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Dublin
Dublin
(/ˈdʌblɪn/, Irish: Baile Átha Cliath[11] Irish pronunciation: [ˌbʲlʲɑː ˈclʲiə]) is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.[12][13] Dublin
Dublin
is located in the province of Leinster
Leinster
on the east coast of Ireland, at the mouth of the River Liffey and bordered on the South by the Wicklow Mountains. The city has an urban area population of 1,173,179.[14] The population of the Dublin
Dublin
Region, as of 2016[update], was 1,347,359 people,[6] and the population of the Greater Dublin
Greater Dublin
area was 1,904,806.[15] There is archaeological debate regarding precisely where Dublin
Dublin
was established by Celtic-speaking people in the 7th century.[16] Later expanded as a Viking
Viking
settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin
Dublin
became Ireland's principal city following the Norman invasion.[16] The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire
British Empire
before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin
Dublin
became the capital of the Irish Free State, later renamed Ireland. As of 2010, Dublin
Dublin
was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha-", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.[17][18] It is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts, administration, economy and industry.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Middle Ages 2.2 Early modern 2.3 Late modern and contemporary

3 Government

3.1 Local 3.2 National 3.3 Politics

4 Geography

4.1 Landscape 4.2 Cultural divide 4.3 Climate

5 Places of interest

5.1 Landmarks 5.2 Parks

6 Economy 7 Transport

7.1 Road 7.2 Rail and tram 7.3 Rail and ferry 7.4 Airport 7.5 Cycling

8 Higher education 9 Demographics 10 Culture

10.1 The arts 10.2 Entertainment 10.3 Shopping 10.4 Media 10.5 Sport

10.5.1 GAA 10.5.2 Rugby 10.5.3 Football 10.5.4 Cricket 10.5.5 Other

10.6 Cuisine

11 Irish language 12 Twin cities 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology[edit] See also: Other names of Dublin The name Dublin
Dublin
comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh (/d̪uβ/, /d̪uw/, /d̪uː/) meaning "black, dark", and lind (/lʲiɲ(d̪ʲ)/) "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin
Dublin
Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, and Irish rhymes from Dublin
Dublin
County show that in Dublin
Dublin
Leinster
Leinster
Irish it was pronounced Duílinn (/ˈd̪ˠiːlʲiɲ/). The original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse
Old Norse
Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland also bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin,[19] Divlin[20] and Difflin.[21] Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn. Those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. Variations on the name are also found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland
Scotland
(Gàidhealtachd, cognate with Irish Gaeltachta), such as An Linne Dhubh ("the black pool"), which is part of Loch Linnhe. It is now thought that the Viking
Viking
settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name.[22] Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. The Viking settlement of about 841, Dyflin, and a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath ("ford of hurdles")[23] further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge (also known as Dublin
Dublin
Bridge), at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey
River Liffey
near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, currently occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Scotland, which is Anglicised as Hurlford. History[edit] Main articles: History of Dublin
History of Dublin
and Timeline of Dublin The area of Dublin Bay
Dublin Bay
has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(the Greco-Roman astronomer and cartographer) in about AD 140 provide possibly the earliest reference to a settlement there. He called the settlement Eblana polis (Greek: Ἔβλανα πόλις).[24] Dublin
Dublin
celebrated its 'official' millennium in 1988, meaning that the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would later become the city of Dublin.

Father Mathew Bridge
Father Mathew Bridge
(also known as Dublin
Dublin
Bridge).

It is now thought[25] that the Viking
Viking
settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which later became the modern Dublin. The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships; the Poddle connected the lake with the Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library
Chester Beatty Library
in Dublin
Dublin
Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne
Táin Bó Cuailgne
("The Cattle Raid of Cooley") refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, which is called Ath Cliath". Middle Ages[edit] Dublin
Dublin
was established as a Viking
Viking
settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of rebellions by the native Irish, it remained largely under Viking
Viking
control until the Norman invasion of Ireland
Norman invasion of Ireland
was launched from Wales in 1169.[26] It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin
Dublin
and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. Arguably, he was the primitive undebated full king of Ireland and also the only Gaelic one. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves.[27] Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 9th and 10th centuries.[28] Prisoners of slave raids and kidnappings which captured men, women and children brought revenue to the Celtic Irish Sea
Irish Sea
raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice.[29] The victims came from Wales, England, Normandy and beyond.[27] The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster
Leinster
after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England reaffirmed his sovereignty by mounting a larger invasion in 1171 and pronounced himself Lord of Ireland.[30] Around this time, the county of the City of Dublin
Dublin
was established along with certain liberties adjacent to the city proper. This continued down to 1840 when the barony of Dublin
Dublin
City was separated from the barony of Dublin. Since 2001, both baronies have been redesignated the City of Dublin.

Dublin Castle
Dublin Castle
was the fortified seat of British rule in Ireland until 1922.

Dublin
Dublin
Castle, which became the centre of Norman power in Ireland, was founded in 1204 as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England.[31] Following the appointment of the first Lord Mayor of Dublin
Dublin
in 1229, the city expanded and had a population of 8,000 by the end of the 13th century. Dublin
Dublin
prospered as a trade centre, despite an attempt by King Robert I of Scotland
Scotland
to capture the city in 1317.[30] It remained a relatively small walled medieval town during the 14th century and was under constant threat from the surrounding native clans. In 1348, the Black Death, a lethal plague which had ravaged Europe, took hold in Dublin
Dublin
and killed thousands over the following decade.[32][33] Dublin
Dublin
was incorporated into the English Crown
English Crown
as the Pale, which was a narrow strip of English settlement along the eastern seaboard. The Tudor conquest of Ireland
Tudor conquest of Ireland
in the 16th century spelt a new era for Dublin, with the city enjoying a renewed prominence as the centre of administrative rule in Ireland. Determined to make Dublin
Dublin
a Protestant city, Queen Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
established Trinity College in 1592 as a solely Protestant university and ordered that the Catholic St. Patrick's and Christ Church cathedrals be converted to Protestant.[34] The city had a population of 21,000 in 1640 before a plague in 1649–51 wiped out almost half of the city's inhabitants. However, the city prospered again soon after as a result of the wool and linen trade with England, reaching a population of over 50,000 in 1700.[35] Early modern[edit]

Henrietta Street, developed in the 1720s, is the earliest Georgian Street in Dublin.

As the city continued to prosper during the 18th century, Georgian Dublin
Dublin
became, for a short period, the second largest city of the British Empire
British Empire
and the fifth largest city in Europe, with the population exceeding 130,000. The vast majority of Dublin's most notable architecture dates from this period, such as the Four Courts and the Custom House. Temple Bar and Grafton Street
Grafton Street
are two of the few remaining areas that were not affected by the wave of Georgian reconstruction and maintained their medieval character.[34] Dublin
Dublin
grew even more dramatically during the 18th century, with the construction of many new districts and buildings, such as Merrion Square, Parliament House and the Royal Exchange.[34] The Wide Streets Commission was established in 1757 at the request of Dublin Corporation to govern architectural standards on the layout of streets, bridges and buildings. In 1759, the founding of the Guinness brewery resulted in a considerable economic gain for the city.[citation needed] For much of the time since its foundation, the brewery was Dublin's largest employer.[citation needed] Late modern and contemporary[edit]

The GPO on O'Connell Street
O'Connell Street
was at the centre of the 1916 Easter Rising.

Dublin
Dublin
suffered a period of political and economic decline during the 19th century following the Acts of Union 1800, under which the seat of government was transferred to the Westminster Parliament in London. The city played no major role in the Industrial Revolution, but remained the centre of administration and a transport hub for most of the island. Ireland had no significant sources of coal, the fuel of the time, and Dublin
Dublin
was not a centre of ship manufacturing, the other main driver of industrial development in Britain and Ireland.[26] Belfast
Belfast
developed faster than Dublin
Dublin
during this period on a mixture of international trade, factory-based linen cloth production and shipbuilding.[36]

Damage in Dublin
Dublin
city centre following the 1916 Easter Rising

The Easter Rising
Easter Rising
of 1916, the Irish War of Independence, and the subsequent Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War
resulted in a significant amount of physical destruction in central Dublin. The Government of the Irish Free State rebuilt the city centre and located the new parliament, the Oireachtas, in Leinster
Leinster
House. Since the beginning of Norman rule in the 12th century, the city has functioned as the capital in varying geopolitical entities: Lordship of Ireland
Lordship of Ireland
(1171–1541), Kingdom of Ireland (1541–1800), as part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922), and the Irish Republic
Irish Republic
(1919–1922). Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, it became the capital of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(1922–1937) and now is the capital of Ireland. One of the memorials to commemorate that time is the Garden of Remembrance. Dublin
Dublin
was also victim to the Northern Irish Troubles. During this 30 year conflict, violence mainly engulfed Northern Ireland. However, the Provisional IRA
Provisional IRA
drew some support from within the Republic, including from Dublin. A Loyalist paramilitary group, the Ulster Volunteer Force, bombed the city during this time - notably in an atrocity known as the Dublin and Monaghan bombings
Dublin and Monaghan bombings
in which 34 people died, mainly in Dublin
Dublin
itself. Since 1997, the landscape of Dublin
Dublin
has changed. The city was at the forefront of Ireland’s economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period, with private sector and state development of housing, transport and business. Following an economic decline during the Great Recession, Dublin
Dublin
has rebounded and as of 2017 has close to full employment.[37] Government[edit] Local[edit]

Civic Offices of Dublin
Dublin
City Council.

From 1842, the boundaries of the city were comprehended by the baronies of Dublin
Dublin
City and the Barony of Dublin. In 1930, the boundaries were extended by the Local Government (Dublin) Act.[38] Later, in 1953, the boundaries were again extended by the Local Government Provisional Order Confirmation Act.[39] Dublin City Council
Dublin City Council
is a unicameral assembly of 63[40] members elected every five years from Local Election Areas. It is presided over by the Lord Mayor, who is elected for a yearly term and resides in Dublin's Mansion House. Council meetings occur at Dublin
Dublin
City Hall, while most of its administrative activities are based in the Civic Offices on Wood Quay. The party or coalition of parties, with the majority of seats adjudicates committee members, introduces policies, and appoints the Lord Mayor. The Council passes an annual budget for spending on areas such as housing, traffic management, refuse, drainage, and planning. The Dublin
Dublin
City Manager is responsible for implementing City Council decisions. National[edit]

Leinster
Leinster
House on Kildare Street
Kildare Street
houses the Oireachtas.

As the capital city, Dublin
Dublin
is the seat of the national parliament of Ireland, the Oireachtas. It is composed of the President of Ireland, Seanad Éireann
Seanad Éireann
as the upper house, and Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
as the lower house. The President resides in Áras an Uachtaráin
Áras an Uachtaráin
in Phoenix Park, while both houses of the Oireachtas
Oireachtas
meet in Leinster
Leinster
House, a former ducal palace on Kildare Street. It has been the home of the Irish parliament since the creation of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
in 1922. The old Irish Houses of Parliament
Irish Houses of Parliament
of the Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
are located in College Green. Government Buildings
Government Buildings
house the Department of the Taoiseach, the Council Chamber, the Department of Finance and the Office of the Attorney General. It consists of a main building (completed 1911) with two wings (completed 1921). It was designed by Thomas Manley Dean and Sir Aston Webb
Aston Webb
as the Royal College of Science. The First Dáil originally met in the Mansion House in 1919. The Irish Free State government took over the two wings of the building to serve as a temporary home for some ministries, while the central building became the College of Technology until 1989.[41] Although both it and Leinster
Leinster
House were intended to be temporary, they became the permanent homes of parliament from then on. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the city is divided into five constituencies: Dublin
Dublin
Central (3 seats), Dublin Bay
Dublin Bay
North (5 seats), Dublin
Dublin
North-West (3 seats), Dublin
Dublin
South-Central (4 seats) and Dublin Bay South (4 seats). Nineteen TD's are elected in total.[42] Politics[edit] In the 2016 general election the Dublin Region
Dublin Region
elected 14 Fine Gael, 7 Sinn Féin, 6 Fianna Fáil, 3 People Before Profit Alliance, 2 Socialist Party, 2 Labour Party, 2 Green Party, 1 Social Democrats and 7 Independent TDs.[43] Geography[edit] Landscape[edit]

Satellite image showing the River Liffey
River Liffey
entering the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
as it divides Dublin
Dublin
into the Northside and the Southside.

Dublin
Dublin
is situated at the mouth of the River Liffey
River Liffey
and encompasses a land area of approximately 115 square kilometres (44 sq mi) in east-central Ireland. It is bordered by a low mountain range to the south and surrounded by flat farmland to the north and west.[44] The Liffey divides the city in two between the Northside and the Southside. Each of these is further divided by two lesser rivers – the River Tolka
River Tolka
running southeast into Dublin
Dublin
Bay, and the River Dodder
River Dodder
running northeast to the mouth of the Liffey. Two further water bodies – the Grand Canal on the southside and the Royal Canal on the northside – ring the inner city on their way from the west and the River Shannon. The River Liffey
River Liffey
bends at Leixlip
Leixlip
from a northeasterly route to a predominantly eastward direction, and this point also marks the transition to urban development from more agricultural land usage.[45] Cultural divide[edit] A north-south division at one time did traditionally exist, with the River Liffey
River Liffey
as the divider. The Northside was generally seen as working class to lower middle class, while the Southside was seen as middle class to upper-middle class. In recent decades[when?] this has changed with both Northside and Southside seeing urban and economic redevelopment bringing prosperity especially to the Northside.[citation needed] Dublin's economic divide was also previously an east-west as well as a north-south. There were also social divisions evident between the coastal suburbs in the east of the city, and the newer developments further to the west.[46] In some tourism and real-estate marketing contexts, Dublin
Dublin
is sometimes divided into a number of quarters or districts.[47][48] These include, the 'Medieval Quarter' (in the area of Dublin
Dublin
Castle, Christ Church and St Patrick's Cathedral and the old city walls),[49] the 'Georgian Quarter' (including the area around St Stephen's Green, Trinity College, and Merrion Square), the 'Docklands Quarter' (around the Dublin Docklands
Dublin Docklands
and Silicon Docks), the 'Cultural Quarter' (around Temple Bar), and 'Creative Quarter' (between South William Street and George's Street).[50] Climate[edit]

Dublin

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    63     9 4

    46     9 4

    52     11 5

    50     12 6

    58     15 9

    59     18 12

    51     20 14

    65     20 13

    57     17 11

    76     14 9

    69     11 6

    69     9 5

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: Met Éireann[51]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    2.5     48 39

    1.8     48 39

    2     51 41

    2     54 44

    2.3     59 48

    2.3     64 53

    2     68 56

    2.6     67 56

    2.2     63 53

    3     57 48

    2.7     52 43

    2.7     49 40

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Similar to much of the rest of northwestern Europe, Dublin
Dublin
experiences a maritime climate (Cfb) with cool summers, mild winters, and a lack of temperature extremes. The average maximum January temperature is 8.8 °C (48 °F), while the average maximum July temperature is 20.2 °C (68 °F). On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is October with 76 mm (3 in) of rain, and the driest month is February with 46 mm (2 in). Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. Dublin's sheltered location on the east coast makes it the driest place in Ireland, receiving only about half the rainfall of the west coast. Ringsend
Ringsend
in the south of the city records the lowest rainfall in the country, with an average annual precipitation of 683 mm (27 in),[52] with the average annual precipitation in the city centre being 714 mm (28 in). The main precipitation in winter is rain; however snow showers do occur between November and March. Hail is more common than snow. The city experiences long summer days and short winter days. Strong Atlantic winds are most common in autumn. These winds can affect Dublin, but due to its easterly location it is least affected compared to other parts of the country. However, in winter, easterly winds render the city colder and more prone to snow showers. In the 20th century, smog and air-pollution were an issue in the city, precipitating a ban on bituminous fuels across Dublin.[53][54] The ban was implemented in 1990 to address black smoke concentrations, that had been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory deaths in residents. Since the ban, non-trauma death rates, respiratory death rates and cardiovascular death rates have declined - by an estimated 350 deaths annually.[55][54]

Climate data for Dublin
Dublin
(Merrion Square), elevation: 13 m or 43 ft, 1981–2010 normals

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 8.8 (47.8) 8.9 (48) 10.7 (51.3) 12.4 (54.3) 15.2 (59.4) 18.0 (64.4) 20.2 (68.4) 19.6 (67.3) 17.3 (63.1) 14.0 (57.2) 11.0 (51.8) 9.3 (48.7) 13.8 (56.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.4 (43.5) 6.4 (43.5) 8.0 (46.4) 9.4 (48.9) 12.1 (53.8) 14.8 (58.6) 16.9 (62.4) 16.5 (61.7) 14.4 (57.9) 11.4 (52.5) 8.6 (47.5) 6.9 (44.4) 11.0 (51.8)

Average low °C (°F) 3.9 (39) 3.9 (39) 5.2 (41.4) 6.4 (43.5) 9.0 (48.2) 11.6 (52.9) 13.5 (56.3) 13.3 (55.9) 11.4 (52.5) 8.8 (47.8) 6.2 (43.2) 4.5 (40.1) 8.2 (46.8)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 62.6 (2.465) 46.1 (1.815) 51.8 (2.039) 50.2 (1.976) 57.9 (2.28) 59.2 (2.331) 50.5 (1.988) 65.3 (2.571) 56.7 (2.232) 76.0 (2.992) 69.4 (2.732) 68.7 (2.705) 714.6 (28.134)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12 10 11 11 11 9 10 10 9 12 11 12 128

Source: European Climate Assessment & Dataset[56]

Climate data for Dublin
Dublin
(DUB), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1939–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.6 (61.9) 16.2 (61.2) 21.3 (70.3) 20.5 (68.9) 23.5 (74.3) 27.3 (81.1) 27.6 (81.7) 28.7 (83.7) 24.6 (76.3) 21.2 (70.2) 18.0 (64.4) 17.1 (62.8) 28.7 (83.7)

Average high °C (°F) 8.1 (46.6) 8.3 (46.9) 10.2 (50.4) 12.1 (53.8) 14.8 (58.6) 17.6 (63.7) 19.5 (67.1) 19.2 (66.6) 17.0 (62.6) 13.6 (56.5) 10.3 (50.5) 8.3 (46.9) 13.3 (55.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 5.3 (41.5) 5.3 (41.5) 6.8 (44.2) 8.3 (46.9) 10.9 (51.6) 13.6 (56.5) 15.6 (60.1) 15.3 (59.5) 13.4 (56.1) 10.5 (50.9) 7.4 (45.3) 5.6 (42.1) 9.8 (49.6)

Average low °C (°F) 2.4 (36.3) 2.3 (36.1) 3.4 (38.1) 4.6 (40.3) 6.9 (44.4) 9.6 (49.3) 11.7 (53.1) 11.5 (52.7) 9.8 (49.6) 7.3 (45.1) 4.5 (40.1) 2.8 (37) 6.4 (43.5)

Record low °C (°F) −10.7 (12.7) −10.9 (12.4) −7.9 (17.8) −4.0 (24.8) −2.5 (27.5) 1.4 (34.5) 4.6 (40.3) 2.4 (36.3) −0.2 (31.6) −3.3 (26.1) −8.4 (16.9) −12.2 (10) −12.2 (10)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 62.6 (2.465) 48.8 (1.921) 52.7 (2.075) 54.1 (2.13) 59.5 (2.343) 66.7 (2.626) 56.2 (2.213) 73.3 (2.886) 59.5 (2.343) 79.0 (3.11) 72.9 (2.87) 72.7 (2.862) 758.0 (29.843)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12 10 11 10 11 10 10 11 10 11 11 12 129

Average snowy days 4.6 4.2 2.8 1.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 2.9 16.6

Average relative humidity (%) (at 15:00 UTC) 80.6 75.7 71.0 68.3 68.0 68.3 69.0 69.3 71.5 75.1 80.3 83.1 73.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.9 75.6 108.5 159.0 192.2 174.0 164.3 158.1 129.0 102.3 72.0 52.7 1,446.6

Mean daily sunshine hours 1.9 2.7 3.5 5.3 6.2 5.8 5.3 5.1 4.3 3.3 2.4 1.7 3.9

Source: Met Éireann[57][58][59]

Climate data for Dublin
Dublin
(Casement), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1958–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.4 (59.7) 15.9 (60.6) 21.0 (69.8) 22.7 (72.9) 24.9 (76.8) 27.6 (81.7) 31.0 (87.8) 30.5 (86.9) 25.4 (77.7) 23.4 (74.1) 17.7 (63.9) 15.4 (59.7) 31 (87.8)

Average high °C (°F) 8.0 (46.4) 8.2 (46.8) 10.2 (50.4) 12.4 (54.3) 15.2 (59.4) 17.9 (64.2) 19.8 (67.6) 19.5 (67.1) 17.1 (62.8) 13.6 (56.5) 10.2 (50.4) 8.3 (46.9) 13.4 (56.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 5.1 (41.2) 5.1 (41.2) 6.8 (44.2) 8.2 (46.8) 10.9 (51.6) 13.6 (56.5) 15.7 (60.3) 15.4 (59.7) 13.3 (55.9) 10.3 (50.5) 7.2 (45) 5.4 (41.7) 9.7 (49.5)

Average low °C (°F) 2.1 (35.8) 2.0 (35.6) 3.3 (37.9) 4.1 (39.4) 6.6 (43.9) 9.4 (48.9) 11.5 (52.7) 11.3 (52.3) 9.5 (49.1) 7.0 (44.6) 4.2 (39.6) 2.4 (36.3) 6.1 (43)

Record low °C (°F) −13.2 (8.2) −10.3 (13.5) −9.8 (14.4) −5.5 (22.1) −3.0 (26.6) −0.7 (30.7) 2.5 (36.5) 1.5 (34.7) −0.3 (31.5) −4.1 (24.6) −9.1 (15.6) −15.7 (3.7) −15.7 (3.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 63.8 (2.512) 48.5 (1.909) 50.7 (1.996) 51.9 (2.043) 59.1 (2.327) 62.5 (2.461) 54.2 (2.134) 72.3 (2.846) 60.3 (2.374) 81.6 (3.213) 73.7 (2.902) 75.7 (2.98) 754.2 (29.693)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12 10 11 10 11 10 10 11 10 12 11 12 130

Average snowy days 4.1 3.9 2.5 1.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 2.3 14.6

Average relative humidity (%) (at 15:00 UTC) 82.2 76.7 71.8 67.7 67.3 67.9 68.9 69.0 71.8 76.6 81.6 84.1 73.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 52.7 70.0 102.3 153.0 186.0 159.0 151.9 148.8 123.0 102.3 66.0 46.5 1,361.5

Mean daily sunshine hours 1.7 2.5 3.3 5.1 6.0 5.3 4.9 4.8 4.1 3.3 2.2 1.5 3.7

Source: Met Éireann[60][58][59]

Climate data for Dublin
Dublin
(Phoenix Park), extremes 1881–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.0 (62.6) 18.1 (64.6) 23.4 (74.1) 22.2 (72) 26.8 (80.2) 28.7 (83.7) 29.8 (85.6) 30.6 (87.1) 27.6 (81.7) 24.2 (75.6) 19.4 (66.9) 17.1 (62.8) 30.6 (87.1)

Record low °C (°F) −15.6 (3.9) −13.4 (7.9) −9.4 (15.1) −7.2 (19) −5.6 (21.9) −0.6 (30.9) 1.8 (35.2) 0.6 (33.1) −1.7 (28.9) −5.6 (21.9) −9.3 (15.3) −14.0 (6.8) −15.6 (3.9)

Source: Met Éireann[58][59]

Places of interest[edit]

Molly Malone
Molly Malone
statue

Landmarks[edit] Further information: List of public art in Dublin Dublin
Dublin
has many landmarks and monuments dating back hundreds of years. One of the oldest is Dublin
Dublin
Castle, which was first founded as a major defensive work on the orders of England's King John in 1204, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland
Norman invasion of Ireland
in 1169, when it was commanded that a castle be built with strong walls and good ditches for the defence of the city, the administration of justice, and the protection of the King's treasure.[61] Largely complete by 1230, the castle was of typical Norman courtyard design, with a central square without a keep, bounded on all sides by tall defensive walls and protected at each corner by a circular tower. Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the castle formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city, using the River Poddle
River Poddle
as a natural means of defence.

Spire of Dublin
Spire of Dublin
rises behind the statue of Jim Larkin.

One of Dublin's newest monuments is the Spire of Dublin, or officially titled "Monument of Light".[62] It is a 121.2-metre (398 ft) conical spire made of stainless steel and is located on O'Connell Street. It replaces Nelson's Pillar
Nelson's Pillar
and is intended to mark Dublin's place in the 21st century. The spire was designed by Ian Ritchie Architects,[63] who sought an "Elegant and dynamic simplicity bridging art and technology". The base of the monument is lit and the top is illuminated to provide a beacon in the night sky across the city. The Book of Kells, located in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, is one of the city's most visited sites.[64] The Book of Kells
Book of Kells
is an illustrated manuscript created by Irish monks circa 800 AD. The Ha'penny Bridge, an iron footbridge over the River Liffey, is one of the most photographed sights in Dublin
Dublin
and is considered to be one of Dublin's most iconic landmarks.[65] Other landmarks and monuments include the Mansion House, the Anna Livia monument, the Molly Malone
Molly Malone
statue, Christ Church Cathedral, St Patrick's Cathedral, Saint Francis Xavier Church on Upper Gardiner Street near Mountjoy Square, The Custom House
The Custom House
and Áras an Uachtaráin. The Poolbeg Towers are also landmark features of Dublin, and visible from various spots around the city. Parks[edit]

Aerial view of St Stephen's Green

There are many green-spaces around the city, and Dublin
Dublin
City Council manages over 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres) of parks.[66] Public parks include the Phoenix Park, Herbert Park
Herbert Park
and St Stephen's Green. The Phoenix Park
Phoenix Park
is about 3 km (2 miles) west of the city centre, north of the River Liffey. Its 16-kilometre (10 mi) perimeter wall encloses 707 hectares (1,750 acres), making it one of the largest walled city parks in Europe.[67] It includes large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the 17th century has been home to a herd of wild Fallow deer. The residence of the President of Ireland (Áras an Uachtaráin), which was built in 1751,[68] is located in the park. The park is also home to Dublin
Dublin
Zoo, Ashtown Castle, and the official residence of the United States
United States
Ambassador. Music concerts are also sometimes held in the park. St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street, and to a shopping centre named for it, while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies. Saint Anne's Park
Saint Anne's Park
is a public park and recreational facility, shared between Raheny
Raheny
and Clontarf, both suburbs on the North Side of Dublin. The park, the second largest municipal park in Dublin, is part of a former 2-square-kilometre (0.8 sq mi; 500-acre) estate assembled by members of the Guinness
Guinness
family, beginning with Benjamin Lee Guinness
Guinness
in 1835 (the largest municipal park is nearby (North) Bull Island, also shared between Clontarf and Raheny). Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Dublin

Ulster Bank
Ulster Bank
on George's Quay Plaza.

The Dublin
Dublin
region is the economic centre of Ireland, and was at the forefront of the country's economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period. In 2009, Dublin
Dublin
was listed as the fourth richest city in the world by purchasing power and 10th richest by personal income.[69][70] According to Mercer's 2011 Worldwide Cost of Living Survey, Dublin
Dublin
is the 13th most expensive city in the European Union
European Union
(down from 10th in 2010) and the 58th most expensive place to live in the world (down from 42nd in 2010).[71] As of 2005[update], approximately 800,000 people were employed in the Greater Dublin
Greater Dublin
Area, of whom around 600,000 were employed in the services sector and 200,000 in the industrial sector.[72][needs update] A number of Dublin's traditional industries, such as food processing, textile manufacturing, brewing, and distilling have gradually declined, although Guinness
Guinness
has been brewed at the St. James's Gate Brewery since 1759. Economic improvements in the 1990s attracted a number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies to the city and Greater Dublin
Greater Dublin
Area. Companies such as Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, PayPal, Yahoo!, Facebook, Twitter, Accenture
Accenture
and Pfizer
Pfizer
now have European headquarters and/or operational bases in the city, with several located in enterprise clusters like the Digital Hub and Silicon Docks. This presence of these companies has driven economic expansion in the city and led to Dublin
Dublin
sometimes being referred to as the "Tech Capital of Europe".[37] Financial services have also become important to the city since the establishment of Dublin's International Financial Services Centre
International Financial Services Centre
in 1987. More than 500 operations are approved to trade under the IFSC programme. The centre is host to half of the world's top 50 banks and to half of the top 20 insurance companies.[73] Many international firms have established major headquarters in the city, such as Citibank
Citibank
and Commerzbank. The Irish Stock Exchange
Irish Stock Exchange
(ISEQ), Internet Neutral Exchange (INEX) and Irish Enterprise Exchange (IEX) are also located in Dublin. Dublin
Dublin
has been positioned as one of the main cities vying to host Financial Services companies hoping to retain access to the Eurozone after Brexit. The Celtic Tiger
Celtic Tiger
also led to a temporary boom in construction, with large redevelopment projects in the Dublin Docklands
Dublin Docklands
and Spencer Dock. Completed projects include the Convention Centre, the 3Arena, and the Bord Gáis Energy Theatre. Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Dublin Road[edit]

The M50 motorway surrounding Dublin.

The road network in Ireland is primarily focused on Dublin. The M50 motorway, a semi-ring road which runs around the south, west and north of the city, connects important national primary routes to the rest of the country. In 2008, the West-Link
West-Link
toll bridge was replaced by the eFlow barrier-free tolling system, with a three-tiered charge system based on electronic tags and car pre-registration.[74] The first phase of a proposed eastern bypass for the city is the Dublin Port
Dublin Port
Tunnel, which officially opened in 2006 to mainly cater for heavy vehicles. The tunnel connects Dublin Port
Dublin Port
and the M1 motorway close to Dublin
Dublin
Airport. The city is also surrounded by an inner and outer orbital route. The inner orbital route runs approximately around the heart of the Georgian city and the outer orbital route runs primarily along the natural circle formed by Dublin's two canals, the Grand Canal and the Royal Canal, as well as the North and South Circular Roads. The 2016 TomTom Traffic Index ranked Dublin
Dublin
the 15th most congested city in the world and the 7th most congested in Europe.[75][76] Dublin
Dublin
is served by a network of nearly 200 bus routes which cover the city and suburbs. The majority of these are controlled by Dublin
Dublin
Bus, but a number of smaller companies also operate. Fares are generally calculated on a stage system based on distance travelled. There are several different levels of fares, which apply on most services. A "Real Time Passenger Information" system was introduced at Dublin
Dublin
Bus bus stops in 2012. Electronically displayed signs relay information about the time of the next bus' arrival based on its GPS determined position. The National Transport Authority is responsible for integration of bus and rail services in Dublin
Dublin
and has been involved in introducing a pre-paid smart card, called a Leap card, which can be used on all of Dublin’s public transport services. Rail and tram[edit]

Luas
Luas
trams at the Tallaght
Tallaght
terminus.

Heuston and Connolly stations are the two main railway stations in Dublin. Operated by Iarnród Éireann, the Dublin
Dublin
Suburban Rail network consists of five railway lines serving the Greater Dublin
Greater Dublin
Area and commuter towns such as Drogheda
Drogheda
and Dundalk
Dundalk
in County Louth. One of these lines is the electrified Dublin Area Rapid Transit
Dublin Area Rapid Transit
(DART) line, which runs primarily along the coast of Dublin, comprising 31 stations, from Malahide
Malahide
and Howth
Howth
southwards as far as Greystones
Greystones
in County Wicklow.[77] Commuter rail operates on the other four lines using Irish Rail diesel multiple units. In 2013, passengers for DART and Dublin
Dublin
Suburban lines were 16 million and 11.7 million, respectively (around 75% of all Irish Rail passengers).[78] The Luas
Luas
is a light rail system, run by Transdev
Transdev
Ireland (under contract from Transport Infrastructure Ireland), and has been operating since 2004, carrying over 34 million passengers annually.[79] The network consists of two interconnecting tram lines; the Red Line links the Docklands and city centre with the south-western suburbs of Tallaght
Tallaght
and Saggart, while the Green Line connects northern inner city suburbs and the main city centre with suburbs to the south of the city including Sandyford and Brides Glen. Together these lines comprise a total 67 stations and 44.5 kilometres (27.7 mi) of track.[79] Construction of a 6 km extension to the Green Line, bringing it into the north of the city, commenced in June 2013 and was opened for passenger travel on December 9, 2017.[80] Rail and ferry[edit] Dublin Connolly
Dublin Connolly
is connected by bus to Dublin Port
Dublin Port
and ferries run by Irish Ferries
Irish Ferries
and Stena Line
Stena Line
to Holyhead for connecting trains on the North Wales Coast Line
North Wales Coast Line
to Chester, Crewe and London
London
Euston. Dublin Connolly to Dublin Port
Dublin Port
can be reached via Amiens Street, Dublin
Amiens Street, Dublin
into Store Street
Store Street
or by Luas
Luas
via Busáras
Busáras
where Dublin Bus
Dublin Bus
operates services to the Ferry Terminal.[81] Airport[edit]

Dublin
Dublin
Airport

Dublin Airport
Dublin Airport
(owned and operated by DAA) is located north of Dublin City in the administrative county of Fingal. It is the headquarters of Ireland's flag carrier Aer Lingus, low-cost carrier Ryanair, and regional airlines Stobart Air
Stobart Air
and CityJet. The airport offers a short and medium haul network, as well as domestic services to several regional airports in Ireland. There are also long-haul services to the United States, Canada and the Middle East. Dublin Airport
Dublin Airport
is the busiest airport in Ireland, followed by Cork and Shannon. Construction of a second terminal began in 2007 and was officially opened on 19 November 2010.[82] In 2014, Dublin Airport
Dublin Airport
was the 18th busiest airport in Europe, serving over 21 million passengers.[83] By 2016 this increased to 27.9 million passengers passing through the airport, establishing an all-time record supported by growth in both short- and long-haul networks.[84] In 2015 and 2016, transatlantic traffic grew somewhat. For example, in the summer of 2015, Dublin Airport
Dublin Airport
had 158 flights a week to North America, making it the sixth largest European hub for that route over the year.[85] Transatlantic traffic was also the fastest-growing segment of the market for the airport in 2016, in which a 16% increase from 2015 brought the yearly number of passengers traveling between Dublin
Dublin
and North America to 2.9 million.[84] From 2010 to 2016, Dublin Airport
Dublin Airport
saw an increase of nearly 9.5 million passengers in its annual traffic,[84] as the number of commercial aircraft movements has similarly followed a growth trend from 163,703 in 2013 to 191,233 in 2015.[86] Cycling[edit] Dublin City Council
Dublin City Council
began installing cycle lanes and tracks throughout the city in the 1990s, and as of 2012[update] the city had over 200 kilometres (120 mi) of specific on- and off-road tracks for cyclists.[87] In 2011, the city was ranked 9th of major world cities on the Copenhagenize Index of Bicycle-Friendly Cities.[88] The same index also showed a fall to 15th in 2015.[89]

Dublinbikes
Dublinbikes
terminal in the Docklands.

Dublinbikes
Dublinbikes
is a self-service bicycle rental scheme which has been in operation in Dublin
Dublin
since 2009. Sponsored by JCDecaux
JCDecaux
and Just Eat, the scheme consists of 550 French-made unisex bicycles stationed at 44 terminals throughout the city centre. Users must make a subscription for either an annual Long Term Hire Card or purchase a three-day ticket.[90] As of 2011, Dublinbikes
Dublinbikes
had over 58,000 subscribers and had plans to expand the service across the city and suburbs to provide for up to 5,000 bicycles and approximately 300 terminals.[91] The 2011 Census revealed that 5.9 percent of commuters in Dublin cycled. A 2013 report by Dublin City Council
Dublin City Council
on traffic flows crossing the canals in and out of the city found that just under 10% of all traffic was made up of cyclists, representing an increase of 14.1% over 2012 and an 87.2% increase over 2006 levels and is attributed to measures, such as, the Dublinbikes
Dublinbikes
bike rental scheme, the provision of cycle lanes, public awareness campaigns to promote cycling and the introduction of the 30kph city centre speed limit.[92] Higher education[edit] Dublin
Dublin
is one of the primary centres of education in Ireland, and is home to three universities, Dublin Institute of Technology
Dublin Institute of Technology
and a number of other higher education institutions. There are 20 third-level institutes in the city and in surrounding towns and suburbs. Dublin
Dublin
was European Capital of Science in 2012.[93][94]

Trinity College

The Old Library, Trinity College

The University of Dublin
University of Dublin
is the oldest university in Ireland dating from the 16th century, and is located in the city centre. Its sole constituent college, Trinity College (TCD), was established by Royal Charter in 1592 under Elizabeth I. It was closed to Roman Catholics until Catholic Emancipation, and the Catholic hierarchy then banned Roman Catholics from attending until 1970. It is situated in the city centre, on College Green, and has 15,000 students. The National University of Ireland
National University of Ireland
(NUI) has its seat in Dublin, which is also the location of the associated constituent university of University College Dublin
University College Dublin
(UCD), which has over 30,000 students. Founded in 1854, it is now the largest university in Ireland. UCD's main campus is at Belfield, about 5 km (3 mi) from the city centre in the southeastern suburbs. With a continuous history dating back to 1887, Dublin's principal, and Ireland's largest, institution for technological education and research, Dublin Institute of Technology
Dublin Institute of Technology
(DIT) has over 23,000 students. DIT specialises in engineering, architecture, sciences, health, journalism, digital media, hospitality and business but also offers art, design, music and humanities programmes. DIT has campuses, buildings and research facilities at several locations, including buildings at Kevin Street, Aungier Street, Bolton Street and Cathal Brugha Street in central Dublin. It has commenced consolidation to a new campus in Grangegorman. Dublin City University
Dublin City University
(DCU), formerly known as the National Institute for Higher Education (NIHE), offers courses in business, engineering, science, communication courses, languages and primary education. It has around 16,000 students, and its main campus, the Glasnevin Campus, is located about 7 km (4 mi) from the city centre in the northern suburbs. It has two campuses on the Northside of the river, the DCU Glasnevin Campus and the DCU Drumcondra Campus. The Drumcondra campus includes St Patrick's College of Education, the nearby Mater Dei Institute and students from the Church of Ireland College of Education.[95] The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
(RCSI) is a medical school which is a recognised college of the NUI, and is situated at St. Stephen's Green in the city centre. The Institute of European Affairs is also in Dublin. Dublin Business School
Dublin Business School
(DBS) is Ireland's largest private third level institution with over 9,000 students located on Aungier Street. The National College of Art and Design
National College of Art and Design
(NCAD) supports training and research in art, design and media. The National College of Ireland (NCI) is also based in Dublin. The Economic and Social Research Institute, a social science research institute, is based on Sir John Rogerson's Quay. The Irish public administration and management training centre has its base in Dublin, the Institute of Public Administration provides a range of undergraduate and post graduate awards via the National University of Ireland and in some instances, Queen's University Belfast. There are also smaller specialised colleges, including Griffith College Dublin, The Gaiety School of Acting
The Gaiety School of Acting
and the New Media Technology College. Outside of the city, the towns of Tallaght
Tallaght
in South Dublin
South Dublin
and Dún Laoghaire in Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown
Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown
have regional colleges: The Institute of Technology, Tallaght
Tallaght
has full and part-time courses in a wide range of technical subjects and the Dún Laoghaire
Dún Laoghaire
Institute of Art, Design and Technology (IADT) supports training and research in art, design, business, psychology and media technology. The western suburb of Blanchardstown
Blanchardstown
offers childcare and sports management courses along with languages and technical subjects at the Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown. Demographics[edit]

Main immigrant groups, 2016[96]

Nationality Population

 United Kingdom 22,109

 Poland 10,106

 Romania 8,476

 Brazil 8,007

 India 4,459

 Italy 4,439

 Spain 4,032

 United States 3,977

 France 3,624

 Philippines 3,527

The City of Dublin
Dublin
is the area administered by Dublin
Dublin
City Council, but the term "Dublin" is also used to refer to the contiguous urban area which includes parts of the adjacent local authority areas of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Fingal
Fingal
and South Dublin. Together, the four areas form the traditional County Dublin. This area is sometimes known as the Dublin
Dublin
Region. The population of the administrative area controlled by the City Council was 553,165 in the 2016 census, while the population of the urban area was 1,173,179. The County Dublin population was 1,273,069 and that of the Greater Dublin
Greater Dublin
Area 1,904,806. The area's population is expanding rapidly, and it is estimated by the Central Statistics Office that it will reach 2.1 million by 2020.[97] The percentage of Protestants in Dublin
Dublin
has dropped from over 10% in 1891 to 3-4% today.[citation needed] Since the late 1990s, Dublin
Dublin
has experienced a significant level of net immigration, with the greatest numbers coming from the European Union, especially the United Kingdom, Poland
Poland
and Lithuania.[98] There is also immigration from outside Europe, including from Brazil, India, the Philippines, China and Nigeria. Dublin
Dublin
is home to a greater proportion of newer arrivals than any other part of the country. Sixty percent of Ireland's Asian population lives in Dublin.[99] Over 15% of Dublin's population was foreign-born in 2006.[100] This number decreased during the Great Recession
Great Recession
as foreign-born immigrants returned due to high unemployment.[citation needed] The capital attracts the largest proportion of non-Catholic migrants from other countries. Increased secularisation in Ireland has prompted a drop in regular Catholic church attendance in Dublin
Dublin
from over 90 percent in the mid-1970s down to 14 percent according to a 2011 survey.[101] According to the 2011 census, the population of Dublin
Dublin
was 90% white (including 400,749 white Irish [78%], 57,748 other white [11%] and 1,923 white Irish traveller), 1% black, and 4% Asian. In terms of religion, 75% identified as Catholic, 10% as other stated religions, with 14% having no religion or no religion stated.[102] Culture[edit]

National Museum of Ireland

The arts[edit] Dublin
Dublin
has a significant literary history, and produced many literary figures, including Nobel laureates William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett. Other influential writers and playwrights include Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift
Jonathan Swift
and the creator of Dracula, Bram Stoker. It is also the location of key and notable works of James Joyce, including Ulysses, which is set in Dublin
Dublin
and includes much topical detail. Dubliners
Dubliners
is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and typical characters of the city during the early 20th century. Other renowned writers include J. M. Synge, Seán O'Casey, Brendan Behan, Maeve Binchy, and Roddy Doyle. Ireland's biggest libraries and literary museums are found in Dublin, including the National Print Museum of Ireland
National Print Museum of Ireland
and National Library of Ireland. In July 2010, Dublin
Dublin
was named as a UNESCO City of Literature, joining Edinburgh, Melbourne and Iowa City
Iowa City
with the permanent title.[103]

Book of Kells

There are several theatres within the city centre, and various well-known actors have emerged from the Dublin
Dublin
theatrical scene, including Noel Purcell, Michael Gambon, Brendan Gleeson, Stephen Rea, Colin Farrell, Colm Meaney
Colm Meaney
and Gabriel Byrne. The best known theatres include the Gaiety, Abbey, Olympia, Gate, and Grand Canal. The Gaiety specialises in musical and operatic productions, and also opens its doors after the evening theatre production to host a variety of live music, dancing, and films. The Abbey was founded in 1904 by a group that included Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city's most famous writers, such as Synge, Yeats himself and George Bernard Shaw. The Gate was founded in 1928 to promote European and American Avant Garde works. The Grand Canal Theatre
Grand Canal Theatre
is a newer 2,111 capacity theatre which opened in 2010 in the Grand Canal Dock
Grand Canal Dock
area. Apart from being the focus of the country's literature and theatre, Dublin
Dublin
is also the focal point for much of Irish art
Irish art
and the Irish artistic scene. The Book of Kells, a world-famous manuscript produced by Celtic monks in AD 800 and an example of Insular art, is on display in Trinity College. The Chester Beatty Library
Chester Beatty Library
houses a collection of manuscripts, miniature paintings, prints, drawings, rare books and decorative arts assembled by American mining millionaire (and honorary Irish citizen) Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875–1968). The collections date from 2700 BC onwards and are drawn from Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe.

Mosaic of the coat of arms of Dublin
Dublin
on the floor of City Hall.

In addition public art galleries are found across the city, including the Irish Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, the Douglas Hyde Gallery, the Project Arts Centre and the Royal Hibernian Academy. Some of the leading private galleries include Green on Red Gallery, Kerlin Gallery, Kevin Kavangh Gallery and Mother's Tankstation. Three branches of the National Museum of Ireland
National Museum of Ireland
are located in Dublin: Archaeology in Kildare Street, Decorative Arts and History in Collins Barracks
Collins Barracks
and Natural History in Merrion Street.[104] The same area is also home to a number of smaller museums such as Number 29 on Fitzwilliam Street and the Little Museum of Dublin
Dublin
on St. Stephen's Green. Dublin
Dublin
is home to the National College of Art and Design, which dates from 1746, and Dublin
Dublin
Institute of Design, founded in 1991. Dublinia
Dublinia
is a living history attraction showcasing the Viking
Viking
and Medieval history of the city. Dublin
Dublin
has long had an 'underground' arts scene, with Temple Bar hosting artists in the 1980s, and spaces such as the Project Arts Centre acting as a hub for collectives and new exhibitions. The Guardian noted that Dublin's independent and underground arts flourished during the economic recession of c.2010.[105] Dublin
Dublin
also has many dramatic, musical and operatic companies, including Festival Productions, Lyric Opera Productions, the Pioneers' Musical & Dramatic Society, the Glasnevin Musical Society, Second Age Theatre Company, Opera Theatre Company and Opera Ireland. Dublin
Dublin
was shortlisted to be World Design Capital 2014.[106] Taoiseach Enda Kenny
Enda Kenny
was quoted to say that Dublin
Dublin
"would be an ideal candidate to host the World Design Capital in 2014".[107] Entertainment[edit] Dublin
Dublin
has a vibrant nightlife and is reputedly one of Europe's most youthful cities, with an estimate of 50% of citizens being younger than 25.[108][109] There are many pubs across the city centre, with the area around St. Stephen's Green
St. Stephen's Green
and Grafton Street, especially Harcourt Street, Camden Street, Wexford Street and Leeson Street, the location of many nightclubs and pubs.

Temple Bar

The best known area for nightlife is Temple Bar, south of the River Liffey. The area has become popular among tourists, including stag and hen parties from Britain.[110] It was developed as Dublin's cultural quarter and does retain this spirit as a centre for small arts productions, photographic and artists' studios, and in the form of street performers and small music venues. However, it has been criticised as overpriced, false and dirty by Lonely Planet.[111] The areas around Leeson Street, Harcourt Street, South William Street and Camden/George's Street are popular nightlife spots for locals. Live music is popularly played on streets and at venues throughout Dublin, and the city has produced several musicians and groups of international success, including The Dubliners, Thin Lizzy, The Boomtown Rats, U2, The Script, Sinéad O'Connor, Boyzone, Kodaline
Kodaline
and Westlife. The two best known cinemas in the city centre are the Savoy Cinema and the Cineworld
Cineworld
Cinema, both north of the Liffey. Alternative and special-interest cinema can be found in the Irish Film Institute in Temple Bar and in the Light House Cinema
Light House Cinema
in Smithfield. Large modern multiscreen cinemas are located across suburban Dublin. The 3Arena
3Arena
venue in the Dublin Docklands
Dublin Docklands
has played host to many world-renowned performers. Shopping[edit]

Moore Street
Moore Street
Market

Grafton Street

Dublin
Dublin
city centre is a popular shopping destination for both locals and tourists. The city has numerous shopping districts, particularly around Grafton Street
Grafton Street
and Henry Street. The city centre is also the location of large department stores, including Arnotts, Brown Thomas and (prior to its 2015 closure) Clerys. The city retains a thriving market culture, despite new shopping developments and the loss of some traditional market sites. Amongst several historic locations, Moore Street
Moore Street
remains one of the city's oldest trading districts.[112] There has also been some growth in local farmers' markets and other markets.[113][114] In 2007, Dublin Food Co-op relocated to a warehouse in The Liberties
The Liberties
area, where it is home to market and community events.[115][116] Suburban Dublin
Dublin
has several modern retail centres, including Dundrum Town Centre, Blanchardstown
Blanchardstown
Centre, the Square in Tallaght, Liffey Valley Shopping Centre in Clondalkin, Omni Shopping Centre in Santry, Nutgrove Shopping Centre in Rathfarnham, and Swords Pavilions
Swords Pavilions
in Swords. Media[edit] Dublin
Dublin
is the centre of both media and communications in Ireland, with many newspapers, radio stations, television stations and telephone companies based there. RTÉ is Ireland's national state broadcaster, and is based in Donnybrook. Fair City
Fair City
is RTÉ's soap opera, located in the fictional Dublin
Dublin
suburb of Carraigstown. TV3 Media, UTV Ireland, Setanta Sports, MTV Ireland
MTV Ireland
and Sky News
Sky News
are also based in the city. The headquarters of An Post
An Post
and telecommunications companies such as Eir, as well as mobile operators Meteor, Vodafone and 3 are all located there. Dublin
Dublin
is also the headquarters of national newspapers such as The Irish Times
The Irish Times
and Irish Independent, as well as local newspapers such as The Evening Herald. As well as being home to RTÉ Radio, Dublin
Dublin
also hosts the national radio networks Today FM and Newstalk, and local stations. Commercial radio stations based in the city include 4fm (94.9 MHz), Dublin's 98FM (98.1 MHz), Radio Nova 100FM (100.3 MHz), Q102 (102.2 MHz), SPIN 1038
SPIN 1038
(103.8 MHz), FM104
FM104
(104.4 MHz), Sunshine 106.8
Sunshine 106.8
(106.8 MHz). There are also numerous community and special interest stations, including Dublin City FM
Dublin City FM
(103.2 MHz), Dublin South FM
Dublin South FM
(93.9 MHz), Liffey Sound FM (96.4 MHz), Near FM (90.3 MHz), and Raidió na Life (106.4 MHz). Sport[edit] GAA[edit]

Croke Park

Croke Park
Croke Park
is the largest sport stadium in Ireland. The headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association, it has a capacity of 82,300. It is the third-largest stadium in Europe after Nou Camp
Nou Camp
in Barcelona
Barcelona
and Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
in London.[117] It hosts the premier Gaelic football and hurling games, international rules football and irregularly other sporting and non-sporting events including concerts. Muhammad Ali fought there in 1972 and it played host to the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2003 Special
Special
Olympics. It also has conference and banqueting facilities. There is a GAA Museum there and tours of the stadium are offered, including a rooftop walk of the stadium. During the redevelopment of Lansdowne Road, Croke Park
Croke Park
played host to the Irish Rugby Union Team and Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
national football team as well as hosting the Heineken Cup
Heineken Cup
rugby 2008–09 semi-final between Munster and Leinster
Leinster
which set a world record attendance for a club rugby match.[118] The Dublin GAA
Dublin GAA
team plays most of their home league hurling games at Parnell Park. Rugby[edit]

Aviva Stadium

I.R.F.U. Stadium Lansdowne Road
Lansdowne Road
was laid out in 1874. This was the venue for home games of both the Irish Rugby Union Team and the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
national football team. A joint venture between the Irish Rugby Football Union, the FAI and the Government, saw it redeveloped into a new state-of-the-art 50,000 seat Aviva Stadium, which opened in May 2010.[119] Aviva Stadium
Aviva Stadium
hosted the 2011 UEFA Europa League Final.[120] Rugby union
Rugby union
team Leinster
Leinster
Rugby play their competitive home games in the RDS Arena
RDS Arena
& the Aviva Stadium
Aviva Stadium
while Donnybrook Stadium
Donnybrook Stadium
hosts their friendlies and A games, Ireland A and Women, Leinster
Leinster
Schools and Youths and the home club games of All Ireland League clubs Old Wesley
Old Wesley
and Bective Rangers. County Dublin
County Dublin
is home for 13 of the senior rugby union clubs in Ireland including 5 of the 10 sides in the top division 1A.[121] Football[edit] County Dublin
County Dublin
is home to six League of Ireland
League of Ireland
association clubs; Bohemian F.C., Shamrock Rovers, St Patrick's Athletic, University College Dublin, Shelbourne and Cabinteely. The first Irish side to reach the group stages of a European competition (2011–12 UEFA Europa League group stage) are Shamrock Rovers, who play at Tallaght Stadium in South Dublin. Bohemian F.C play at Dalymount Park, the oldest football stadium in the country, and home ground for the Ireland football team from 1904 to 1990. St Patrick's Athletic play at Richmond Park; University College Dublin
University College Dublin
at the UCD Bowl
UCD Bowl
in Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown; and Shelbourne at Tolka Park. Tolka Park, Dalymount Park, UCD Bowl
UCD Bowl
and Tallaght
Tallaght
Stadium, along with the Carlisle Grounds in Bray, hosted all Group 3 games in the intermediary round of the 2011 UEFA Regions' Cup. Cricket[edit] Dublin
Dublin
has two ODI Cricket grounds in Castle Avenue, Clontarf and Malahide
Malahide
Cricket Club. The Castle Avenue hosted its first one day international match on May 21, 1999 as part of the 1999 Cricket World Cup when Bangladesh played against the West Indies. College Park has Test status and played host to Ireland's only Test cricket match to date, a women's match against Pakistan in 2000.[122] Other[edit] The Dublin Marathon
Dublin Marathon
has been run since 1980 at the end of October, having been staged on the final Monday in October from 1980 to 2015, before moving to the final Sunday in 2016 and 2017. The Women's Mini Marathon has been run since 1983 on the first Monday in June, which is also a bank holiday in Ireland. It is said to be the largest all female event of its kind in the world.[123] The Dublin
Dublin
area hosts greyhound racing at Shelbourne Park
Shelbourne Park
and horse racing at Leopardstown. The Dublin
Dublin
Horse Show takes place at the RDS, which hosted the Show Jumping World Championships
Show Jumping World Championships
in 1982. The national boxing arena is located in The National Stadium on the South Circular Road. The National Basketball Arena
National Basketball Arena
is located in Tallaght, is the home of the Irish basketball team, the venue for the basketball league finals, and has also hosted boxing and wrestling events. The National Aquatic Centre in Blanchardstown
Blanchardstown
is Ireland's largest indoor water leisure facility. There are also Gaelic Handball, hockey and athletics stadia, most notably Morton Stadium in Santry, which held the athletics events of the 2003 Special
Special
Olympics. Cuisine[edit] Haute cuisine in Dublin
Dublin
was dominated by French restaurants and chefs.[citation needed] However, Irish-born Kevin Thornton was awarded two Michelin stars in 2001. The Dublin
Dublin
Institute of Technology commenced a bachelor's degree in culinary skills in 1999.[124] By 2016, Dublin
Dublin
had five restaurants sharing six Michelin stars, with Restaurant Patrick Guilbaud
Restaurant Patrick Guilbaud
holding two stars. Many awarded restaurants have Irish head chefs.[citation needed] Historically, Irish coffee house were associated with those working in media.[125] Since the beginning of the 21st century, with the growth of apartment living in the city, Dublin's cafés attracted younger patrons looking for an informal gathering place and an ad hoc office.[125] Cafés became more popular in the city, and Irish-owned coffee chains like Java Republic, Insomnia, and O'Brien's Sandwich Bars now compete internationally. In 2008, Irish barista Stephen Morrissey won the title of World Barista Champion.[126] Irish language[edit] There are 12,950 students in the Dublin
Dublin
region attending 34 gaelscoileanna (Irish-language primary schools) and 10 gaelcholáistí (Irish-language secondary schools).[127] Dublin
Dublin
has the highest number of Irish-medium schools in the country. There may be also up to another 10,000 Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
speakers living in Dublin.[citation needed] Two Irish language
Irish language
radio stations Raidió Na Life
Raidió Na Life
and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta have studios in the city, and the online and DAB station Raidió Rí-Rá broadcasts from studios in the city. Many other radio stations in the city broadcast at least an hour of Irish language programming per week. A number of Irish language
Irish language
agencies are also located in the capital. Conradh na Gaeilge
Conradh na Gaeilge
offers language classes, has a book shop and is a meeting place for different groups. The closest Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
to Dublin
Dublin
is the County Meath
County Meath
Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
of Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib
Baile Ghib
which is 55 km (34 mi) away. Twin cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the Republic of Ireland Dublin
Dublin
is twinned with the following places:[44][128]

City Nation Since

San Jose United States[129] 1986

Liverpool United Kingdom[130] 1986

Barcelona Spain[131][132] 1998

Beijing China[133][134] 2011

Emmetsburg, Iowa United States 1961

The city is also in talks to twin with Rio de Janeiro,[135] and Mexican city Guadalajara.[136] See also[edit]

Ireland portal

Dublin
Dublin
English List of people from Dublin List of subdivisions of County Dublin

References[edit]

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(2005) ^ "Constituency Commission Report 2012". Constituency Commission. Retrieved 22 July 2014.  ^ "The TDs elected to the 32nd Dáil so far". Newstalk. Retrieved 12 May 2013.  ^ a b " Dublin
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- A Vibrant City - Quarters". VisitDublin.com. Retrieved 22 February 2017.  ^ " Dublin
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launches new 'Creative Quarter' for city centre". TheJournal.ie. 11 March 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2017.  ^ "Welcome to medieval quarter". Independent News & Media. 12 October 2006. Retrieved 22 February 2017.  ^ " Dublin
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City - Dublin
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Town". What's On, Shopping & Events in Dublin
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City - Dublin
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– The Irish Meteorological Service Online". Met.ie. 2 January 1979. Retrieved 20 August 2010.  ^ "Climatology details for station DUBLIN (RINGSEND), IRELAND and index RR: Precipitation
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sum". European Climate Assessment & Dataset. Retrieved 21 December 2012.  ^ "Smoky coal ban". Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment. Retrieved 1 January 2018.  ^ a b "How the coal ban dealt with Dublin's burning issue". Irish Times. 26 September 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2017.  ^ Clancy, L.; Goodman, P.; Sinclair, H; Dockery, D. (2002). "Effect of air-pollution on death rates in Dublin
Dublin
Ireland: an intervention study". The Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11281-5.  ^ "Climatological Information for Merrion Square, Ireland". European Climate Assessment & Dataset.  ^ " Dublin Airport
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Castle: at the heart of Irish History. Dublin: Irish Government Stationery Office. pp. 12–18. ISBN 0-7557-1975-1.  ^ "Spire cleaners get prime view of city". Irish Independent. 5 June 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007.  ^ "The Dublin
Dublin
Spire". Archiseek. 2003. Retrieved 20 October 2011.  ^ " Guinness
Guinness
Storehouse tops list of most visited attractions". Irish Times. 26 July 2013.  ^ "Some Famous Landmarks of Dublin – Dublin
Dublin
Hotels & Travel Guide". Traveldir.org. 8 March 1966. Retrieved 16 September 2011.  ^ " Dublin
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or Paris
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With Almost 28M Passengers". www.dublinairport.com. Retrieved 1 February 2017.  ^ " Dublin Airport
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flying high after record year for transatlantic traffic - Independent.ie". Independent.ie. Retrieved 1 February 2017.  ^ "Flight Statistics 1998 - 2014". Irish Aviation Authority. 11 April 2016. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.  ^ "Cycling Maps". Dublincitycycling.ie. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ "Copenhagenize Consulting – Copenhagenize Index of Bicycle-Friendly Cities 2011". Copenhagenize.eu. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ "Copenhagenize Consulting – Copenhagenize Index of Bicycle-Friendly Cities 2011". Copenhagenize.eu. Retrieved 3 July 2017.  ^ "Dublinbikes – How does it work?". Dublinbikes. Retrieved 29 July 2011.  ^ " Dublinbikes
Dublinbikes
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& National Transport Authority. 2013. pp. 4, 8, 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015.  ^ "ESOF Dublin". EuroScience. 2012. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015.  ^ Walshe, John; Reigel, Ralph (25 November 2008). "Celebrations and hard work begin after capital lands science 'Olympics' for 2012". Irish Independent. Retrieved 17 June 2010.  ^ "DCU incorporation of CICE, St Pats and Mater Dei". DCU. 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2016.  ^ http://www.cso.ie/px/pxeirestat/Statire/SelectVarVal/define.asp?MainTable=E7050&ProductID=DB_E7&PLanguage=0&Tabstrip=&PXSId=0&SessID=7827795&FF=1&tfrequency=1 ^ Call for improved infrastructure for Dublin
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2 April 2007 ^ " Dublin
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heralds a new era in publishing for immigrants". The Guardian 12 March 2006. ^ Foreign nationals now 10% of Irish population 26 July 2007 ^ "Dublin". OPENCities, a British Council project. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2016.  ^ Catholic Church's Hold on Schools at Issue in Changing Ireland The New York Times, 21 January 2016 ^ http://airo.maynoothuniversity.ie/external-content/dublin-city ^ Irish Independent – Delight at City of Literature
City of Literature
accolade for Dublin. Retrieved 26 July 2010. ^ "National Museum of Ireland". Museum.ie. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2010.  ^ Conway, Richard (22 November 2010). "Dublin's independent arts scene is a silver lining in the recession-hit city". The Guardian. London.  ^ "RTÉ report on World Design Capital shortlist". RTÉ News. 21 June 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012.  ^ McDonald, Frank (22 June 2011). " Dublin
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on shortlist to be 'World Design Capital'". Irish Times. Retrieved 14 January 2012.  ^ "The Irish Experience". The Irish Experience. Retrieved 17 June 2010.  ^ " Dublin
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Guide, Tourist Information, Travel Planning, Tours, Sightseeing, Attractions, Things to Do". TalkingCities.co.uk. 6 October 2009. Archived from the original on 6 October 2009. Retrieved 6 October 2009.  ^ Article on stag/hen parties in Edinburgh, Scotland
Scotland
(which mentions their popularity in Dublin), mentioning Dublin. Retrieved 15 February 2009. ^ "New Lonely Planet guide slams Ireland for being too modern, Ireland Vacations". IrishCentral. Retrieved 17 June 2010.  ^ Doyle, Kevin (17 December 2009). "Let us open up for Sunday shoppers says Moore Street". The Herald. Retrieved 28 December 2009.  ^ McKenna, John (7 July 2007). "Public appetite for real food". The Irish Times. Retrieved 28 December 2009.  ^ Van Kampen, Sinead (21 September 2009). "Miss Thrifty: Death to the shopping centre!". The Irish Independent. Retrieved 28 December 2009.  ^ Mooney, Sinead (7 July 2007). "Food Shorts". The Irish Times. Retrieved 28 December 2009.  ^ Dublin Food Co-op
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website ref. Markets / News and Events / Recent Events / Events Archive ^ " Croke Park
Croke Park
Stadium". Crokepark.ie. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ "World record crowd watches Harlequins sink Saracens". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012.  ^ " Taoiseach
Taoiseach
Officially Opens Aviva Stadium". IrishRugby.ie. 14 May 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2015.  ^ "Homepage of Lansdowne Road
Lansdowne Road
Development Company (IRFU and FAI JV)". Lrsdc.Ie. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2010.  ^ Irish Rugby : Club & Community : Ulster Bank League : Ulster Bank
Ulster Bank
League Tables Archived 4 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Ireland Women v Pakistan Women, 2000, Only Test". CricketArchive. Retrieved 5 September 2013.  ^ "History". VHI Women's Mini Marathon. 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015.  ^ "The Changing Geography and Fortunes of Dublin's Haute Cuisine Restaurants, 1958-2008". Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisiplinary Research. 14 (4, pp. 525-545.).  ^ a b Máirtín Mac Con Iomaire. "Coffee Culture in Dublin: A Brief History". M/C Journal. 2012, Vol. 15 Issue 2.  ^ "Full of beans: meet Stephen, the world's best barista". Irish Independent. 15 July 2008.  ^ "Education through the Medium of Irish 2015/2016" (PDF). gaelscoileanna.ie. 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2018.  ^ " Dublin
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City Council. Retrieved 8 July 2014.  ^ "Sister City Program". City of San José. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2014.  ^ " Liverpool
Liverpool
City Council twinning". Liverpool.gov.uk. 17 November 2008. Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2009.  ^ "Ciutats agermanades, Relacions bilaterals, L'acció exterior". CIty of Barcelona. 18 June 2009. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2009.  ^ " Barcelona
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City Council signs cooperation agreements with Dublin, Seoul, Buenos Aires and Hong Kong". Ajuntament de Barcelona. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2015.  ^ " Dublin
Dublin
signs twinning agreement with Beijing". Dublin
Dublin
City Council. 2 June 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2012.  ^ Coonan, Clifford (3 June 2011). " Dublin
Dublin
officially twinned with Beijing". Irish Times. Retrieved 8 July 2014. (subscription required) ^ Coonan, Clifford (21 May 2011). " Dublin
Dublin
was also in talks with Rio de Janeiro in Brazil
Brazil
about twinning with that city". irishtimes.com. Retrieved 1 June 2011. (subscription required) ^ "Mexican city to be twinned with Dublin, says Lord Mayor". irishtimes.com. 21 March 2013. Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013. (subscription required)

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Dublin

John Flynn and Jerry Kelleher, Dublin
Dublin
Journeys in America (High Table Publishing, 2003) ISBN 0-9544694-1-0 Hanne Hem, Dubliners, An Anthropologist's Account, Oslo, 1994 Pat Liddy, Dublin
Dublin
A Celebration – From the 1st to the 21st century ( Dublin
Dublin
City Council, 2000) ISBN 0-946841-50-0 Maurice Craig, The Architecture of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1880 (Batsford, Paperback edition 1989) ISBN 0-7134-2587-3 Frank McDonald, Saving the City: How to Halt the Destruction of Dublin (Tomar Publishing, 1989) ISBN 1-871793-03-3 Edward McParland, Public Architecture in Ireland 1680–1760 (Yale University Press, 2001) ISBN 0-300-09064-1

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Countries

Active

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Inactive

Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey

Former

Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia

Relations

Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine

National selections

Current

Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Former

Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Finland Greece

Ellinikós Telikós Eurosong - A MAD Show

Ireland

The Late Late Show You're a Star

Israel Latvia

Eirodziesma Dziesma

Lithuania Macedonia Malta Montenegro Netherlands Serbia and Montenegro Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Yugoslavia

Other awards

Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE

OGAE
OGAE
Video Contest OGAE
OGAE
Second Chance Contest

Barbara Dex Award

Television and concerts

Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest's Greatest Hits

Category Portal

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Baronies of County Dublin

Balrothery East Balrothery West Castleknock Coolock Dublin Dublin
Dublin
City Nethercross Newcastle Rathdown Uppercross

Other baronies of Ireland: complete list by county

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 150028417 LCCN: n79065753 ISNI: 0000 0004 0408 6999 GND: 4013170-1 SELIBR: 143218 SUDOC: 027912205 BNF: