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The Republic of Dagestan
Dagestan
(Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan
Dagestan
(/ˌdæɡɪˈstæn/ or /ˌdæɡɪˈstɑːn/; Russian: Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
region. Its capital and largest city is Makhachkala, located at the center of Dagestan
Dagestan
on the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
coast. Its government was dissolved in a major corruption investigation on 5 February 2018, and the region is currently under the direct control of the Russian government.[12][13][14][15] With a population of 2,910,249,[6] Dagestan
Dagestan
is very ethnically diverse and Russia's most heterogeneous republic, with none of its several dozen ethnicities and subgroups forming a majority. Largest among these ethnicities are the Avar, Dargin, Kumyk, Lezgian, Laks, Azerbaijani, Tabasaran, and Chechen.[16] Ethnic Russians
Russians
comprise about 3.6% of Dagestan's total population.[17] Russian is the primary official language and the lingua franca among the ethnicities.[18] Dagestan
Dagestan
has been a scene of Islamic insurgency, occasional outbreaks of separatism, and ethnic tension since the 1990s. According to International Crisis Group, the militant Islamist organization Shariat Jamaat is responsible for much of the violence.[19] Much of the tension is rooted in an internal Islamic conflict between traditional Sufi
Sufi
groups advocating secular government and more recently introduced Salafist teachers preaching the implementation of a certain form of Sharia
Sharia
in Dagestan.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Toponymy

1.1 Names for Dagestan

1.1.1 Official languages 1.1.2 Other non-official languages

2 Geography

2.1 Rivers 2.2 Lakes 2.3 Mountains 2.4 Natural resources 2.5 Climate

3 Administrative divisions 4 History

4.1 Early 1st Millennium 4.2 Islamic Influence 4.3 Alternating Persian and Russian Rule 4.4 Russian Rule Consolidated 4.5 Risings against Imperial Russia 4.6 Soviet Era 4.7 Post-Soviet Era

5 Politics 6 Demographics

6.1 Vital statistics 6.2 Ethnicities 6.3 Languages 6.4 Religion

7 Economy 8 Dagestani conflict 9 Notable people 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Toponymy[edit] The word Dagestan
Dagestan
is of Turkish and Persian origin. Dağ means 'mountain' in Turkish and -stan
-stan
is a Persian suffix meaning 'land'. Some areas of Dagestan
Dagestan
were known as Albania, Lezgistan, Avaria, and Tarkov at various times.[20] The name Dagestan
Dagestan
referred to Dagestan Oblast
Dagestan Oblast
during 1860 to 1920, corresponding to the southeastern part of the present-day Republic. The current borders were created with the establishment of the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
in 1921, by the inclusion of the eastern part of Terek Oblast, which is not "mountainous" at all but includes the Terek littoral at the southern end of the Caspian Depression. Names for Dagestan[edit] Official languages[edit]

Russian – Респу́блика Дагеста́н (Respublika Dagestan) Avar – Дагъистаналъул Жумгьурият (Daɣistanaĺul Jumhuriyat) Dargin – Дагъистанес Республика (Daɣistanes Respublika) Kumyk – Дагъыстан Джумгьурият (Dağıstan Cumhuriyat) Lezgian – Республика Дагъустан (Respublika Daɣustan) Lak – Дагъустаннал Республика (Daɣustannal Respublika) Tabasaran – Дагъустан Республика (Daɣustan Respublika) Rutul – Республика Дагъустан (Respublika Daɣustan) Aghul – Республика Дагъустан (Respublika Daɣustan) Tsakhur – Республика Дагъустан (Respublika Daɣustan) Nogai – Дагыстан Республикасы (Dağıstan Respublikası) Chechen – Деxастан пачхьалкъ (Dexastan Pačxalqʼ) Azerbaijani – Дағыстан Республикасы (Dağıstan Respublikası)

Other non-official languages[edit]

Turkish – Dağıstan Cumhuriyeti Arabic – جمهورية داغستان (Jumhūrīyat Dāghistān) Persian – جمهوری داغستان‬ (Jomhuriye Dâghestân) Armenian – Դաղստանի Հանրապետություն (Daghstani Hanrapetutyun) Georgian – დაღესტნის რესპუბლიკა (Daghestnis Respublika)

Geography[edit]

KC

KB

Oss

In

Ch

Krasnodar Krai

Adygea

Stavropol Krai

Rostov Oblast

Volgograd Oblast

Astrakhan
Astrakhan
Oblast

Kalmykia

Dage- stan

Federal subjects in the Black Sea-Caspian area. *Smaller areas along the north Caucasus
Caucasus
are the republics: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia-Alania, Ingushetia, and Chechnya *Yellow is the Southern Federal District and Pink is the North Caucasus
Caucasus
Federal District

The republic is situated in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
mountains. It is the southernmost part of Russia
Russia
and is bordered on its eastern side by the Caspian Sea.

Area: 50,300 square kilometers (19,400 sq mi) Borders:

internal: Republic of Kalmykia
Kalmykia
(N), Chechen Republic
Chechen Republic
(W), and Stavropol Krai
Stavropol Krai
(NW) international: Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(S), Georgia (SW) water: Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
(E)

Highest point: Mount Bazardüzü/Bazardyuzyu: 4,446 metres (14,587 ft) Maximum north-south distance: 400 kilometers (250 mi) Maximum east-west distance: 200 kilometers (120 mi)

Rivers[edit]

Map of Dagestan.

There are over 1,800 rivers in the republic. Major rivers include:

Sulak River Samur River Terek River Vladas River Ccenter River

Lakes[edit] Dagestan
Dagestan
has about 405 kilometers (252 mi) of coastline on the Caspian Sea. Mountains[edit] Most of the Republic is mountainous, with the Greater Caucasus Mountains covering the south. The highest point is the Bazardüzü/Bazardyuzyu peak at 4,470 meters (14,670 ft) on the border with Azerbaijan. The southernmost point of Russia
Russia
is located about seven kilometers southwest of the peak. Other important mountains are Diklosmta
Diklosmta
(4,285 m (14,058 ft)), Gora Addala Shukgelmezr (4,152 m (13,622 ft)) and Gora Dyultydag (4,127 m (13,540 ft)). Natural resources[edit] Dagestan
Dagestan
is rich in oil, natural gas, coal, and many other minerals. Climate[edit] The climate is hot and dry in the summer but the winters are harsh in the mountain areas.

Average January temperature: +2 °C (36 °F) Average July temperature: +26 °C (79 °F) Average annual precipitation: 250 mm (10 in) (northern plains) to 800 mm (31 in) (in the mountains).

Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of Dagestan Dagestan
Dagestan
is administratively divided into forty-one districts (raions) and ten cities/towns. The districts are further subdivided into nineteen urban-type settlements, and 363 rural okrugs and stanitsa okrugs. History[edit] Main article: History of Dagestan

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Map of the Caucasian isthmus. Designed and drawn by J. Grassl, 1856.

In the old town of Derbent, a World Heritage Site.

Dagestan
Dagestan
1818-1826.

Early 1st Millennium[edit] In the first few centuries AD, Caucasian Albania
Caucasian Albania
(corresponding to modern Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and southern Dagestan) became a vassal and eventually subordinate to the Parthian Empire. With the advent of the Sassanian Empire, it became a satrapy (province) within the vast domains of the empire. In later antiquity, it was a few times fought over by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the Sassanid
Sassanid
Persians as the former sought to contest the latter's rule over the region, without success. Over the centuries, to a relatively large extent, the peoples within the Dagestan
Dagestan
territory converted to Christianity
Christianity
alongside Zoroastrianism.

Derbent, Dagestan
Dagestan
is renowned for the Sassanid
Sassanid
fortress, a UNESCO world heritage site.

In the 5th century AD, the Sassanids gained the upper hand, and by the 6th AD constructed a strong citadel at Derbent, known henceforward as the Caspian Gates, while the northern part of Dagestan was overrun by the Huns, followed by the Caucasian Avars. During the Sassanian era, southern Dagestan
Dagestan
became a bastion of Iranian culture and civilization, with its center at Derbent,[21] and a policy of "Persianisation" can be traced over many centuries.[22] Islamic Influence[edit] In 664, the Persians were succeeded in Derbent
Derbent
by the Arabs, who in the 8th century repeatedly clashed with the Khazars. Although the local population rose against the Arabs of Derbent
Derbent
in 905 and 913, Islam
Islam
was eventually adopted in urban centers, such as Samandar and Kubachi (Zerechgeran), from where it steadily penetrated into the highlands. By the 15th century, Albanian Christianity
Christianity
had died away, leaving a 10th-century church at Datuna as the sole monument to its existence.

Kaitag embroidered textile, early 19th century, from southwest Dagestan.

Alternating Persian and Russian Rule[edit] As Mongolian authority gradually eroded, new centers of power emerged in Kaitagi and Tarki. In the early 16th century, the Persians (under the Safavids) reconsolidated their rule over the region, which would, intermittently, last till the early 19th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries, legal traditions were codified and mountainous communities (djamaats) obtained a considerable degree of autonomy. The Russians
Russians
intensified their hold in the region for the first time in the 18th century, when Peter the Great
Peter the Great
annexed maritime Dagestan from Safavid Persia
Safavid Persia
in the course of the Russo-Persian War (1722–23). The territories were however returned to Persia in 1735 per the Treaty of Ganja. Between 1730 and the early course of the 1740s, following his brother's murder in Dagestan, the new Iranian ruler and military genius Nader Shah
Nader Shah
led a lengthy campaign in swaths of Dagestan
Dagestan
in order to fully conquer the region, which was met with considerable success, although he was eventually inflicted several decisive defeats by various of the ethnic groups of Dagestan, forcing him to retreat with his army. From 1747 onwards, the Iranian-ruled part of Dagestan was administered through the Derbent
Derbent
Khanate, with its center at Derbent. The Persian Expedition of 1796 resulted in the Russian capture of Derbent
Derbent
in 1796. However, the Russians
Russians
were again forced to retreat from the entire Caucasus
Caucasus
following internal governmental problems, allowing Iran to capture the territory again. Russian Rule Consolidated[edit] In 1806 the khanate voluntarily submitted to Russian authority,[citation needed] but it was not until the aftermath of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813)
Russo-Persian War (1804-1813)
that Russian power over Dagestan
Dagestan
was confirmed, and that Qajar Iran
Qajar Iran
officially ceded the territory to Russia. In 1813, following Russia's victory in the war, Iran was forced to cede southern Dagestan
Dagestan
with its principal city of Derbent, alongside other vast territories in the Caucasus
Caucasus
to Russia, conforming with the Treaty of Gulistan.[23] The 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay indefinitely consolidated Russian control over Dagestan
Dagestan
and removed Iran from the military equation.[24] Risings against Imperial Russia[edit] The Russian administration, however, disappointed and embittered the highlanders. The institution of heavy taxation, coupled with the expropriation of estates and the construction of fortresses (including Makhachkala), electrified highlanders into rising under the aegis of the Muslim Imamate of Dagestan, led by Ghazi Mohammed (1828–32), Gamzat-bek (1832–34) and Shamil (1834–59). This Caucasian War raged until 1864.

Dagestani man, photographed by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, circa 1907 to 1915.

Dagestan
Dagestan
and Chechnya
Chechnya
profited from the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), to rise together against Imperial Russia
Russia
for the last time (Chechnya rose again at various times throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries). Soviet Era[edit] On 21 December 1917 Ingushetia, Chechnya, and Dagestan
Dagestan
declared independence from Russia
Russia
and formed a single state called the "United Mountain Dwellers of the North Caucasus" (also known as the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus) which was recognized by major world powers. The capital of the new state was moved to Temir-Khan-Shura (Dagestan).[25][26][27] The first prime minister of the state was Tapa Chermoyev, a prominent Chechen statesman. The second prime minister was an Ingush statesman Vassan-Girey Dzhabagiev, who in 1917 also became the author of the constitution of the land, and in 1920 was reelected for a third term. In 1921, Russians
Russians
attacked and occupied the country and forcefully joined it to the Soviet state. The Caucasian war for independence continued but the government went into exile.[28] After the Bolshevik Revolution, Ottoman armies occupied Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Dagestan
Dagestan
and the region became part of the short-lived Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus. After more than three years of fighting the White movement
White movement
and local nationalists, the Bolsheviks achieved victory and the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed on January 20, 1921. Nevertheless, Stalin's industrialization largely bypassed Dagestan
Dagestan
and the economy stagnated, making the republic the poorest region in Russia. Post-Soviet Era[edit] In 1999, an Islamist group from Chechnya, led by Shamil Basayev
Shamil Basayev
and Ibn Al-Khattab, launched a military invasion of Dagestan, with the aim of creating an "independent Islamic State of Dagestan". The invaders were driven back by the Russian military. As a retaliation, Russian forces subsequently reinvaded Chechnya
Chechnya
later that year.[citation needed] Violence in the Republic exploded from the beginning of 2010 to the end of 2012. This upsurge led many people to claim that Dagestan
Dagestan
was about to enter into a situation of sectarian civil war.[29] Dagestan
Dagestan
became the epicenter of violence in the North Caucasus
Caucasus
with Makhachkala, Kaspiisk, Derbent, Khasavyurt, Kizlyar, Sergokala, Untsukul, and Tsumada all becoming hotbeds of militant activities. Politics[edit]

The Government building of the Republic of Dagestan.

The Parliament
Parliament
of Dagestan
Dagestan
is the People's Assembly, consisting of 72 deputies elected for a four-year term. The People's Assembly is the highest executive and legislative body of the republic. The Constitution of Dagestan
Dagestan
was adopted on July 10, 2003. According to it, the highest executive authority lies with the State Council, comprising representatives of fourteen ethnicities. The members of the State Council are appointed by the Constitutional Assembly of Dagestan for a term of four years. The State Council appoints the members of the Government. The ethnicities represented in the State Council are Avars, Dargins, Kumyks, Lezgins, Laks, Azerbaijanis, Tabasarans, Russians, Chechens, Nogais, Aguls, Rutuls, Tsakhurs, and Tats. Formerly, the Chairman of the State Council was the highest executive post in the republic, held by Magomedali Magomedovich Magomedov until 2006. On February 20, 2006, the People's Assembly passed a resolution terminating this post and disbanding the State Council. Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
offered the People's Assembly the candidature of Mukhu Aliyev
Mukhu Aliyev
for the newly established post of the President of the Republic of Dagestan. The nomination was accepted by the People's Assembly, and Mukhu Aliyev
Mukhu Aliyev
became the first President of the republic. On 20 February 2010 Aliyev was replaced by Magomedsalam Magomedov. The current Head of the republic is Ramazan Abdulatipov
Ramazan Abdulatipov
(acting until 2013, following the resignation of Magomedov).[30]

Demographics[edit]

A couple in traditional dress poses for a portrait in Dagestan. Photographed by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, circa 1907 to 1915.

Ethnolinguistic groups in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region.

Dagestani man and woman, April 1904.

Because its mountainous terrain impedes travel and communication, Dagestan
Dagestan
is unusually ethnically diverse, and still largely tribal. It is Russia's most heterogeneous republic. Dagestan's population is rapidly growing.[31] Population: 2,910,249 (2010 Census);[6] 2,576,531 (2002 Census);[32] 1,802,579 (1989 Census).[33] Vital statistics[edit]

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates

1970 1,438 41,381 9,543 31,838 28.8 6.6 22.1

1975 1,544 42,098 10,292 31,806 27.3 6.7 20.6

1980 1,655 44,088 11,188 32,900 26.6 6.8 19.9

1985 1,744 50,053 12,010 38,043 28.7 6.9 21.8

1990 1,848 48,209 11,482 36,727 26.1 6.2 19.9 3.07

1991 1,906 47,461 12,062 35,399 24.9 6.3 18.6 2.94

1992 1,964 44,986 12,984 32,002 22.9 6.6 16.3 2.70

1993 2,012 41,863 14,777 27,086 20.8 7.3 13.5 2.46

1994 2,117 44,472 15,253 29,219 21.0 7.2 13.8 2.45

1995 2,209 45,680 15,700 29,980 20.7 7.1 13.6 2.41

1996 2,251 42,282 15,565 26,717 18.8 6.9 11.9 2.19

1997 2,308 41,225 15,662 25,563 17.9 6.8 11.1 2.10

1998 2,363 41,164 15,793 25,371 17.4 6.7 10.7 2.05

1999 2,417 38,281 16,020 22,261 15.8 6.6 9.2 1.87

2000 2,464 38,229 16,108 22,121 15.5 6.5 9.0 1.82

2001 2,511 38,480 15,293 23,187 15.3 6.1 9.2 1.79

2002 2,563 41,204 15,887 25,317 16.1 6.2 9.9 1.85

2003 2,609 41,490 15,929 25,561 15.9 6.1 9.8 1.81

2004 2,647 41,573 15,724 25,849 15.7 5.9 9.8 1.76

2005 2,684 40,814 15,585 25,229 15.2 5.8 9.4 1.69

2006 2,721 40,646 15,939 24,707 14.9 5.9 9.1 1.64

2007 2,761 45,470 15,357 30,113 16.5 5.6 10.9 1.81

2008 2,804 49,465 15,794 33,671 17.6 5.6 12.0 1.94

2009 2,850 50,416 16,737 33,679 17.7 5.9 11.8 1.92

2010 2,896 52,057 17,013 35,044 18.0 5.9 12.1 1.92

2011 2,914 54,427 16,917 37,510 18.1 5.8 12.3 1.98

2012 2,931 56,186 16,642 39,492 19.1 5.7 13.4 2.03

2013 2,955 55,641 16,258 39,383 18.8 5.5 13.3 2.02

2014 2,982 56,888 16,491 40,397 19.1 5.5 13.6 2.08

2015 3,003 54,724 16,132 38,592 18.2 5.4 12.8 2.02

2016 3,029 52,924 15,642 37,282 17.4 5.2 12.2 1.98(e)

2017 3,041 50,322 15,562 34,760 16.4 5.1 11.3

Ethnicities[edit] The people of Dagestan
Dagestan
include a large variety of ethnicities. According to the 2010 Census,[6] Northeast Caucasians (including Avars, Dargins, Lezgins, Laks, Tabasarans, and Chechens) make up almost 75% of the population of Dagestan. Turkic peoples, Kumyks, Azerbaijanis, and Nogais
Nogais
make up 21%, and Russians
Russians
3.6%. Other ethnicities (e.g. Tats) each account for less than 0.4% of the total population. It should be noted that such groups as the Botlikh, the Andi, the Akhvakhs, the Tsez and about ten other groups were reclassified as Avars between the 1926 and 1939 censuses.[34]

Ethnic group 1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

Avars 177,189 22.5% 230,488 24.8% 239,373 22.5% 349,304 24.5% 418,634 25.7% 496,077 27.5% 758,438 29.4% 850,011 29.4%

Dargins 125,707 16.0% 150,421 16.2% 148,194 13.9% 207,776 14.5% 246,854 15.2% 280,431 15.6% 425,526 16.5% 490,384 17.0%

Kumyks 87,960 11.2% 100,053 10.8% 120,859 11.4% 169,019 11.8% 202,297 12.4% 231,805 12.9% 365,804 14.2% 431,736 14.9%

Lezgians 90,509 11.5% 96,723 10.4% 108,615 10.2% 162,721 11.4% 188,804 11.6% 204,370 11.3% 336,698 13.1% 385,240 13.3%

Laks 39,878 5.1% 51,671 5.6% 53,451 5.0% 72,240 5.1% 83,457 5.1% 91,682 5.1% 139,732 5.4% 161,276 5.6%

Azerbaijanis 23,428 3.0% 31,141 3.3% 38,224 3.6% 54,403 3.8% 64,514 4.0% 75,463 4.2% 111,656 4.3% 130,919 4.5%

Tabasarans 31,915 4.0% 33,432 3.6% 33,548 3.2% 53,253 3.7% 71,722 4.4% 78,196 4.6% 110,152 4.3% 118,848 4.1%

Russians 98,197 12.5% 132,952 14.3% 213,754 20.1% 209,570 14.7% 189,474 11.6% 165,940 9.2% 120,875 4.7% 104,020 3.6%

Chechens 21,851 2.8% 26,419 2.8% 12,798 1.2% 39,965 2.8% 49,227 3.0% 57,877 3.2% 87,867 3.4% 93,658 3.2%

Nogais 26,086 3.3% 4,677 0.5% 14,939 1.4% 21,750 1.5% 24,977 1.5% 28,294 1.6% 38,168 1.5% 40,407 1.4%

Aghuls 7,653 1.0% 20,408 2.2% 6,378 0.6% 8,644 0.6% 11,459 0.7% 13,791 0.8% 23,314 0.9% 28,054 1.0%

Rutuls 10,333 1.3% 6,566 0.6% 11,799 0.8% 14,288 0.9% 14,955 0.8% 24,298 1.0% 27,849 1.0%

Tsakhurs 3,531 0.4% 4,278 0.4% 4,309 0.3% 4,560 0.3% 5,194 0.3% 8,168 0.3% 9,771 0.3%

Others 43,861 5.6% 52,031 5.6% 61,495 5.8% 63,787 4.5% 57,892 3.6% 58,113 3.2% 25,835 1.0% 19,646 0.7%

1 18,430 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[35]

The indigenous ethnicities of Dagestan
Dagestan
are in bold. There are also 40 or so tiny groups such as the Hinukh, numbering 439, or the Akhvakhs, who are members of a complex family of indigenous Caucasians. Notable are also the Hunzib or Khunzal people who live in only four towns in the interior. Languages[edit] More than 30 local languages are commonly spoken, most belonging to the Northeast Caucasian language family. Russian became the principal lingua franca in Dagestan
Dagestan
during the 20th century;[36] prior to that, beginning in the 18th century, it had been Classical Arabic.[37] The northern Avar dialect of Khunzakh
Khunzakh
has also served as a lingua franca in central Dagestan.[38] Over 20 of Russia's 131 endangered languages as identified by UNESCO
UNESCO
can be found in Dagestan. Most of these endangered languages have Dagestani speakers in the mountainous region on the Dagestan-Georgia border.[39]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2016)

Religion[edit]

Religion in Dagestan
Dagestan
as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[40][41]

Islam

82.6%

"Spiritual but not religious"

8.6%

Russian Orthodoxy

2.4%

Rodnovery
Rodnovery
and other native faiths

1.6%

Other Christian
Christian
denominations

0.8%

Atheism
Atheism
and irreligion

2.2%

Other and undeclared

1.8%

Makhachkala
Makhachkala
Grand Mosque.

Islamic school in Sasitli village.

Znamensky Cathedral in Khasavyurt.

According to a 2012 survey[40] 83% of the population of Dagestan adheres to Islam, 2.4% to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% to Caucasian folk religion and other native faiths, 1% are non-denominational Christians. In addition, 9% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 2% is atheist and 0.6% follows other religions or did not answer the question.[40] Dagestanis are largely Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, of the Shafii
Shafii
rites, that has been in place for centuries. On the Caspian coast, particularly in and around the port city of Derbent, the population (primarily made up of Azerbaijanis) is Shia. There is also a Salafi
Salafi
population, which is often a target of official repression.[42] A relatively large number of native Tati speaking Jews, designated by the Soviet state censuses as the "Mountain Jews" were also present in this same coastal areas, but since 1991 and the collapse of the Soviet Union they have migrated to Israel
Israel
and the United States. These were an extension of much larger Jewish community across the border in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(districts of Quba
Quba
and Shamakhi).[43] The appearance of Sufi
Sufi
mysticism in Dagestan
Dagestan
dates back to the 14th century. The two Sufi
Sufi
tariqas that spread in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
were the Naqshbandiya
Naqshbandiya
and the Qadiriya. The mystic Tariqas preached tolerance and coexistence between the diverse people in the region. The Communist total intolerance for any religion after the Communist Revolution of 1917 also suppressed the Sufi
Sufi
movements. Shaykh Said Afandi al-Chirkawi was a prominent scholar, spiritual leader and murshid of Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
and Shadhili
Shadhili
tariqahs in Dagestan
Dagestan
until his death.[44] The number of Christians among the non-Slavic indigenous population is very low, with estimates between 2,000 and 2,500. Most of these are Pentecostal Christians from the Lak ethnicity.[45][46] The largest congregation is Osanna Evangelical Christian
Christian
Church (Pentecostal) in Makhachkala, with more than 1,000 members.[47]

Economy[edit] The major industries in Dagestan
Dagestan
include oil production, engineering, chemicals, machine building, textile manufacturing, food processing, and the timber. Oil deposits
Oil deposits
are located in the narrow coastal region. The Dagestani oil is of high quality and is delivered to other regions. Dagestan's natural gas production goes mostly to satisfy local needs. Agriculture
Agriculture
is varied and includes grain-farming, viticulture and wine-making, sheep-farming, and dairying. The engineering and metalworking industries own 20% of the republic's industrial production assets and employ 25% of all industrial workers. Dagestan's hydroelectric power industry is developing rapidly. There are five power plants on the Sulak River
Sulak River
providing hydroelectric power. It has been estimated that Dagestan's total potential hydroelectric power resources are 4.4 billion kW. Dagestan
Dagestan
has a well-developed transportation system. Railways connect the capital Makhachkala
Makhachkala
to Moscow, Astrakhan, and the Azerbaijani capital, Baku. The Moscow- Baku
Baku
highway also passes through Dagestan, and there are air links with major cities.[48][49] Conditions for economic development are favorable in Dagestan, but – as of 2006[update] – the republic's low starting level for a successful transition to market relations, in addition to rampant corruption, has made the region highly dependent on its underground economy and the subsidies coming from the central Russian government.[49][50] Corruption in Dagestan
Dagestan
is more severe than in other regions of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and is coupled with a flourishing black market and clan-based economic system.[19] In 2011 Rostelecom
Rostelecom
started implementation of WDM-based equipment on the backbone network for data transmission in the Republic of Dagestan. Due to WDM introduction, the fiber-optic communication lines bandwidth increased to 2.5 Gbit/s. Rostelecom
Rostelecom
invested about 48 million rubles in the project.[51] Dagestani conflict[edit] Main article: Insurgency in the North Caucasus

A border guard outpost.

Since 2000, Dagestan
Dagestan
has been the venue of a low-level guerrilla war, bleeding over from Chechnya; the fighting has claimed the lives of hundreds of federal servicemen and officials—mostly members of local police forces—as well as many Dagestani national rebels and civilians. More recently, among other incidents:

On May 15, 2008, two MVD officers were killed and one police officer heavily wounded during an ambush on their vehicle in Gubden. On September 8, 2008, Abdul Madzhid and several rebels were killed in an ambush by Russian special forces. On October 21, 2008, rebels ambushed a Russian military truck, killing five soldiers and wounding nine others. On January 6, 2010, a suicide bomber attempted to blow up a police station in Makhachkala, killing six officers and wounding 14 others. On March 31, 2010, 12 people were killed and 18 wounded by two suicide bombings in the town of Kizlyar
Kizlyar
outside the offices of the local interior ministry and the FSB security agency. The second bomb went off twenty minutes after the first, as a crowd had gathered. In the early hours of the next morning, two people died as a bomb went off in their car, apparently prematurely, near the village of Toturbiikala. On July 15, 2010, Pastor
Pastor
Artur Suleimanov, a Muslim convert to Christianity, was murdered by a gunman. The pastor was killed in his car as he was leaving the Hosanna House of Prayer in Makhachkala, according to a religious persecution watchdog group, Voice of the Martyrs, report. Pastor
Pastor
Suleimanov's church is one of the largest Protestant
Protestant
churches in Dagestan. Christians in the Russian Republic of Dagestan, which borders Chechnya, face harassment and intimidation from various groups. Pastor
Pastor
Suleimanov's life had been threatened on several previous occasions.[52] On September 23, 2011, Magomed Murtuzaliyev, a high-level law enforcement official, was shot and killed by gunmen.[53] On September 28, 2011, seven civilians and a police officer were killed by a car bomb in the village of Hajjalmakhi.[54] On May 4, 2012, 12 people were killed in two separate explosions on the outskirts of Makhachkala.[55] On August 28, 2012, Sheikh Said Afandi, an influential 75-year-old Sufi
Sufi
cleric, was killed along with six others in a suicide bombing. Afandi, a Sufi
Sufi
Muslim, opposed violent jihad in Dagestan.[56]

Notable people[edit]

Adam Amirilayev, politician. Abdulkhakim Ismailov (1916–2010), World War II soldier. Abdulrashid Sadulaev
Abdulrashid Sadulaev
– a two time World Champion (2014, 2015), European Champion (2014), European Games Champion (2015), two time Cadet World Champion (2012, 2013), Golden Grand-Prix Champion, Olympic Gold Medalist (2016). Abdusalam Gadisov – Freestyle Wrestling
Wrestling
World Champion. Adam Saitiev (December 12, 1977, Khasavyurt, Dagestan
Dagestan
ASSR) – Russia's freestyle wrestler, a Chechen, Russian Master of sports of international class, Honored Master of Sports of Russia
Russia
(2000), three-time champion of Russia
Russia
(1999, 2000, 2002), three-time champion Europe (1999, 2000, 2006), two-time world champion (1999, 2002), Olympic champion
Olympic champion
(2000). Ali Aliyev (wrestler)
Ali Aliyev (wrestler)
- Avar Dagestani-born Soviet Union
Soviet Union
freestyle wrestler. He won five world titles. Ali Bagautinov
Ali Bagautinov
– UFC fighter in the flyweight division. Combat Sambo World Champion. Bekkhan Goygereyev - wrestler who won the gold medal at the 2013 World Wrestling
Wrestling
Championships. Buvaisar Saitiev
Buvaisar Saitiev
(b. March 11, 1975 in Khasavyurt, Dagestan
Dagestan
ASSR) – Russia's freestyle wrestler, three-time Olympic champion, six-time world champion, six-time European champion, five-time Russian champion, seven-time winner of the tournament Krasnoyarsk Ivan Yarygin winner Goodwill Games will. Honored Master of Sports of Russia
Russia
(1995). Dzhabar Askerov - He is the World Muay Thai Council's Muay Thai Welterweight European Champion and K-1 MAX Scandinavia 2008 Tournament Finalist. Dzhamal Otarsultanov -won the gold medal in men's freestyle 55 kg at the 2012 London Olympics. Eduard Puterbrot
Eduard Puterbrot
(1940–1993) – Dagestan
Dagestan
artist and member of the USSR Union of Artists. Gasret Aliev - Hero of Soviet Union. Gaydarbek Gaydarbekov - boxer of Avar heritage, who has won two Olympic medals in Middleweight including the gold medal at the 2004 games. Hizgil Avshalumov (1913–2001) – Soviet novelist, poet, playwright. Wrote in Mountain Jews
Jews
(Juhuri) and Russian languages. Israel Tsvaygenbaum
Israel Tsvaygenbaum
(b. 1961) – Russian-American artist. Khabib Nurmagomedov
Khabib Nurmagomedov
– UFC fighter in the lightweight division and the #1 Lightweight contender. Khadzhimurad Magomedov - Olympic gold medalist and two time world wrestling champion. Kuramagomed Kuramagomedov
Kuramagomed Kuramagomedov
(b. 1978), freestyle wrestler who competed for Russia
Russia
in the 2000 Summer Olympics, and won a world title in 1997. Magomed Ibragimhalilovich Ibragimov -He competed in the freestyle 85 kg competition at the 2000 Summer Olympics
2000 Summer Olympics
and won the bronze medal. Mansur Isaev - In 2012, he won the gold medal in judo at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Makhach Murtazaliev - Avar born-Russian Olympic wrestler who won the bronze medal for Russia
Russia
at the 2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics
in Athens. Magomed Abdusalamov
Magomed Abdusalamov
- is a Russian former heavyweight professional boxer who competed from 2008 to 2013. Magomedrasul Gazimagomedov - He won gold medal at the 2015 World Wrestling
Wrestling
Championships at Men's freestyle 70 kg. Magomedkhan Aratsilov - former wrestler who competed in the 1980 Summer Olympics. Magomed Kurbanaliev - Avar Dagestani-born Russian freestyle wrestler. World freestyle wrestling champion 2016 in 70 kg. Magomed Magomedov
Magomed Magomedov
- the professional WMC and IMF[clarification needed] Light Heavyweight World Muay Thai Champion. Magomedrasul Khasbulaev - (Frodo khasbulaev) mixed martial artist of Avar heritage at one time fought in the Featherweight division for the Bellator Fighting Championships. Mavlet Batirov - Avar descent freestyle wrestler, world and 2-time Olympic champion, who competed in the men's freestyle 55 kg category at the 2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics
and won the gold medal. Michail Borisovich Dadashev - (born 1936) Jewish writer and poet, honored economist of the Republic of Dagestan. For 20 years worked as the head of the Tax division in Derbent. Murad Umakhanov -Umakhanov competed at the 2000 Summer Olympics
2000 Summer Olympics
in Sydney
Sydney
where he received a gold medal in Freestyle wrestling. Mushail Mushailov
Mushail Mushailov
(1941–2007) – a painter, a member of the USSR Union of Artists and Israel. Muslim Salikhov - The only non Chinese "King of sanda". Muslim Salikhov is often acknowledged as one of the best Wushu Sanda competitors in history. Nurmagomed Shanavazov - Shanavazov won the Light Heavyweight Silver medal at the 1988 Summer Olympics
1988 Summer Olympics
for the Soviet Union. Ramazan Şahin - Olympic Gold Medalist (2008), World Champion (2007) in Freestyle wrestling. Rashid Magomedov - UFC fighter in the lightweight division. Ruslan Magomedov - UFC fighter in the heavyweight division. Rasul Gamzatov
Rasul Gamzatov
(1923–2003) – Avar poet, writer, political activist. Rustam Khabilov – UFC fighter in the lightweight division. Combat Sambo World Champion. Sagid Murtazaliev - two time World champion, Olympic champion
Olympic champion
in Freestyle wrestling. Saypulla Absaidov - Olympic champion
Olympic champion
and World Champion 1981 in Freestyle wrestling. Sazhid Sazhidov - is an Avar Dagestani-born Russian Olympic wrestler who represented Russia
Russia
at the world-level from 2003 to 2006. He won the bronze medal at the 2004 Athens
Athens
Olympics. Shamil Zavurov - Combat Sambo World champion (3 time). Shirvani Muradov - wrestler, who has won a gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics and European champion 2007. Sergey Izgiyayev
Sergey Izgiyayev
(1922–1972) – Mountain Jew
Mountain Jew
Soviet poet, playwright and translator. Suleyman Kerimov
Suleyman Kerimov
- businessman, investor, philanthropist and politician. Featured on Forbes list as one of the richest people in Russia. Founded the Suleyman Kerimov
Suleyman Kerimov
Foundation as a vehicle for his charitable projects. Sultan Ibragimov- professional boxer held the WBO heavyweight title from 2007 to 2008. As an amateur he won silver medals at the 2000 Olympics and 2000 European Championships, and bronze at the 2001 World Championships, all in the heavyweight division. Tagir Khaybulaev
Tagir Khaybulaev
- Judoka of Avar descent. In the 2012 Summer Olympics, Khaybulaev won a gold medal. Tamara Musakhanova (1928–2014) – a sculptor and ceramist, a member of the USSR Union of Artists and Israel. Tankho Israelov (1917–1981) – ballet dancer, choreographer, People's Artist
Artist
of the USSR (1978). Vazif Meylanov
Vazif Meylanov
(1940–2015) – Soviet dissident and political prisoner, political activist. Yagutil Mishiev
Yagutil Mishiev
(b. 1927) – Honored Teacher of the Republic of Dagestan
Dagestan
and the Russian Federation, publicist, author of books about the history of Derbent.

See also[edit]

Former countries in Europe after 1815 Insurgency in the North Caucasus List of clashes in the North Caucasus Music of Dagestan

Notes[edit]

^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.). ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. ( Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ). ^ Всероссийский Центральный Исполнительный Комитет. Декрет от 20 января 1921 г. «Об Автономной Дагестанской Социалистической Советской Республике». (All-Russian Central Executive Committee. Decree of January 20, 1921 On Autonomous Dagestan
Dagestan
Socialist Soviet Republic. ). ^ a b Constitution, Article 8 ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All- Russia
Russia
Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.  ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia. ^ According to Article 11 of the Constitution of Dagestan, the official languages of the republic include "Russian and the languages of the peoples of Dagestan" ^ Solntsev et al., pp. XXXIX–XL ^ https://www.rt.com/politics/417983-dagestan-government-dissolved-as-former/ Russia
Russia
Today - " Dagestan
Dagestan
government dissolved amid major corruption investigation" ^ http://tass.com/politics/988511 "High-ranking Dagestani officials detained on fraud charges" - Tass Russian News Agency ^ https://themoscowtimes.com/news/golden-pistol-seized-raid-dagestani-premier-amid-anti-corruption-crackdown-60393 "Golden Pistol Seized in Anti-Corruption Raid on Dagestani Prime Minister" - The Moscow
Moscow
Times ^ https://lenta.ru/articles/2018/02/06/dagestan/ "They held Dagestan for decades. Now they have questions." - Lenta ^ Dagestan. Most inhabitants speak Caucasian and Turkic languages. In terms of religion, however, Dagestan
Dagestan
is homogeneously Muslim. Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(Online edition) ^ Heinrich, Hans-Georg; Lobova, Ludmila; Malashenko, Alexei (2011). Will Russia
Russia
Become a Muslim Society?. Peter Lang. p. 46. ISBN 3631609132. Retrieved August 6, 2012.  ^ Dalby, Andrew (2004). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0231115695. Retrieved August 6, 2012.  ^ a b Russia’s Dagestan: Conflict Causes Archived March 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. International Crisis Group
International Crisis Group
Europe Report N°192. 3 June 2008. Access date: 07 April 2014. ^ Zonn, Igor S.; et al. The Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
Encyclopedia. Berlin: Springer. p. 280.  ^ Michael Khodarkovsky. "Bitter Choices: Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus" Cornell University Press, 12 mrt. 2015. ISBN 0801462908 pp 47-52 ^ "DAGESTAN". Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ Timothy C. Dowling Russia
Russia
at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014 ISBN 1598849484 ^ Aksan, Virginia. (2014). Ottoman Wars, 1700-1870: An Empire Besieged page 463. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317884033 ^ http://1900.ethnia.org/polity.php?ASK_CODE=KC__&ASK_YY=1919&ASK_MM=05&ASK_DD=07&SL=en[permanent dead link] ^ Russian Civil War Polities ^ Общественное движение ЧЕЧЕНСКИЙ КОМИТЕТ НАЦИОНАЛЬНОГО СПАСЕНИЯ Archived February 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Вассан-Гирей Джабагиев Archived February 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nick Paton Walsh, “ Dagestan
Dagestan
Edged Closer to Civil War” The Guardian ^ "Putin replaces head of South Russian republic of Dagestan". RT. January 28, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2013.  ^ Ware, Robert Bruce (29 Mar 2008). "Islamic Resistance and Political Hegemony in Dagestan". Retrieved 28 May 2014.  ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Wixman, Ronald (1984). "The Peoples of the USSR: An Ethnographic Handbook". Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc: 11.  ^ Перепись-2010: русских становится больше (in Russian). Perepis-2010.ru. 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2012-01-15.  ^ Beliaev, Edward; Oksana Buranbaeva (2006). Dagestan. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. p. 89. ISBN 0761420150. Retrieved 2013-04-04.  ^ Kemper, Michael (2011). "An Island of Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
in the Caucasus: Dagestan". In Françoise Companjen; László Károly Marácz; Lia Versteegh. Exploring the Caucasus
Caucasus
in the 21st Century: Essays on Culture, History and Politics in a Dynamic Context. Amsterdam: Pallas Publications. pp. 63–90. ISBN 9789089641830. Retrieved 2013-04-04.  ^ Comrie, Bernard (1981). The Languages of the Soviet Union. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 199. ISBN 0521232309. Retrieved 2013-04-04.  ^ Moseley, Christopher (2010). " UNESCO
UNESCO
Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger". United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. UNESCO. Retrieved 3 October 2016.  ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived. ^ Russia’s crackdown on Salafis may be breeding extremism ^ Mountain Jews
Jews
at World Culture Encyclopedia ^ "Biography of Shaykh Said Afandi al-Chirkawi". Islamdag.info. July 22, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2012.  ^ "Slavic Center for Law & Justice". SCLJ. Retrieved January 15, 2012.  ^ Magomed Gasanov (2001). "On Christianity
Christianity
in Dagestan". Iran & the Caucasus. 5: 79–84. JSTOR 4030847.  ^ [1] Archived August 11, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Dagestan
Dagestan
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. Archived 2009-10-31. ^ a b Dagestan
Dagestan
Republic Archived September 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Kommersant 2004-03-10 ^ Dagestan’s Economic Crisis: Past, Present and Future North Caucasus
Caucasus
Weekly 2006-12-31 ^ Broadband Russia
Russia
Newslatter ^ "The Voice of the Martyrs' Be-A-Voice Network". Be-a-voice.net. Retrieved 2012-01-15.  ^ "Russia: Official Killed in Dagestan". The New York Times. September 23, 2011.  ^ https://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2011/09/28/world/europe/international-us-russia-dagestan-bomb.html?hp[dead link] ^ "BBC News – Dagestan
Dagestan
Russia
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blasts: At least 12 dead in Makhachkala". Bbc.co.uk. May 4, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-04.  ^ "Sheikh Murdered Over Religious Split Say Analysts Russia
Russia
RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 

References[edit]

В. М. Солнцев и др., ed. (2000). Письменные языки мира: Российская Федерация. Социолингвистическая энциклопедия. (in Russian). Москва: Российская Академия Наук. Институт языкознания. проект №99-04-16158. CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link) 10 июля 2003 г. «Конституция Республики Дагестан», в ред. Закона №45 от 7 октября 2008 г. (July 10, 2003 Constitution of the Republic of Dagestan, as amended by the Law #45 of October 7, 2008. ).

Further reading[edit]

Catholic Haidak in the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(rus) Kaziev, Shapi. Imam Shamil. "Molodaya Gvardiya" publishers. Moscow, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2010 Kaziev, Shapi. Akhoulgo. Caucasian War
Caucasian War
of 19th century. The historical novel. "Epoch", Publishing house. Makhachkala, 2008. ISBN 978-5-98390-047-9 Kaziev, Shapi. Caucasian highlanders. Everyday life of the Caucasian highlanders. 19th century (In the co-authorship with I.Karpeev). "Molodaya Gvardiy" publishers. Moscow, 2003. ISBN 5-235-02585-7 Kaziev, Shapi. Crash of tyrant. Nader Shah
Nader Shah
(Крах тирана). The historical novel about Nader Shah. "Epoch", Publishing house. Makhachkala, 2009. ISBN 978-5-98390-066-0

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dagestan.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Dagestan.

(in Russian) Official governmental website of Dagestan Egbert Wesselink (1998). " Dagestan
Dagestan
(Daghestan): Comprehensive Report". Caspian.net. Archived from the original on October 5, 2001. Retrieved January 15, 2012.  Dagestan
Dagestan
in Iranica Encyclopaedia History of Islam
Islam
in Russia "The North Caucasus," Russian Analytical Digest No. 22 (5 June 2007) BBC Country Report on Dagestan University of Texas maps of the Dagestan
Dagestan
region Radio Free Europe discusses religious tension in Dagestan ISN Case Study: The North Caucasus
North Caucasus
on the Brink (August 2006) Articles on Dagestan, reports from research, photos Dagestan
Dagestan
in Pictures (in Russian) Daghestan's Kaitag Embroideries – and Henri Matisse? (in Russian) Dagestan
Dagestan
Republic News Portal

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Subdivisions of Russia

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Republics

Adygea Altai Bashkortostan Buryatia Chechnya Chuvashia Crimea1 Dagestan Ingushetia Kabardino-Balkaria Kalmykia Karachay-Cherkessia Karelia Khakassia Komi Mari El Mordovia North Ossetia-Alania Sakha Tatarstan Tuva Udmurtia

Krais

Altai Kamchatka Khabarovsk Krasnodar Krasnoyarsk Perm Primorsky Stavropol Zabaykalsky

Oblasts

Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin Samara Saratov Smolensk Sverdlovsk Tambov Tomsk Tula Tver Tyumen Ulyanovsk Vladimir Volgograd Vologda Voronezh Yaroslavl

Federal cities

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Autonomous oblast

Jewish

Autonomous okrugs

Chukotka Khanty-Mansi2 Nenets3 Yamalo-Nenets2

1Claimed by Ukraine
Ukraine
and considered by most of the international community to be part of Ukraine 2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen Oblast 3Administratively subordinated to Arkhangelsk Oblast

Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different institutions

Economic regions (by Ministry of Economic Development) Military districts (by Ministry of Defence) Federal districts (by President) Judicial districts (by law "On arbitration courts")

v t e

Countries and regions of the Caucasus

   

 Abkhazia1  Adjara  Adygea  Armenia  Artsakh1

 Azerbaijan  Chechnya  Dagestan  Georgia

 Ingushetia  Kabardino-Balkaria  Karachay-Cherkessia  Krasnodar Krai

Nakhchivan  North Ossetia-Alania  South Ossetia1  Stavropol Krai

1 Partially-recognized states

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History of Russia
Russia
by federal subject

Republics

Adygea Altai Bashkortostan Buryatia Chechnya Chuvashia Crimea1 Dagestan Ingushetia Kabardino-Balkaria Kalmykia Karachay-Cherkessia Karelia Khakassia Komi Mari El Mordovia North Ossetia-Alania Sakha Tatarstan Tuva Udmurtia

Krais

Altai Kamchatka Khabarovsk Krasnodar Krasnoyarsk Perm Primorsky Stavropol Zabaykalsky

Oblasts

Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin Samara Saratov Smolensk Sverdlovsk Tambov Tomsk Tula Tver Tyumen Ulyanovsk Vladimir Volgograd Vologda Voronezh Yaroslavl

Federal cities

Moscow St. Petersburg Sevastopol1

Autonomous oblasts

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1 Recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.

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