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Darśana
Darśana
(Sanskrit: दर्शन, lit. view, sight) is the auspicious sight of a deity or a holy person.[1] The term also refers to six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
and their literature on spirituality and soteriology.[2]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Definition 3 In Hinduism 4 In Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism 5 Other meanings 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading

Etymology[edit] The word, also in the forms of darśana or darshanam, comes from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
दर्शन, from dṛś, "to see", vision, apparition or glimpse. Definition[edit] Darśana
Darśana
is described as an "auspicious sight" of a holy person, which bestows merit on the person who is seen.[1] "Sight" here means seeing or beholding, and/or being seen or beheld. It is most commonly used for theophany, "manifestation / visions of the divine", in Hindu worship, e.g. of a deity (especially in image form), or a very holy person or artifact. One can receive darśana or a glimpse of the deity in the temple, or from a great saintly person, such as a great guru.[3] In Hinduism[edit] The term darśana also refers to the six systems of thought, called darśanam, that comprise classical Hindu philosophy.[4][5] The term therein implies how each of these six systems distinctively look at things and the scriptures in Indian philosophies.[5][6] The six orthodox Hindu darśana are Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā, and Vedanta. Buddhism and Jainism are examples of non-Hindu darśanas.[6] In Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism[edit] On the significance of darśana in Mahayana
Mahayana
thought, Paul Harrison writes: "By the second century CE... the vision of the Buddha (buddha-darśana) and the accompanying hearing of the Dharma (dharma-śravaṇa) are represented as a transformation experience of decisive importance for practitioners, be they who have renounced (mundane life) "ascetics" or householders."[7] The Abhidharma, collections of systematic summaries of the sutras, mention Darśana-citta, i.e. visions.[8] Indian Mahayana
Mahayana
philosophers Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
and Asanga
Asanga
acknowledged five paths to liberation, of which the third is darśana-marga, the "path of seeing".[9] Nagarjuna, a prominent philosopher of the Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
school of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, wrote that the wise person perceives tattva-darśana, true reality.[10][11][need quotation to verify] Other meanings[edit] Darśana
Darśana
also sometimes has a more mundane meaning. For example, Sivananda Saraswati
Sivananda Saraswati
wrote in his book The Practice of Brahmacharya that one of the eight aspects of brahmacharya (celibacy) is not to look lustfully at women: "You should carefully avoid... Darshana or looking at women with passionate resolve".[12] Scholar of religion Richard H. Davis has said that darśana (viewpoint, philosophical school) is one of three terms in classical Indian discourse that could be considered roughly analogous to what today's English-speakers understand as "religion." The other two terms are dharma (duty, morality, a code of proper conduct) and marga (route, spiritual path). According to Davis, "most Hindu texts accepted that religious paths (marga) are relative to the points of view (darśana) and moral responsibilities (dharma) of practitioners, whose individual circumstances may make one or another course of action more appropriate in their particular situations."[13] Poet Gary Snyder
Gary Snyder
has given a naturalistic meaning to darśana:

It's a gift; it's like there's a moment in which the thing is ready to let you see it. In India, this is called darshan. Darshan means getting a view, and if the clouds blow away, as they did once for me, and you get a view of the Himalayas
Himalayas
from the foothills, an Indian person would say, 'Ah, the Himalayas
Himalayas
are giving you their darshana'; they're letting you have their view. This comfortable, really deep way of getting a sense of something takes time. It doesn't show itself to you right away. It isn't even necessary to know the names of things the way a botanist would. It's more important to be aware of the 'suchness' of the thing; it's a reality. It's also a source of a certain kind of inspiration for creativity. I see it in the work of Georgia O'Keeffe..."[14]

In Sikh culture, folios or manuscripts that depict all ten Gurus on a single page are called darśana paintings, simply because they offer a vision of all ten sacred Gurus in one glance.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Blessing Hindu philosophy Jharokha Darshan Pranāma Religious ecstasy Tabor Light Theophany Tulpa

References[edit]

^ a b Flood 2011, p. 194. ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, ISBN 978-1851685387, Chapter 2, page 26 ^ "Darshan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 February 2013.  ^ Andrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231149877, pages 2-5 ^ a b Roy Perrett (2000), Indian Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-1135703226, pages 88, 284 ^ a b Darshan - Hinduism
Hinduism
Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(2015) ^ Paul Harrison, "Commemoration and identification in Buddhanusmṛti", in Gyatso 1992, p. 223 ^ Gyatso 1992, p. 288 ^ Gethin 1998, p. 194 ^ "Chapter 26". Mūlamadhyamakakārikā
Mūlamadhyamakakārikā
[Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way]. verse 10.  ^ Unno 1993, p. 347 ^ Sivananda 1988, p. 24 ^ Davis 2008, pp. 363–364 ^ White 1994, p. 148

Sources[edit]

Davis, Richard H. (2008). "Tolerance and hierarchy: accommodating multiple religious paths in Hinduism". In Neusner, Jacob; Chilton, Bruce. Religious tolerance in world religions. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press. pp. 360–376. ISBN 1599471361. OCLC 174500978.  Flood, Gavin D. (2011), "Miracles in Hinduism", in Twelftree, Graham H., The Cambridge Companion to Miracles, Cambridge University Press  Gethin, Rupert (1998). The foundations of Buddhism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192892231. OCLC 38392391.  Gyatso, Janet, ed. (1992). In the mirror of memory: reflections on mindfulness and remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791410773. OCLC 24068984.  Sivananda, Sri Swami
Swami
(1988) [1934]. The practice of brahmacharya (PDF) (1st revised ed.). Shivanandanagar, Uttar Pradesh: Divine Life Society. ISBN 8170520673.  Unno, Taitetsu (1993). "San-lun, T'ien T'ai, and Hua-yen". In Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Bragt, Jan van. Buddhist spirituality: Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, and early Chinese. World spirituality. New York: Crossroad. pp. 343–365. ISBN 0824512774. OCLC 27432658.  White, Jonathan, ed. (1994). Talking on the water: conversations about nature and creativity. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. ISBN 0871565153. OCLC 27640603.  Purdom, C.B., ed. (1955). God to Man and Man to God: the Discourses of Meher Baba. London: Victor Gollancz. 

Further reading[edit]

Coorlawala, Uttara Asha (Spring 1996). "Darshan and abhinaya: an alternative to the male gaze" (PDF). Dance Research Journal. 28 (1): 19–27. doi:10.2307/1478103. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-03.  Dass, Ram (2010). "Darshan". Be love now: the path of the heart. New York: HarperOne. pp. 62–84. ISBN 006196137X. OCLC 526084249.  DuPertuis, Lucy (1986). "How people recognize charisma: the case of darshan in Radhasoami and Divine Light Mission" (PDF). Sociology of Religion. 47 (2): 111–124. doi:10.2307/3711456.  Eck, Diana L. (1998) [1981]. Darśan: seeing the divine image in India (3rd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231112653. OCLC 40295673.  Grimes, John A. (2004). "Darśana". In Mittal, Sushil; Thursby, Gene R. The Hindu world. The Routledge worlds. New York: Routledge. pp. 531–552. ISBN 0415215277. OCLC 54103829.  Sanzaro, Francis (Fall 2007). "Darshan as mode and critique of perception: Hinduism's liberatory model of visuality" (PDF). Axis Mundi: 1–24. 

v t e

Worship in Hinduism

Main topics

Aarti Bhajan Darśana Deities Festivals Homa (Yajna) Kirtan Mantra Murti Tilaka Utsava Vrata Yatra

Rituals

Puja

Abhisheka Bhog Naivedhya Panchamakara Panchamrita Parikrama Pranāma Prasad Pushpanjali

Homa

Yajna Agnicayana Agnihotra Agnikaryam Aupasana Dhuni Kaamya karma Pravargya Purushamedha Putrakameshti Viraja Homa

Other

Achamana Archana Ashirvad Ashvamedha Darśana Karmkand Kumbhabhishekham Nitya karma Ngejot Panchayatana puja Prana pratishta Sandhyavandanam Shuddhi Shrauta Upakarma

Prayer Meditation

Ajapa japa Bhajan Brahmamuhurtha Jagran Jai Sri Ram Japa Kirtan Om Sandhyavandanam Shaktipat Stotra Third eye Yoga

Mantras

Om Hare Krishna Om Namah Shivaya Gayatri Mantra

Objects

Puja thali Altar Banalinga Banana leaf Biruda Coconut Dhunachi Dhuni Dhupa Diya Cāmara Garland Ghanta Joss stick Kalasha Kamandalu Khirapat Kindi Paduka Palki Panchamrita Pandal Pinda Prayer beads Rangoli Shankha Tilaka Upanayana Uthsavar Yagnopaveetham

Materials

Agarwood Alta Camphor Charu Ghee Incense Kumkuma Marigold Milk Panchagavya Rudraksha Sandalwood Sindoor Soma Tulsi Turmeric Vibhuti

Instruments

Dholak Harmonium Karatalas Khol Manjira Mridangam Tabla

Iconography

Lingam Murti Om Pindi Shaligram Swastika Yoni more...

Places

Ashram Dwajasthambam Ghat Kalyani Matha Temple Pilgrimage sites

Roles

Guru Pandit Pujari Rishi Sadhu Sannyasa Swami Yogi more...

Sacred animals

Nāga Nag Panchami Nagaradhane

Sacred plants

Trees

Akshayavat Ashoka Banyan Kadamba Kalpavriksha Parijaat Peepal Sacred groves

Fruits and other plants

Bael Kusha grass Lotus Tulsi (Tulasi chaura Tulsi
Tulsi
Vivah)

See also

Firewalking Sanskara Temple dance

v t e

Hinduism

Aum Chakra Dharma Gurus and saints Karma Mantra Moksha Yoga Worship<