Parouse.com
 Parouse.com



Vombatiformes Phalangeriformes Macropodiformes

The Diprotodontia
Diprotodontia
(/ˌdaɪˌproʊtoʊˈdɒnʃiə/; Greek: διπρωτός diprotos, meaning "two front" and οδοντος odontos meaning "teeth") are an order of about 125 species[2] of marsupial mammals including the kangaroos, wallabies, possums, koala, wombats, and many others. Extinct
Extinct
diprotodonts include the rhinoceros-sized Diprotodon, and Thylacoleo, the so-called "marsupial lion".

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Fossil
Fossil
record 3 Classification 4 References

Characteristics[edit]

The prominent mandibular central incisors characteristic of the diprotodonts are evident in this Kangaroo
Kangaroo
Island kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus)

Living diprotodonts are almost all herbivores, as were most of those that are now extinct. A few insectivorous and omnivorous diprotodonts are known, and the Potoridae
Potoridae
are almost unique among vertebrates in being largely fungivorous, but these seem to have arisen as relatively recent adaptations from the mainstream herbivorous lifestyle. The extinct thylacoleonids ("marsupial lions") are the only known group to have exhibited carnivory on a large scale. Diprotodonts are restricted to Australasia. The earliest known fossils date to the late Oligocene, but their genesis certainly lies earlier than this, as large gaps occur in Australia's fossil record, with virtually no fossil record at all in geologically active New Guinea. The great diversity of known Oligocene
Oligocene
diprotodonts suggests the order began to diverge well beforehand. Many of the largest and least athletic diprotodonts (along with a wide range of other Australian megafauna) became extinct when humans first arrived in Australia about 50,000 years ago. Their extinction possibly occurred as a direct result of hunting, but was more probably a result of widespread habitat changes brought about by human activities—notably the use of fire. Two key anatomical features, in combination, identify Diprotodontia. Members of the order are, first, "diprotodont" (meaning "two front teeth"): they have a pair of large, procumbent incisors on the lower jaw, a common feature of many early groups of mammals and mammaliforms. The diprotodont jaw is short, usually with three pairs of upper incisors (wombats, like rodents have only one pair), and no lower canines. The second trait distinguishing diprotodonts is "syndactyly", a fusing of the second and third digits of the foot up to the base of the claws, which leaves the claws themselves separate.[3] Digit five is usually absent, and digit four is often greatly enlarged. Syndactyly is not particularly common (though the Australian omnivorous marsupials share it) and is generally posited as an adaptation to assist in climbing. Many modern diprotodonts, however, are strictly terrestrial, and have evolved further adaptations to their feet to better suit this lifestyle. This makes the history of the tree-kangaroos particularly convoluted: it appears that the animals were arboreal at some time in the far distant past, moving afterward to the ground—gaining long kangaroo-like feet in the process—before returning to the trees, where they further developed a shortening and broadening of the hind feet and a novel climbing method. Fossil
Fossil
record[edit] The earliest known fossil of Diprotodontia
Diprotodontia
dates back to the Late Oligocene
Oligocene
(23.03 - 28.4 million years ago), and the earliest identifiable species is Hypsiprymnodon bartholomaii from the Early Miocene.[4] Classification[edit] Until recently, only two suborders in Diprotodontia
Diprotodontia
were noted: Vombatiformes
Vombatiformes
which encompassed the wombats and koala and Phalangerida which contained all other families. Kirsch et al. (1997) split the families into three suborders. In addition, the six Phalangeriformes families are split into two superfamilies. Order DIPROTODONTIA

Genus †Brachalletes Genus †Koalemas Genus †Sthenomerus Genus †Nimbadon Family †Maradidae Suborder
Suborder
Vombatiformes

Family Phascolarctidae: koala (one species) Family Vombatidae: wombats (three species) Family †Ilariidae Family †Diprotodontidae Family †Palorchestidae Family † Thylacoleonidae
Thylacoleonidae
(marsupial lions)[5] Family †Wynyardiidae

Suborder
Suborder
Phalangeriformes

Superfamily Phalangeroidea

Family Phalangeridae: brushtail possums and cuscuses Family Burramyidae: pygmy possums

Superfamily Petauroidea

Family Tarsipedidae: honey possum Family Petauridae
Petauridae
(striped possum, Leadbeater's possum, yellow-bellied glider, sugar glider, mahogany glider, squirrel glider) Family Pseudocheiridae: ringtailed possums and allies Family Acrobatidae: (feathertail glider and feather-tailed possum)

Suborder
Suborder
Macropodiformes

Family †Balbaridae : basal quadrupedal kangaroos Family Macropodidae: kangaroos, wallabies and allies Family Potoroidae: bettongs, potoroos, and rat-kangaroos Family Hypsiprymnodontidae: musky rat-kangaroo

† means extinct family, genus or species. References[edit]

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (May 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

^ Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 43–70. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Meredith, Robert W.; Westerman, Michael; Springer, Mark S. (26 February 2009). "A phylogeny of Diprotodontia
Diprotodontia
(Marsupialia) based on sequences for five nuclear genes" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 51: 554–571. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.02.009. PMID 19249373. Retrieved 5 May 2015.  ^ Tolweb ^ The Paleobiology Database ^ Naish, Darren. "Of koalas and marsupial lions: the vombatiform radiation, part I". Scientific American. Scientific American, Inc. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 

The Taxonomicon Mikko Haaramo Kear, Benjamin P.; Cooke, Bernard N.; Archer, Michael; Flannery, Timothy F. (November 2007). "Implications of a new species of the Oligo-Miocene kangaroo (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea) Nambaroo, from the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, Queensland, Australia". Journal of Paleontology. 81 (6): 1147–67. doi:10.1666/04-218.1. 

v t e

Extant mammal orders

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata (unranked) Amniota

Yinotheria

Australosphenida

Monotremata (Platypus and echidnas)

Theria

Metatheria ( Marsupial
Marsupial
inclusive)

Ameridelphia

Paucituberculata (Shrew opossums) Didelphimorphia (Opossums)

Australidelphia

Microbiotheria
Microbiotheria
(Monito del monte) Notoryctemorphia ( Marsupial
Marsupial
moles) Dasyuromorphia
Dasyuromorphia
(Quolls and dunnarts) Peramelemorphia
Peramelemorphia
(Bilbies and bandicoots) Diprotodontia
Diprotodontia
(Kangaroos and relatives)

Eutheria ( Placental
Placental
inclusive)

Atlantogenata

Xenarthra

Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa
Pilosa
(Anteaters and sloths)

Afrotheria

Afrosoricida
Afrosoricida
(Tenrecs and golden moles) Macroscelidea (Elephant shrews) Tubulidentata (Aardvark) Hyracoidea (Hyraxes) Proboscidea
Proboscidea
(Elephants) Sirenia
Sirenia
(Dugongs and manatees)

Boreoeutheria

Laurasiatheria

Eulipotyphla
Eulipotyphla
(Hedgehogs, shrews, moles and relatives) Chiroptera (Bats) Pholidota (Pangolins) Carnivora
Carnivora
(Dogs, cats and relatives) Perissodactyla (Odd-toed ungulates) Artiodactyla (Even-toed ungulates and cetaceans)

Euarchontoglires

Rodentia (Rodents) Lagomorpha
Lagomorpha
(Rabbits and pikas) Scandentia (Treeshrews) Dermoptera (Colugos) Primates

v t e

Extant Diprotodontia
Diprotodontia
species

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Infraclass Marsupialia

Suborder
Suborder
Vombatiformes

Phascolarctidae

Phascolarctos

Koala
Koala
(P. cinereus)

Vombatidae (Wombats)

Vombatus

Common wombat
Common wombat
(V. ursinus)

Lasiorhinus

Southern hairy-nosed wombat
Southern hairy-nosed wombat
(L. latifrons) Northern hairy-nosed wombat
Northern hairy-nosed wombat
(L. krefftii)

Suborder
Suborder
Phalangeriformes
Phalangeriformes
(Possums) (cont. below)

Phalangeridae (including Cuscuses)

Ailurops (Bear cuscuses)

Talaud bear cuscus
Talaud bear cuscus
(A. melanotis) Sulawesi bear cuscus
Sulawesi bear cuscus
(A. ursinus)

Phalanger

Gebe Cuscus
Cuscus
(P. alexandrae) Mountain cuscus
Mountain cuscus
(P. carmelitae) Ground cuscus
Ground cuscus
(P. gymnotis) Eastern common cuscus
Eastern common cuscus
(P. intercastellanus) Woodlark cuscus
Woodlark cuscus
(P. lullulae) Blue-eyed cuscus
Blue-eyed cuscus
(P. matabiru) Telefomin cuscus
Telefomin cuscus
(P. matanim) Southern common cuscus
Southern common cuscus
(P. mimicus) Northern common cuscus
Northern common cuscus
(P. orientalis) Ornate cuscus
Ornate cuscus
(P. ornatus) Rothschild's cuscus
Rothschild's cuscus
(P. rothschildi) Silky cuscus
Silky cuscus
(P. sericeus) Stein's cuscus
Stein's cuscus
(P. vestitus)

Spilocuscus

Admiralty Island cuscus
Admiralty Island cuscus
(S. kraemeri) Common spotted cuscus
Common spotted cuscus
(S. maculatus) Waigeou cuscus
Waigeou cuscus
(S. papuensis) Black-spotted cuscus
Black-spotted cuscus
(S. rufoniger) Blue-eyed spotted cuscus
Blue-eyed spotted cuscus
(S. wilsoni)

Strigocuscus

Sulawesi dwarf cuscus
Sulawesi dwarf cuscus
(S. celebensis) Banggai cuscus
Banggai cuscus
(S. pelegensis)

Trichosurus (Brushtail possums)

Northern brushtail possum
Northern brushtail possum
(T. arnhemensis) Short-eared possum
Short-eared possum
(T. caninus) Mountain brushtail possum
Mountain brushtail possum
(T. cunninghami) Coppery brushtail possum
Coppery brushtail possum
(T. johnstonii) Common brushtail possum
Common brushtail possum
(T. vulpecula)

Wyulda

Scaly-tailed possum
Scaly-tailed possum
(W. squamicaudata)

Burramyidae (Pygmy possums)

Burramys

Mountain pygmy possum
Mountain pygmy possum
(B. parvus)

Cercartetus

Long-tailed pygmy possum
Long-tailed pygmy possum
(C. caudatus) Southwestern pygmy possum
Southwestern pygmy possum
(C. concinnus) Tasmanian pygmy possum
Tasmanian pygmy possum
(C. lepidus) Eastern pygmy possum
Eastern pygmy possum
(C. nanus)

Suborder
Suborder
Phalangeriformes
Phalangeriformes
(Possums) (cont. above)

Tarsipedidae

Tarsipes

Honey possum
Honey possum
(T. rostratus)

Petauridae

Dactylopsila

Great-tailed triok
Great-tailed triok
(D. megalura) Long-fingered triok
Long-fingered triok
(D. palpator) Tate's triok
Tate's triok
(D. tatei) Striped possum
Striped possum
(D. trivirgata)

Gymnobelideus

Leadbeater's possum
Leadbeater's possum
(G. leadbeateri)

Petaurus

Northern glider
Northern glider
(P. abidi) Yellow-bellied glider
Yellow-bellied glider
(P. australis) Biak glider
Biak glider
(P. biacensis) Sugar glider
Sugar glider
(P. breviceps) Mahogany glider
Mahogany glider
(P. gracilis) Squirrel glider
Squirrel glider
(P. norfolcensis)

Pseudocheiridae

Hemibelideus

Lemur-like ringtail possum
Lemur-like ringtail possum
(H. lemuroides)

Petauroides

Greater glider
Greater glider
(P. volans)

Petropseudes

Rock-haunting ringtail possum
Rock-haunting ringtail possum
(P. dahli)

Pseudocheirus

Common ringtail possum
Common ringtail possum
(P. peregrinus)

Pseudochirulus

Lowland ringtail possum
Lowland ringtail possum
(P. canescens) Weyland ringtail possum
Weyland ringtail possum
(P. caroli) Cinereus ringtail possum
Cinereus ringtail possum
(P. cinereus) Painted ringtail possum
Painted ringtail possum
(P. forbesi) Herbert River ringtail possum
Herbert River ringtail possum
(P. herbertensis) Masked ringtail possum
Masked ringtail possum
(P. larvatus) Pygmy ringtail possum
Pygmy ringtail possum
(P. mayeri) Vogelkop ringtail possum
Vogelkop ringtail possum
(P. schlegeli)

Pseudochirops

D'Albertis' ringtail possum
D'Albertis' ringtail possum
(P. albertisii) Green ringtail possum
Green ringtail possum
(P. archeri) Plush-coated ringtail possum
Plush-coated ringtail possum
(P. corinnae) Reclusive ringtail possum
Reclusive ringtail possum
(P. coronatus) Coppery ringtail possum
Coppery ringtail possum
(P. cupreus)

Acrobatidae

Acrobates

Feathertail glider
Feathertail glider
(A. pygmaeus)

Distoechurus

Feather-tailed possum
Feather-tailed possum
(D. pennatus)

Suborder
Suborder
Macropodiformes
Macropodiformes
(cont. below)

Macropodidae (includes Wallabies)

Lagostrophus

Banded hare-wallaby
Banded hare-wallaby
(L. fasciatus)

Dendrolagus (Tree-kangaroos)

Grizzled tree-kangaroo
Grizzled tree-kangaroo
(D. inustus) Lumholtz's tree-kangaroo
Lumholtz's tree-kangaroo
(D. lumholtzi) Bennett's tree-kangaroo
Bennett's tree-kangaroo
(D. bennettianus) Ursine tree-kangaroo
Ursine tree-kangaroo
(D. ursinus) Matschie's tree-kangaroo
Matschie's tree-kangaroo
(D. matschiei) Doria's tree-kangaroo
Doria's tree-kangaroo
(D. dorianus) Ifola tree-kangaroo
Ifola tree-kangaroo
(D. notatus) Goodfellow's tree-kangaroo
Goodfellow's tree-kangaroo
(D. goodfellowi) Lowlands tree-kangaroo
Lowlands tree-kangaroo
(D. spadix) Golden-mantled tree-kangaroo
Golden-mantled tree-kangaroo
(D. pulcherrimus) Seri's tree-kangaroo
Seri's tree-kangaroo
(D. stellarum) Dingiso
Dingiso
(D. mbaiso) Tenkile
Tenkile
(D. scottae)

Dorcopsis

Brown dorcopsis
Brown dorcopsis
(D. muelleri) White-striped dorcopsis
White-striped dorcopsis
(D. hageni) Black dorcopsis
Black dorcopsis
(D. atrata) Gray dorcopsis
Gray dorcopsis
(D. luctuosa)

Dorcopsulus

Small dorcopsis
Small dorcopsis
(D. vanheurni) Macleay's dorcopsis
Macleay's dorcopsis
(D. macleayi)

Lagorchestes

Spectacled hare-wallaby
Spectacled hare-wallaby
(L. conspicillatus) Rufous hare-wallaby
Rufous hare-wallaby
(L. hirsutus)

Macropus (includes Kangaroos and Wallaroos)

Subgenus Notamacropus: Agile wallaby
Agile wallaby
(M. agilis) Black-striped wallaby
Black-striped wallaby
(M. dorsalis) Tammar wallaby
Tammar wallaby
(M. eugenii) Western brush wallaby
Western brush wallaby
(M. irma) Parma wallaby
Parma wallaby
(M. parma) Pretty-faced wallaby
Pretty-faced wallaby
(M. parryi) Red-necked wallaby
Red-necked wallaby
(M. rufogriseus)

Subgenus Osphranter: Antilopine kangaroo
Antilopine kangaroo
(M. antilopinus) Black wallaroo
Black wallaroo
(M. bernardus) Common wallaroo
Common wallaroo
(M. robustus) Red kangaroo
Red kangaroo
(M. rufus)

Subgenus Macropus: Western grey kangaroo
Western grey kangaroo
(M. fuliginosus) Eastern grey kangaroo
Eastern grey kangaroo
(M. giganteus)

Onychogalea (Nail-tail wallabies)

Bridled nail-tail wallaby
Bridled nail-tail wallaby
(O. fraenata) Northern nail-tail wallaby
Northern nail-tail wallaby
(O. unguifera)

Petrogale (Rock-wallabies)

P. brachyotis species-group: Short-eared rock-wallaby
Short-eared rock-wallaby
(P. brachyotis) Wilkins' rock-wallaby (P. wilkinsi) Monjon
Monjon
(P. burbidgei) Nabarlek
Nabarlek
(P. concinna)

P. xanthopus species-group: Proserpine rock-wallaby
Proserpine rock-wallaby
(P. persephone) Rothschild's rock-wallaby
Rothschild's rock-wallaby
(P. rothschildi) Yellow-footed rock-wallaby
Yellow-footed rock-wallaby
(P. xanthopus)

P. lateralis/penicillata species-group: Allied rock-wallaby
Allied rock-wallaby
(P. assimilis) Cape York rock-wallaby
Cape York rock-wallaby
(P. coenensis) Godman's rock-wallaby
Godman's rock-wallaby
(P. godmani) Herbert's rock-wallaby
Herbert's rock-wallaby
(P. herberti) Unadorned rock-wallaby
Unadorned rock-wallaby
(P. inornata) Black-flanked rock-wallaby
Black-flanked rock-wallaby
(P. lateralis) Mareeba rock-wallaby
Mareeba rock-wallaby
(P. mareeba) Brush-tailed rock-wallaby
Brush-tailed rock-wallaby
(P. penicillata) Purple-necked rock-wallaby
Purple-necked rock-wallaby
(P. purpureicollis) Mount Claro rock-wallaby
Mount Claro rock-wallaby
(P. sharmani)

Setonix

Quokka
Quokka
(S. brachyurus)

Thylogale (Pademelons)

Tasmanian pademelon
Tasmanian pademelon
(T. billardierii) Brown's pademelon
Brown's pademelon
(T. browni) Dusky pademelon
Dusky pademelon
(T. brunii) Calaby's pademelon
Calaby's pademelon
(T. calabyi) Mountain pademelon
Mountain pademelon
(T. lanatus) Red-legged pademelon
Red-legged pademelon
(T. stigmatica) Red-necked pademelon
Red-necked pademelon
(T. thetis)

Wallabia

Swamp wallaby
Swamp wallaby
(W. bicolor)

Suborder
Suborder
Macropodiformes
Macropodiformes
(cont. above)

Potoroidae

Aepyprymnus

Rufous rat-kangaroo
Rufous rat-kangaroo
(A. rufescens)

Bettongia (Bettongs)

Eastern bettong
Eastern bettong
(B. gaimardi) Boodie
Boodie
(B. lesueur) Woylie
Woylie
(B. penicillata) Northern bettong
Northern bettong
(B. tropica)

Potorous (Potoroos)

Long-footed potoroo
Long-footed potoroo
(P. longipes) Long-nosed potoroo
Long-nosed potoroo
(P. tridactylus) Gilbert's potoroo
Gilbert's potoroo
(. gilbertii)

Hypsiprymnodontidae

Hypsiprymnodon

Musky rat-kangaroo
Musky rat-kangaroo
(H. moschatus)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q26332 ADW: Diprotodontia EoL: 1694 EPPO: 1DIPRO Fauna Europaea: 12615 Fossilworks: 66275 GBIF: 1452 ITIS: 552297 MSW: 11000001