canine devotion which plays a part in attracting visitors to the city.[232] International relations[edit] Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Scotland The City of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
has entered into 14 international twinning arrangements since 1954.[233] Most of the arrangements are styled as 'Twin Cities' but the agreement with Kraków
Kraków
is designated as a 'Partner City',[233] and the agreement with Kyoto Prefecture
Kyoto Prefecture
is officially styled as a 'Friendship Link', reflecting its status as the only region to be twinned with Edinburgh.[233]

City Since

Munich, Germany 1954

Nice, France 1958[234][235]

Florence, Italy 1964

Dunedin, New Zealand 1974

Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada 1977[236]

San Diego, California, United States 1977

Xi'an, China 1985

Segovia, Spain 1985[237]

Kiev, Ukraine 1989

Aalborg, Denmark 1991[238]

Kyoto Prefecture, Japan 1994

Kathmandu, Nepal 1994

Kraków, Poland 1995[239]

Saint Petersburg, Russia 1995[240][241]

For a list of consulates in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
see List of diplomatic missions in Scotland. See also[edit]

National Archives of Scotland Tourism in Scotland

References[edit]

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Edinburgh Festival
& Fringe Festival". timeout.com. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ Pamment, Charles (28 July 2006). "The arts go on show in Edinburgh". BBC News. Retrieved 12 January 2011.  ^ "'New world' theme for Edinburgh
Edinburgh
International Festival". BBC News. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2011.  ^ "Record numbers at Edinburgh's festivals". BBC News. 28 August 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2018.  ^ "Stage set for Edinburgh Fringe
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success". BBC News Edinburgh, East, & Fife. August 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2011.  ^ "Kane wins Edinburgh
Edinburgh
comedy award". BBC News Scotland. August 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2011.  ^ " Edinburgh
Edinburgh
International Film Festival". Edinburgh
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Edinburgh
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Edinburgh
Guide.com. Retrieved 13 January 2011.  ^ " Bristol
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STV Edinburgh
launches with The Fountainbridge
Fountainbridge
Show on January 12". STV. Retrieved 5 January 2015.  ^ "TV digital switchover gets under way in east". BBC News. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2013.  ^ Kirsty Scott (12 October 2011). "10 of the best museums and galleries in Edinburgh". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ "Zoo Beginnings". About the Zoo. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Zoo. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ "Portrait of the Nation". National Galleries of Scotland. Retrieved 13 January 2011.  ^ "Simon Schama's Power of Art". Retrieved 13 January 2011.  ^ "Trio grande". Heraldscotland. Retrieved 13 January 2011.  ^ a b c "Shopping – Edinburgh's Princes Street
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Edinburgh
City Region". edinburgh-inspiringcapital.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ "Schedule 1 – New Local Government Areas – Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994". Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI). 3 November 1994. Retrieved 12 February 2013.  ^ "Chapter 6 – Functions – Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994". Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI). 3 November 1994. Retrieved 8 June 2008.  ^ "Councillors". City of Edinburgh
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Burgh
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Edinburgh
and Glasgow
Glasgow
airports record highest passenger numbers". BBC News. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2017.  ^ "Scottish airport sold for £807m". 23 April 2012 – via www.bbc.co.uk.  ^ " Edinburgh Airport
Edinburgh Airport
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Lothian
Buses. Retrieved 9 February 2012.  ^ "LOTHIAN BUSES plc CONSOLIDATED REPORTS AND ACCOUNTS" (PDF). Lothian Buses. Retrieved 9 February 2012.  ^ Pigott, Nick, ed. (June 2012). "Waterloo still London's busiest station". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 158 no. 1334. Horncastle, Lincs: Mortons Media Group. p. 6.  ^ " Edinburgh
Edinburgh
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Edinburgh
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Tram
testing set to increase". Edinburgh
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Edinburgh
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Edinburgh
trams would cost £750m". BBC News. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2013.  ^ " Edinburgh
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tram budget poised to hit £1bn mark". STV Edinburgh. 19 August 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  ^ " Edinburgh
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tram spur line shelved". BBC News. 24 April 2009.  ^ "£45m boost for new tram network". BBC News. 26 January 2006. Retrieved 19 February 2013.  ^ " Edinburgh
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Oxford
Companion to Scottish History. Oxford
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Edinburgh
Napier University guide". The Daily Telegraph. London.  ^ " Edinburgh College
Edinburgh College
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Edinburgh
Health Services". edinburgh-inspiringcapital.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2013.  ^ "Western General Hospital". NHS Lothian. Retrieved 9 February 2013.  ^ "Edinburgh: Heart of Midlothian
Midlothian
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Edinburgh
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Council. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2009.  ^ "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2013.  ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ " Vancouver
Vancouver
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-Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków
Kraków
(in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.  ^ " Saint Petersburg
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Edinburgh
– Twin and Partner Cities". 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

S Mullay, The Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Encyclopedia, Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh and London
London
1996, ISBN 1-85158-762-4 A Massie, Edinburgh, Sinclair-Stevenson, London
London
1994, ISBN 1-85619-244-X H Coghill, Edinburgh, The Old Town, John Donald, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
1990, ISBN 0-85976-289-0 A Herman, How the Scots Invented the Modern World: The True Story of How Western Europe's Poorest Nation Created Our World & Everything in It, Three Rivers Press, New York
York
2001, ISBN 0-609-80999-7; also published as The Scottish Enlightenment, The Scots' Invention of the Modern World, HarperCollins, London
London
2001, ISBN 1-84115-275-7 Campbell, Donald (2003). Edinburgh: A Cultural and Literary History. Signal Books. ISBN 1-902669-73-8.  S Mullay, The Illustrated History of Edinburgh's Suburbs, Breedon Books, Derby
Derby
2008, ISBN 978-1-85983-665-1

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Edinburgh.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Edinburgh.

Media related to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
at Wikimedia Commons The City of Edinburgh Council
City of Edinburgh Council
official website Marketing Edinburgh
Edinburgh
official tourist agency Edinburgh
Edinburgh
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

The City of Edinburgh

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Edinburgh

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