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East Sussex
Sussex
is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent
Kent
to the north and east, Surrey
Surrey
to the north west and West Sussex
West Sussex
to the west, and to the south by the English Channel.

Contents

1 History 2 Governance 3 Geography

3.1 Geology 3.2 Climate 3.3 Relief and drainage 3.4 Settlements

4 Economy and demography 5 Politics 6 Landmarks 7 Transport

7.1 Roads 7.2 Railways 7.3 Footpaths

8 Education 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Sussex East Sussex
Sussex
is part of the historic county of Sussex, which has its roots in the ancient kingdom of the South Saxons, who established themselves there in the 5th century AD, after the departure of the Romans. Archaeological remains are plentiful, especially in the upland areas. The area's position on the coast has also meant that there were many invaders, including the Romans and later the Normans. Earlier industries have included fishing, iron-making, and the wool trade, all of which have declined, or been lost completely. Governance[edit] Main article: East Sussex
Sussex
County Council Further information: History of local government in Sussex

County Hall, Lewes

Sussex
Sussex
is traditionally sub-divided into six rapes. From the 12th century the three eastern rapes together and the three western rapes together had separate quarter sessions, with the county town of the three eastern rapes being Lewes.[2] This situation was formalised by Parliament in 1865, and the two parts were made into administrative counties, each with distinct elected county councils in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888. In East Sussex
Sussex
there were also three self-administered county boroughs: Brighton, Eastbourne
Eastbourne
and Hastings. In 1974 East Sussex
Sussex
was made a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county, and the three county boroughs became districts within the county. At the same time the western boundary was altered, so that the Mid Sussex region (including Burgess Hill
Burgess Hill
and Haywards Heath) was transferred to the county of West Sussex. In 1997, Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
became a self-administered unitary authority; it was granted city status in 2000, whilst remaining part of the ceremonial county of East Sussex. East Sussex
Sussex
is divided into five local government districts. Three are larger, rural, districts (from west to east) are: Lewes; Wealden; and Rother. Eastbourne
Eastbourne
and Hastings
Hastings
are mainly urban areas. The rural districts are further subdivided into civil parishes.[3] Geography[edit] Geology[edit] Main article: Geology of East Sussex

Beachy Head
Beachy Head
and lighthouse, Eastbourne, East Sussex

From a geological point of view East Sussex
Sussex
is part of southern anticline of the Weald: the South Downs, a range of moderate chalk hills which run across the southern part of the county from west to east and mirrored in Kent
Kent
by the North Downs. To the north lie parallel valleys and ridges, the highest of which is the Weald
Weald
itself (the Hastings
Hastings
beds and Wealden
Wealden
Clay). The sandstones and clays meet the sea at Hastings; the Downs, at Beachy Head. See also: List of hills of East Sussex Climate[edit] East Sussex, like most counties by the south coast, has an annual average total of around 1,750[4] hours of sunshine per year. This is much higher than the UK's average of about 1,340 hours of sunshine a year. Relief and drainage[edit] The relief of the county reflects the geology. The chalk uplands of the South Downs
South Downs
occupies the coastal strip between Brighton
Brighton
and Eastbourne. There are two river gaps: the Rivers Ouse and Cuckmere. The Seven Sisters, where the Downs meet the sea, are the remnants of dry valleys cut into the chalk; they end at Beachy Head, 530 feet (162 m) above sea level. To the east of Beachy Head
Beachy Head
lie the marshlands of the Pevensey
Pevensey
Levels, formerly flooded by the sea but now enclosed within a deposited beach. At Bexhill the land begins to rise again where the sands and clays of the Weald
Weald
meet the sea; these culminate in the sandstone cliffs east of Hastings. Further east are the Pett
Pett
Levels, more marshland, beyond which is the estuary of the River Rother. On the far side of the estuary are the dunes of Camber Sands. The highest point of the Downs within the county is Ditchling Beacon, at 814 feet (248 m): it is termed a Marilyn. The Weald
Weald
occupies the northern borderlands of the county. Between the Downs and Weald
Weald
is a narrow stretch of lower lying land; many of the rivers and streams occupying this area originate in the Weald. The High Weald
Weald
is heavily wooded in contrast to the South Downs; the Low Weald
Weald
less so. Part of the Weald
Weald
is the Ashdown Forest. Settlements[edit] See also: List of settlements in East Sussex
Sussex
by population The location of settlements in East Sussex
Sussex
has been determined both by its history and its geography. The original towns and villages tended to be where its economy lay: fishing along the coast and agriculture and iron mining on the Weald. Industry today tends to be geared towards tourism, and particularly along the coastal strip. Here towns such as Bexhill-on-Sea, Eastbourne, and Hastings
Hastings
lie. Newhaven and Rye are ports, although the latter is also of historical importance. Peacehaven
Peacehaven
and Seaford are more dormitory towns than anything else. Away from the coast lie former market towns such as Hailsham, Heathfield and Uckfield; Crowborough
Crowborough
is a centre for the Ashdown Forest. Lewes, the County town of East Sussex; and Battle, with its Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
beginnings, are the other two towns of significance. Economy and demography[edit] This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex
Sussex
( Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
has a separate table) at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[5] Agriculture[6] Industry[7] Services[8]

1995 4,359 84 1,053 3,222

2000 4,953 54 1,155 3,744

2003 5,326 69 1,252 4,004

Claimants of JSA or Income Support (DWP)[9]

Unit JSA or Inc. Supp. claimants (August 2012) JSA and Income Support claimants (August 2001) Population (April 2011)

East Sussex 18,790 34,335 526,671

% of 2011 resident population (2001 population where applicable) 3.6% 7.0% -

Ranked by district

Borough of Hastings 6.7% 12.1% 90,254

Borough of Eastbourne 4.3% 8.2% 99,412

Rother
Rother
District 3.1% 6.5% 90,588

Lewes
Lewes
District 3.0% 5.7% 97,502

Wealden
Wealden
District 1.8% 4.2% 148,915

Politics[edit] See also: List of Parliamentary constituencies in East Sussex

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2017)

General election 2015: East Sussex

Conservative Labour Liberal Democrats UKIP Green Others Socialist Labour Trade Union & Socialist Turnout

178,537 +12,422 95,719 +14,148 54,068 −59,731 48,498 +37,211 42,143 +18,895 771 -976 161 +13 144 -50 418,805 +12,865

Overall number of seats as of 2015

Conservative Labour Green Liberal Democrats UKIP Others Socialist Labour Trade Union & Socialist

4 2 1 1 0 0 0 0

Landmarks[edit]

Mermaid Street in Rye showing typically steep slope and cobbled surface

The Seven Sisters Park is part of the South Downs
South Downs
National Park. Beachy Head
Beachy Head
is one of the most famed local attractions, along with the flats along Normans
Normans
Bay. Apart from the physical landmarks such as the Downs and the Weald, East Sussex
Sussex
has a great many landmarks of historical interest. There are castles at Bodiam, Herstmonceux, Lewes
Lewes
and Pevensey; and defence works such as the Martello towers
Martello towers
and Eastbourne
Eastbourne
Redoubt.[10] Battle Abbey, built to commemorate the Battle of Hastings; Bateman's, home of Rudyard Kipling, Hammerwood Park, one of the first examples of Greek Revival architecture in the UK; and the University of Sussex
Sussex
buildings at Falmer
Falmer
are among interesting buildings. Transport[edit] Roads[edit]

The A23, one of the major North-South routes.

East Sussex
Sussex
has no motorways, and even dual carriageways are sparse in the county. The main roads through the county are those part of the radial pattern from London: the A21 from Kent
Kent
to Hastings; the A22 from Surrey
Surrey
to Eastbourne; and the A23 from Gatwick to Brighton. Cross-country routes include the A26 which carries traffic from Newhaven and Lewes
Lewes
north into Kent; and the south coast trunk route, which starts in Folkestone
Folkestone
(Kent) as the A259 trunk road, and traverses the south coast to Eastbourne, where it becomes the A27 trunk road and heads westwards towards Chichester
Chichester
in West Sussex
West Sussex
and ultimately to Honiton
Honiton
in Devon. All the main roads suffer from congestion and traffic problems: the A27 which connects Eastbourne
Eastbourne
to Portsmouth
Portsmouth
is one of the busiest trunk roads in the UK. Bus routes serve all the main areas of settlement and many of the villages in the county. Railways[edit] The railways serve the main towns in a similar fashion to the roads. Until the closures of many branch railways in the 20th century, rural East Sussex
Sussex
was well-served by rail: few such branch lines escaped the Beeching Axe so that today only main-line services remain. They include the East Coastway Line
East Coastway Line
(including the Marshlink Line); the London- Hastings
Hastings
line; and the Uckfield
Uckfield
branch, the terminus of the Oxted Line. There are three heritage railways: the Kent
Kent
and East Sussex
Sussex
Railway operates from Tenterden
Tenterden
in Kent
Kent
to Bodiam; the Bluebell Railway from Sheffield Park to East Grinstead; and the Lavender Line Steam Railway near Lewes. Trains in the county are operated by Southern, Southeastern, Thameslink and First Great Western. Southern is the key operator for the county, operating services along the West Coastway and East Coastway routes, as well as trains from Brighton, Eastbourne, Seaford and Hastings
Hastings
to London Victoria, and to a lesser extent London Bridge, which is also where trains to/from Uckfield
Uckfield
go. Southeastern operate trains from London Charing Cross to Hastings. Thameslink operate trains from Brighton
Brighton
to Bedford, and First Great Western
First Great Western
operate from Brighton
Brighton
to Bristol
Bristol
Temple Meads, Cardiff Central, Gloucester, Worcester Shrub Hill and Great Malvern. Footpaths[edit] See also: Recreational walks in East Sussex Among the long-distance footpaths in East Sussex
Sussex
are the South Downs Way; 1066 Country Walk, High Weald
Weald
Landscape Trail, Saxon Shore Way, Sussex
Sussex
Border Path, Sussex
Sussex
Ouse Valley Way, Vanguard Way, Wealdway
Wealdway
and The Monarch's Way Education[edit] Main article: List of schools in East Sussex The University of Sussex
Sussex
is based near Brighton. As well as this there are 150 primary schools in East Sussex, many of them small and serving small communities.

University of Sussex
Sussex
campus

East Sussex
Sussex
has a comprehensive education system with 27 state secondary schools (not including sixth form colleges) and 12 independent secondary schools including Lewes
Lewes
Old Grammar School which celebrated its 500th Anniversary in 2012. Each of the larger towns also has a further education college. There are also a number of independent boarding schools in the county. The Pestalozzi Children's Village, an international foundation, is located at Sedlescombe. See also[edit]

Outline of England Historic coats of arms of East Sussex
Sussex
County Council History of local government in Sussex ESCIS List of High Sheriffs of East Sussex List of hills of East Sussex The Keep: the county's archive and record office, near Falmer List of Lord Lieutenants of East Sussex Healthcare in Sussex

Geography portal Europe portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal England
England
portal South East England
England
portal East Sussex
Sussex
portal Brighton
Brighton
portal

References[edit]

^ a b "Flag of Sussex
Sussex
- Council Arms". Retrieved 8 September 2011.  ^ Connections Archived 25 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. West Sussex ^ See List of civil parishes in East Sussex ^ "Met Office:English Climate". Met Office. Archived from the original on 25 May 2007. Retrieved 4 August 2007.  ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding ^ includes hunting and forestry ^ includes energy and construction ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured ^ Key Statistics: Population; Quick Statistics: Economic indicators. (2011 census and 2001 census) Retrieved 2015-02-27. ^ Eastbourne
Eastbourne
Redoubt Fortress Military Museum Eastbourne
Eastbourne
Redoubt is the home of the Royal Sussex
Sussex
Regimental Museum

External links[edit]

East Sussex
Sussex
travel guide from Wikivoyage East Sussex
Sussex
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Images of East Sussex
Sussex
at the English Heritage Archive WW1 East Sussex, Sussex
Sussex
County Council

Neighbouring counties

Surrey Kent Kent

West Sussex

East Sussex

English Channel

English Channel English Channel English Channel

v t e

Ceremonial county of East Sussex

East Sussex
Sussex
Portal

Unitary authorities

City of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove

Boroughs or districts

Borough of Eastbourne Borough of Hastings District of Lewes District of Rother District of Wealden

Major settlements

Battle Bexhill-on-Sea Brighton Crowborough Eastbourne Hailsham Hastings Heathfield Hove Lewes Newhaven Peacehaven Rye Seaford Telscombe Uckfield Wadhurst Winchelsea See also: List of civil parishes in East Sussex

Rivers

Cuckmere Rother Tillingham

Topics

Geography Parliamentary constituencies Places Population of major settlements History Museums Schools SSSIs Country houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs Transport South Coast Plain South Downs Beachy Head High Weald Long Man of Wilmington

v t e

Sussex

Portal:Sussex

Ceremonial counties

East Sussex West Sussex

Historic divisions

Rape of Arundel Rape of Bramber Rape of Chichester Rape of Hastings Rape of Lewes Rape of Pevensey

Geography

South Coast Plain South Downs The Weald

History

Timeline Regnenses Britannia Kingdom of Sussex Haestingas High Middle Ages Local government

Culture and heritage

Beer Dialect Flag Music St Richard of Chichester " Sussex
Sussex
by the Sea" Sussex
Sussex
Day Sussex
Sussex
trug Sussex
Sussex
wine Symbols We wunt be druv

Religion

Diocese of Chichester Diocese of Arundel and Brighton History of Christianity in Sussex

Sport

Stoolball Sussex
Sussex
CCC Sussex
Sussex
FA Sussex
Sussex
County League Sussex
Sussex
RFU

Other

Sussex
Sussex
Police Sussex
Sussex
Police and Crime Commissioner

v t e

Districts of South East England

Berkshire

Bracknell Forest Reading Slough West Berkshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wokingham

Buckinghamshire

Aylesbury Vale Chiltern Milton Keynes South Bucks Wycombe

East Sussex

Brighton
Brighton
and Hove Eastbourne Hastings Lewes Rother Wealden

Hampshire

Basingstoke and Deane East Hampshire Eastleigh Fareham Gosport Hart Havant New Forest Portsmouth Rushmoor Southampton Test Valley Winchester

Isle of Wight

Isle of Wight

Kent

Ashford Canterbury Dartford Dover Gravesham Maidstone Medway Sevenoaks Folkestone
Folkestone
and Hythe Swale Thanet Tonbridge and Malling Tunbridge Wells

Oxfordshire

Cherwell Oxford South Oxfordshire Vale of White Horse West Oxfordshire

Surrey

Elmbridge Epsom and Ewell Guildford Mole Valley Reigate and Banstead Runnymede Spelthorne Surrey
Surrey
Heath Tandridge Waverley Woking

West Sussex

Adur Arun Chichester Crawley Horsham Mid Sussex Worthing

v t e

1974–1996 ←   Ceremonial counties of England   → current

Bedfordshire Berkshire Bristol Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire Cheshire Cornwall Cumbria Derbyshire Devon Dorset Durham East Riding of Yorkshire East Sussex Essex Gloucestershire Greater London Greater Manchester Hampshire Herefordshire Hertfordshire Isle of Wight Kent Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire City of London Merseyside Norfolk Northamptonshire Northumberland North Yorkshire Nottinghamshire Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire Somerset South Yorkshire Staffordshire Suffolk Surrey Tyne and Wear Warwickshire West Midlands West Sussex West Yorkshire Wiltshire Worcestershire

Coordinates: 50°55′N 0°20′E / 50.917°N 0.333°E / 5