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The Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
(Greek: Εθνική Φρουρά, Ethnikí Frourá; Turkish: Milli Muhafız Ordusu), also known as the Greek Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
or simply National Guard, is the combined arms military force of the Republic of Cyprus. This force consists of Air, Land, Sea and Special
Special
Forces elements, and is highly integrated with its first and second line reserves, as well as supporting civilian agencies and paramilitary forces. Greece
Greece
currently maintains a garrison in the Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
under the designation Hellenic Force in Cyprus
Hellenic Force in Cyprus
(ELDYK), but this is not officially part of the Cyprus
Cyprus
military and primarily serves as a regimental-level influence for training and support of the National Guard. The northern part of the island remains occupied by the Turkish military since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Turkish invasion of Cyprus
in 1974.

Contents

1 History 2 Operational History 3 Ground Component

3.1 Current organisation 3.2 Early operational history (1963 - 1974) 3.3 Coup and invasion in 1974 3.4 Post-war revival (1974 - 2004)

4 Naval Component

4.1 Early Operational History (1963 - 1974) 4.2 Coup and Invasion in 1974

5 Air Component

5.1 Post War Revival (1974 - 2004) 5.2 European Union
European Union
Member Statehood (2004 - Present)

6 Special
Special
forces

6.1 Army 6.2 Navy

7 Military Equipment Inventory 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] The National Guard was established in 1964 as a force composed predominantly of ethnic Greeks, following the 1963–1964 breakdown of social and political relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
on the island of Cyprus.[2] As outlined by the tripartite Treaty of Alliance (1960)[3] and defined by the early Constitution of 1960–1963, Cyprus
Cyprus
was entitled to an army of 2,000 men, to be made up of 60% Greek and 40% Turkish personnel. The first elected President of the Republic of Cyprus, Archbishop Makarios
Archbishop Makarios
III, proposed thirteen constitutional amendments to the 1960 constitution, which would have adjusted distribution of manpower and voting power for all civil and military services. This adjustment was aimed at giving greater representation and influence to the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
majority, which at the time formed around 82% of the island's indigenous population. Operational History[edit] The Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
has been involved in multiple combat operations, all within Cyprus
Cyprus
territory.

In 1964, Cyprus
Cyprus
and Turkey engaged in direct confrontation during the Battle of Tylliria, as a result of civil warfare between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots. Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
forces entered the Turkish enclave of Kokkina
Kokkina
in an effort to eliminate a Turkish beachhead, resulting in almost two weeks of fighting. In 1974, Turkey invaded Cyprus
Cyprus
intervening against a military coup by the Cyprus
Cyprus
National Guard in Nicosia. The invasion resulted in two concentrated Turkish offensives (Attila-1 and Attila-2) and one dispersed Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
counter-offensive (Aphrodite-2). Within one month, Turkish forces had captured 38% of the island's northern area, succeeding in bisecting Nicosia
Nicosia
and taking Kyrenia, Morphou and Famagusta. Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
forces, supported by a smaller number of Greek troops, were only able to prevent the loss of Nicosia International Airport and the Kato Pyrgos
Kato Pyrgos
corridor during the second Turkish offensive. In 1978, Egyptian commando forces raided Larnaca International Airport in an effort to seize a hijacked Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
airliner. Greek Cypriot commando and paramilitary forces resisted the Egyptian forces, resulting in a sustained gun battle with the death of 12 Egyptian commandos and 3 Egyptian Air Force aircrew.

Currently, only Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
serve in the military.[4] Legally, the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
community comprises the ethnic Greek population as well as Cypriots belonging to three Christian minorities – the Armenians, Latin Rite
Latin Rite
Catholics and Maronites. Since 2008, service is mandatory for all members of the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
community and not only for ethnic Greeks. The current supreme commander is a Greek military commander, as have been all of his predecessors. Military service in the Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
is mandatory for males (Efthymiou 2016). The obligatory service period is 14 months.[5][6] All male visitors to the island of military age (16 and over) who have a father of Cypriot extraction are required to obtain an exit visa from a Defence Ministry office. The Cyprus
Cyprus
National Guard has since 2016 aimed to move towards semi-professionalization.[7][8] In the scope of this change, the military serviced time was reduced from 24 months to 14 months, whilst about 3, 000 professional soldiers were hired. Even though long wished by the public, these changes have been said to be no more than a political expediency.[9][10] The way in which the semi-professionalization has been conducted has been illustrated as unprofessional and undermining the ability of the force, by academic researchers.[11][12] Ground Component[edit] Current organisation[edit] [13]

1st Mechanized Infantry
Infantry
Brigade (I M/K Ταξιαρχία ΠΖ) 2nd Mechanized Infantry
Infantry
Brigade (IIη M/K Ταξιαρχία ΠΖ) 3rd Support Brigade (IIIη Ταξιαρχία ΥΠ) 4th Infantry
Infantry
Brigade (IVη Ταξιαρχία ΠΖ) 6th Mechanized Infantry
Infantry
Brigade (VIη M/K Ταξιαρχία ΠΖ) 7th Mechanized Infantry
Infantry
Brigade (VIIη M/K Ταξιαρχία ΠΖ) 20th Armored Brigade (XXη ΤΘ Ταξιαρχία) Hellenic Force of Cyprus
Cyprus
- Mechanized Brigade Formation Military Police (Στρατονομία) Special
Special
Forces Command - 1 Regiment (Διοίκηση Kαταδρομών) Artillery
Artillery
Command (Διοικηση Πυροβολικου) Air Command (Διοικηση Αεροποριας) Naval Command (Διοικηση Ναυτικου)

Early operational history (1963 - 1974)[edit] The Cypriot National Guard, in its existent form, was initially mobilised circa mid-1963 as a Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
infantry force with some small elements dedicated to artillery, anti-armour and light armour forces. This force inherited some mixed equipment from its pre-civil war organisation, including 54 British-made 25-pounder gun-howitzers, 40 Marmon-Herrington Armoured Car
Marmon-Herrington Armoured Car
(Mk. IVF),[14] 4 Shorland
Shorland
light armoured cars, 2 Daimler Dingo
Daimler Dingo
light armoured cars, 5 C-17 light armoured trucks and a variety of machine guns, mortars and a few anti-tank weapons (namely M20 Super Bazookas and a small number of PIAT
PIAT
weapons). The Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
also possessed some Bofors 40mm anti-aircraft guns,[15] along with a variety of Bedford trucks and old US made jeeps. The military confrontation at Kokkina
Kokkina
in August 1964 between Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot forces saw the Greek-Cypriot force mobilised for the first time to attempt to eliminate a fortified coastal enclave in the Tylliria region of the island, in an effort to stop Turkish vessels putting ashore there to offload food, weapons and ammunition for the Turkish Cypriot militia units active in that region.[16] The attempted siege of Kokkina
Kokkina
began on 6 August and ended on 9 August after two days of daylight air strikes by the Turkish Air Force around Kokkina
Kokkina
and neighbouring Kato Pyrgos
Kato Pyrgos
(a mountain village overlooking Kokkina
Kokkina
which was being used for observation and artillery fire-direction positions). Having sustained manpower and material losses as a result of these air strikes, the Cypriot National Guard pulled back slightly and solidified a perimeter of containment around Kokkina, leaving the Turkish Cypriot village isolated from the rest of the island, and buffered only a narrow UN demilitarized zone.[17] Aware of the glaring deficiency of their military capabilities, the leadership of the Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
under General George Grivas (an ultra-nationalist commanding officer largely subordinate to the Greek Junta
Greek Junta
in Athens) was able to compel the civilian Government of Cyprus, under Archbishop Makarios
Archbishop Makarios
to seek out foreign assistance for a massive armament campaign. Since Cyprus
Cyprus
could not afford major weapons purchases under her own depleted national budget, Makarios was forced to dispatch an envoy on 1 October 1964 to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to request military assistance. This move resulted in rapid Soviet assistance, widely regarded by Western countries as a step towards a Cold War alliance between Cyprus
Cyprus
and Russia.[18] As soon as 23–24 December 1964, a Russian Navy freighter arrived at Limassol
Limassol
Port[19] carrying the first batch of arms intended to re-equip the National Guard. These supplies included 4 unidentified armoured vehicles, and 130 ZIL heavy trucks, along with sufficient number of crates to fill 36 Bedford trucks. After this initial delivery, arms transfers made by the Russian Navy to Cyprus accelerated, with freighters travelling via Alexandria in Egypt
Egypt
to Limassol
Limassol
under cover of night. These deliveries included a full package of Soviet-made radars and radio systems to complement the structural and strategic requirements of a reinforced National Guard. In addition, a consignment of 32 Soviet-made T-34/85
T-34/85
medium tanks (from Yugoslav surplus) were delivered along with 40 BTR-152
BTR-152
armoured personnel carriers,[20] as well as a batch of 30 M-1944 100mm light field howitzers,[21] 40 modern 3M6 Shmel
3M6 Shmel
anti-tank missile firing units, a batch of ZPU-1 14.5mm anti-aircraft guns and a consignment of around 4500 Czech surplus AK-47s, as well as machine guns and mortars. After 1965, and until 1974, the civilian Government of Archbishop Makarios became increasingly alienated by the relationship between the National Guard leadership and the ruling military Government of Greece. Few funds were made available to secure other armaments of technical support, and the National Guard was forced to develop alternative means to armament and self-sustainment. A Technical Corps was established to produce and retrofit a series of improvised armoured vehicles from unneeded ATS-712 Soviet tractors, resulting in 10 locally produced "TS" armoured personnel carriers.[22] A lack of spare parts meant that by the time of the 1974 military coup against Archbishop Makarios, the National Guard was experiencing severe technical difficulties with its T-34 tanks. The problem for the National Guard was further compounded by the refusal of Makarios' loyalist paramilitary force to hand over some 4500 Czech automatic rifles and a variety of other weapons which had been kept at a warehouse near Nicosia
Nicosia
Airport, and which were handed over to the UN in January 1972.[23] Coup and invasion in 1974[edit] Main article: Military operations of the Invasion of Cyprus
Cyprus
(1974) On 15 July 1974, the Cypriot National Guard, under its own leadership and in conjunction with the EOKA-B ultra-nationalist organisation, overthrew the civilian Government of Archbishop Makarios
Archbishop Makarios
in Nicosia [24] and attempted to assassinate him by using tanks and infantry to storm the Presidential Palace.[25] Makarios escaped, but the confrontation in Nicosia
Nicosia
resulted in multiple casualties as the National Guard units engaged in a gunfight with Makarios' loyalist forces. Since Kyrenia
Kyrenia
in the north of the island was not expected to present much armed resistance to the coup, many forces which were stationed there to fend off a threatened Turkish invasion were sent to Nicosia
Nicosia
on 15 and 16 July to enforce the coup in the Capital. Kyrenia was thus, poorly defended when the Turkish invasion began on 20 July.[25] On 20 July 1974, Turkey commenced an air and sea invasion of northern Cyprus, under the codename "Attila-1" which had the anticipated aim of seizing Kyrenia
Kyrenia
as a beachhead with amphibious forces, whilst simultaneously establishing a beachhead from Kyrenia
Kyrenia
to the northern suburbs of Nicosia
Nicosia
(the site of two Turkish fortified enclaves that could be used as strongholds to seize northern Nicosia) using parachute forces. The attack was heavily supported by a daylight air campaign, allowing Cypriot A/A flak to be suppressed to the extent that Turkish transport planes could drop parachute forces north of Nicosia
Nicosia
in broad daylight from 20 July to 23 July. In disarray, the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
military leadership enacted the "Aphrodite-2" defence plan to coordinate a containment and resistance to the invasion forces. This plan, however, proved to be ineffective in either containing or repelling the Turkish forces already ashore. At the same time, the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
EOKA-B forces, subordinate to their own de facto leadership, enacted their own interpretation of the existing Aphrodite defence plan (sometimes referred to historically as Aphrodite-3 or Hephaestus[26]) and attacked multiple Turkish Cypriot enclaves simultaneously, causing heavy Turkish Cypriot non-combatant casualties and rounding up an estimated 20,000 Turkish Cypriot POWs who were interred at Limassol
Limassol
until later that year. Post-war revival (1974 - 2004)[edit] Immediately following the 1974 conflict, the Cypriot National Guard experienced a major depletion of its military capability due to lack of equipment and ammunition, compounded by the wartime economic collapse of the country. A small armored unit of 11 surviving T-34/85 tanks continued to operate in service until circa 1985, albeit in poor mechanical condition with lack of spare parts. Small numbers of other armored vehicles (including re-engined Marmon Herrington Mk-IV F armored cars)[27] and artillery guns from the pre-war period also continued in service until the economic revival of the Cyprus
Cyprus
Republic in the mid-1980s. In the early 1980s, Cyprus
Cyprus
sought new suppliers of arms in order to circumvent US and European embargoes, combined with an apparent unwillingness by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to supply further aid. From Brazil, a large consignment of new light armored vehicles was ordered in 1982, 15 EE-3 Jararaca
EE-3 Jararaca
armored reconnaissance vehicles (delivered 1984-1985), and 126 EE-9 Cascavel
EE-9 Cascavel
armored fighting vehicles (delivered 1984-1988). Faced with an urgent need for infantry-portable air-defense equipment, the Cypriot Government was able to procure 20 firing units of Strela-2/ SA-7B Grail anti-aircraft missiles along with 324 live rounds from neighboring Syria
Syria
in 1984. Major arms orders were also placed with France, one of the few European powers still willing to support weapon deliveries to Cyprus. In 1984, Cyprus
Cyprus
purchased from France
France
a total of 27 VAB-VCI infantry fighting vehicles with 20mm cannon (delivered 1985-1988) along with 100 VAB-VTT armored personnel carriers (delivered 1985-1988). In 1987, the first batch of new French tanks were purchased to replace the T-34s that had been removed from service - a total of 15 AMX-30B2 main battle tanks and 1 AMX-30D recovery vehicle, all delivered the following year. Also in 1987, Cyprus
Cyprus
purchased from France
France
a unit of 6 SA-342L Gazelle scout anti-tank helicopters and 18 VAB-VCAC guided-missile tank-destroyers, along with 1200 HOT-2 anti-tank missiles (interchangeable for both airborne and ground launcher platforms), all delivered in 1988. A further 2 VAB-VTT armored personnel carriers were ordered as options in 1987 (delivered in 1988) along with 250 MILAN-2 anti-tank missile rounds and an unknown number of firing units (possibly 45).[28] In 1989, the Cyprus
Cyprus
Government ordered a batch of 35 AMX-30B2
AMX-30B2
main battle tanks and 1 AMX-30D armored recovery vehicle as part of a $115 million US dollar purchase from France. The deal included 12 GIAT Mk F-3 self-propelled 155mm howitzers and 12 AMX-VCI armored personnel carriers. All of the equipment ordered from France
France
in this year was delivered from 1990-1991.[29] In 1990, Greece
Greece
supplied Cyprus
Cyprus
with 81 ELVO Leonidas-2
ELVO Leonidas-2
(4K-7FA) armored personnel carriers, which were fielded to provide the Greek ELDYK
ELDYK
Army Regiment in Cyprus
Cyprus
with a Mechanized Infantry
Infantry
vehicle force. These were followed in 1996-1998 by a batch of 52 French-made AMX-30B main battle tanks supplied from Hellenic Army
Hellenic Army
surplus, along with a further 65 new Leonidas-2 armored personnel carriers delivered in 1996-1997.[28] Naval Component[edit] Early Operational History (1963 - 1974)[edit] The Cyprus
Cyprus
Naval Command became active circa 1963, following the outbreak of civil conflict between extremists within the Greek and Turkish ethnic communities of the island. At the outset of operational status, the Cyprus
Cyprus
Naval Command was manned by Greek Navy officers and junior officers, whilst the sailors were primarily Greek Cypriot conscripts of educated backgrounds. The first equipment made available to the Cyprus
Cyprus
Naval Command was a set of three ex-German WW2-era R-boats (two of the R-151 class called P-01 Arion and P-02 Phaethon, and one of the R-218 class under the name Dedalos). All three vessels were in service by August 1964, having been purchased from a shipyard in Piraeus, Greece
Greece
by a private sponsor named A. Leventis. The three vessels were in poor condition due to their age, and had to be refurbished in Greece
Greece
before delivery to Cyprus.[30] On 6 August 1964, the Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
was mobilised to intervene in the ongoing inter-ethnic confrontation at Kokkina, a Turkish-Cypriot controlled fortified enclave on the south-western edge of Morphou Bay in the north-west of the island. By this stage, the Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
was effectively a Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
security force, which by virtue of its commander, General George Grivas, was subordinate to Athens
Athens
(in Greece) and not to Nicosia
Nicosia
(in Cyprus).[31] Kokkina
Kokkina
was regarded by Grivas as a major coastal beachhead for Turkey to land weapons in Cyprus, with the aim of arming the Turkish Cypriots. For this reason, he persuaded the military government in Athens
Athens
to authorise an all-out assault on Kokkina, with the aim of eliminating the beachhead, and preventing more weapons being delivered to Turkish Cypriot militia groups.[31] As a necessity of mounting such an assault, Grivas required a naval presence off the coast of Kokkina, in order to bombard the enclave from the sea, and to prevent any other shipping from interfering. Consequently, the Phaethon and the Arion were utilised in the assault and commenced their assault with broadsides of 40mm and 20mm gunfire into the enclave on 6 August. This action was coordinated with battery fire from six land-based 25-pounder guns and around a dozen mortars used by ground forces[32] to besiege the enclave from the south and south-west. The siege continued until 8 August, when the Turkish Government opted to intervene with air strikes,[33] as it became clear to all parties that Kokkina's defences were likely to collapse, regardless of a UN presence in the area. The Turkish Air Force
Turkish Air Force
dispatched a number of formations of F-100 Super Sabres to commence air strikes against the Cypriot ground and naval forces, in broad daylight and flying at low level. The first formation of F-100 Super Sabres spotted the Phaethon near to a small fisheries harbour west of Kokkina. The Phaethon commenced evasive manoeuvres and put up 20mm cannon fire, but was struck in the engines by strafing rockets and exploded into flames, killing seven of her crew. One of the four survivors then piloted the ship with a single functioning engine to run aground next to the harbour, so that the crew could be recovered by local fishermen. The Phaethon was then gutted by flames, rendering it a wreck. Minutes after the attack on the Phaethon, a second formation of F-100s spotted the Cypriot gunboat Arion further up the coast towards Kokkina. The Arion was strafed with guns and rockets, causing superficial damage. As the Arion successfully made her escape using evasive manoeuvres, an F-100C Super Sabre, piloted by Cpt. Cengiz Topel of 112 Filo [34] was shot down by a Cypriot 40mm anti-aircraft gun emplacement on the shoreline. The loss of the Phaethon was a severe shock to the National Guard leadership, and was compounded by further casualties and material losses at Kato Pyrgos,[35] a nearby Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
village which was bombarded on 8 and 9 August in an effort to dislodge National Guardsmen using its hilltops for directing artillery fire with radios. A scramble for arms featured prominently throughout 1964, as the Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
compelled the civilian Government to solicit Soviet support.[36] In early 1964, the Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
acquired a large package of radars, communications and logistical support apparatus for SA-2F Guideline surface-air missiles,[37] and only a NATO
NATO
blockade of Limassol
Limassol
in 1965 prevented the live missile rounds and their TELs from being delivered.[38] With no effective air-defence measure in place, the Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
utilised the radars at one western and one eastern coastal mountain points in the Petedaktylos Mountains stretching across the north of the island. These radars provided both air and surface tracking capability for aircraft and shipping.[39] In late 1964, it was reported that Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
Naval crews had been sent to Egypt
Egypt
to train on Soviet Komar class
Komar class
fast attack craft. Western media sources assumed that Cyprus
Cyprus
was being prepared to receive Komar class
Komar class
vessels, although Cyprus
Cyprus
eventually chose cheaper naval vessels in the form of six P-4 Skinhead motor torpedo boats (MTBs).[36] In February 1965, the Cyprus
Cyprus
Naval Command entered the six MTBs into service under the naval pennants 20 to 25, and the designations T-1, -2, -3, -4, -5 and -6. These vessels were extremely fast and could be used to attack Turkish warships and landing vessels in littoral waters using a pair of 533mm torpedoes. In addition, each vessel mounted a twin 25mm general-purpose A/A gun. These were all stationed at a purpose-built naval squadron base at Boghazi, named Base Chrysulis. In 1970, the P-01 Arion was renamed "Leventis" in honour of a private sponsor who paid for the refurbishment of the vessel. The Leventis was given the new pennant "15". Her sister ship, P-03 Dedalos, was removed from the Navy list in 1971. At some point in 1973, the T-5 motor torpedo boat (No.24) was removed from Navy lists and disarmed. She was stripped of useful materials, and left as a hulk at Naval Base Chrysulis.[40] Around the same time, three Type-108 motor torpedo boats of unknown designation were delivered from Yugoslavia, but did not enter active service and were laid up at Boghazi. Just prior to the Turkish invasion of Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
in 1974, the Cyprus
Cyprus
Government ordered two Esterel-32L fast patrol boats from France. These were embargoed as a result of the conflict, and would be delivered to Greece
Greece
instead in 1975. Coup and Invasion in 1974[edit] On 15 July 1974, EOKA-B and elements of the Cyprus
Cyprus
National Guard overthrew the legitimate President, Archbishop Makarios
Archbishop Makarios
and replaced him with Nikos Sampson. Makarios escaped an initial attempt to capture him at the Archbishiporic in Nicosia, and fled to Paphos. The naval patrol vessel Leventis (No.15) was quickly dispatched to Paphos to begin shelling a radio station there which was being operated by pro-Makarios elements. On 20 July 1974, Turkey invaded Cyprus
Cyprus
in a surprise-attack, without issuing a declaration of war. A naval force of Turkish vessels was detected by coastal radar at Apostolos Andreas approaching the coast, and a second force of naval vessels was sighted off the coast of Kyrenia
Kyrenia
during the early hours. The Cyprus
Cyprus
National Guard Naval Command quickly ordered its two motor torpedo boats, T-1 (under the command of Lieutenant Junior Grade Nicolaos Verikios) and T-3 (under the command of Lieutenant Elefterios Tsomakis), both based at Kyrenia, to attack the Turkish flotilla directly. Both vessels were promptly sunk by combined air and sea attack. The rest of the Cyprus Navy vessels were scuttled by their own crews at Naval base "Chrysulis" in Boghazi on 14 August 1974. After the conflict, two boats were re-floated by Turkish troops and transferred to Golcuk Naval Museum, Turkey (on display with incorrect pennant numbers 11 and 12). Air Component[edit] Main article: Cyprus
Cyprus
Air Forces Post War Revival (1974 - 2004)[edit] In June 1987, the Cyprus
Cyprus
National Guard Air Command purchased a batch of six Aerospatiale SA-342L Gazelle scout anti-tank helicopters with 1200 Euromissile HOT-2 wire-guided anti-tank missiles (the interchangeable live rounds to be shared with the Army for use on their VAB-VCAC tank destroyers). The six aircraft were delivered from January 1988 onward, and were issued the serial numbers 351, 352, 353, 354, 355 and 356,[41][42] drawn from Aerospatiale 21XX and 22XX series construction numbers.[43] Of these aircraft, five examples (excluding 351) have been noted in regular use with the Cyprus
Cyprus
National Guard airborne forces, suggesting number 351 had been withdrawn for use as spare parts, or as a technical training air frame, prior to 2004.[43] The Gazelles were delivered in a three-tone desert camouflage consisting of light sand, dark sand and drab-olive tones - this camouflage has been retained to the present day. All aircraft utilize a low-visibility Cyprus
Cyprus
flag fin-flash and a low-visibility Hellenic Air Force styled roundel marking at the midsection of the tail boom. The designation SA-342L is inscribed above the fin flash, along with the three-digit serial number. In 2001 - 2002, Cyprus
Cyprus
discreetly acquired 12 new-build examples (serial numbers 811 - 822 inclusively)[44] of the Mil Mi-35P Hind-F attack helicopter type from the Russian Federation, following a lengthy tender process which included reported competition from the Mil Mi-28 Havoc,[45] and Denel Rooivalk.[46] The helicopters were first made public at a surprise three-ship flypast of the funeral of Lt General Evangelos Florakis on 12 July 2002[47] (himself killed in the crash of Cypriot Air Command Bell-206L Long Ranger "112" [48] on 10 July 2002 whilst observing a command and control exercise at night). The Mi-35s were initially supplied in an unusual matt-black (and presumably infra-red absorbent) camouflage[49] suitable for night operations, but lacked the optional FLIR turret and identification friend-or-foe systems made available for the more advanced Russian Mi-24PN. Aside from their monotone camouflage, the aircraft carried a small, high-contrast Cyprus
Cyprus
Republic tail fin flag, and a high visibility Hellenic Air Force styled blue-on-white roundel on the tail at the midpoint. Bright red danger markings were applied to the rotor tips and to the end of the tail boom.[50] The Cypriot Mi-35
Mi-35
helicopters were initially equipped for the deployment of fixed-mount 30mm heavy cannon, and a capacity for 80mm (3.1 inch) S-8 rockets in AP and HE-FRAG configurations, as well as for anti-tank missiles in the 9K114 and 9M120 versions. European Union
European Union
Member Statehood (2004 - Present)[edit] On 10 September 2005, National Guard Pilatus PC-9M turboprop aircraft "902" crashed into a church bell tower while performing an unauthorized flight maneuver near Kollossi in Limassol
Limassol
Cyprus, having deviated 80 km from the planned flight path. The aircraft was destroyed, and its two pilots killed.[51] On 5 July 2006, a National Guard Mi-35P Hind attack helicopter (serial number 822)[52] crashed[53] near the Paphos- Limassol
Limassol
motorway shortly after departing from Andreas Papandreou Air Base in Paphos. The aircraft was written off and both crew members (a Russian instructor and Cypriot student) killed. The SA-342L Gazelle anti-tank helicopter force remains in service to present day, although example 356 is no longer thought to be operational. The four remaining Gazelle anti-tank helicopters are thought to have undergone an overhaul, reportedly completed in August 2014 at Valence-Chabeuil airport by Aerotec Group.[54][55] The four Gazelle helicopters remain assigned to 449 MAE 1st Platoon, which has been moved to Andreas Papandreou Air Base (in Paphos district) following the closure of Lakatamia air base (in Nicosia
Nicosia
district) in April 2013.[56] Special
Special
forces[edit] Army[edit] The Cyprus
Cyprus
armed forces operate a pool of three Army Special
Special
Forces Groups (plus one auxiliary) known colloquially as LOK (Greek: ΛΟΚ - Λόχοι Ορεινών Καταδρομών, Lochoi Oreinōn Katadromōn). All LOK Groups are part of the Army Special
Special
Forces Command DKD (Greek: ΔΚΔ - Διοίκησης Καταδρομών - Diikisis Katadromon), and a soldier belonging to the Brigade is called a Raider (Greek: Kαταδρομέας, Kαταδρομείς - Katadromeas, Katadromeis). Cyprus
Cyprus
Special
Special
Forces training is based closely on their Greek Counterparts. All members of the Brigade wear the unit insignia depicting a winged sword, representative of the "deadly, silent and swift" nature of special forces operations. A scroll runs across the sword and wings with the motto Who Dares Wins
Who Dares Wins
(Greek: Ο ΤΟΛΜΩΝ ΝΙΚΑ - O Tolmon Nika), a tribute to the Free Greek Special
Special
Forces that served with the 1st Special Air Service
Special Air Service
(1 SAS) Brigade during World War II. The unit flash is emblazoned with ΔΥΝΑΜΕΙΣ ΚΑΤΑΔΡΟΜΩΝ (Raider Forces). While on operation, low-visibility patches are worn. All Raiders wear the green beret with the national emblem on the left. Navy[edit] The Navy has a Special
Special
Forces Group known as OYK Omada Ypovrixion Katastrofon (Greek: Ομάδα Υποβρυχίων Καταστροφών). Similar to US Underwater Demolition Team, which "OYK" stands for in Greek. Military Equipment Inventory[edit] Main article: List of military equipment of Cyprus Land Component

Main Battle Tanks

With 125mm Armament T-80 82 Active

With 105mm Armament AMX-30B2 52 Active

Armoured Fighting Vehicles

With 100mm Armament BMP-3 43 Active

With 90mm Armament EE-9 Cascavel 89 Active

With 20mm Armament VAB-VCI 27 Active

Armoured Personnel Carriers

With 12.7mm Armament Leonidas 2 250 Active

With 12.7mm Armament VAB 200 Active

Anti-Tank Guided Missile Vehicles

With MILAN Missile EE-3 Jararaca 15 Active

With HOT Missile VAB-VCAC 18 Active

Self Propelled Artillery

155mm Howitzer ZUZANA 12 Active

155mm Howitzer Mk F3 12 Active

Towed Artillery

155mm Howitzer TRF1 12 Active

105mm Howitzer Mod-56 60 Active

100mm Howitzer M1944 20 Active

Rocket Artillery

122mm MLRS BM-21 4 Active

128mm MLRS M-63 Plamen 18 Active

Gallery[edit]

National Guard soldier with the G3A3 rifle (Cypriot National Guard Camouflage)

LOK officers marching at Republic Fest Military Parade in Italy, 2007

LOK raiders at a welcoming ceremony of Dmitry Medvedev

Mi-35
Mi-35
of Cypriot Air Force

Bell-206L3 of Cypriot Air Force

See also[edit]

Armoured vehicles of the Cypriot National Guard Battle of Pentemili beachhead (1974) Battle of Tylliria
Battle of Tylliria
( Cyprus
Cyprus
1964) British Forces Cyprus Cyprus
Cyprus
Air Forces Cyprus
Cyprus
Civil Defence Cyprus
Cyprus
Joint Rescue Coordination Center Cyprus
Cyprus
Police

Cyprus
Cyprus
Port & Marine Police

List of Minister of Defence of the Republic of Cyprus Military Equipment of Cyprus Military operations during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus Reported Military Losses during the Invasion of Cyprus
Cyprus
(1974) Timeline of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus Turkish Cypriot Security Force

References[edit]

^ "Γενικό Επιτελείο Εθνικής Φρουράς". www.army.gov.cy. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ Σύντομο Ιστορικό της Εθνικής Φρουράς (in Greek). Nicosia: Γενικό Επιτελείο Εθνικής Φρουράς. Retrieved 9 February 2010.  ^ Hannay, Lord (2005). Cyprus: The Search for a Solution. I.B.Tauris. pp. 31–32. ISBN 1850436657. Retrieved 23 August 2012.  ^ Efthymiou, S. 2016. The development of the ideology of Defence: militarism in Post-war Cyprus. Defence Studies. 16(4) ^ Efthymiou, S. 2016. The development of the ideology of Defence: militarism in Post-war Cyprus. Defence Studies. ^ Kolasa-Sikiaridi, Kerry. " Cyprus
Cyprus
Drastically Reduces Mandatory Army Service to 14 Months - GreekReporter.com". Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ Αριστοτέλους, A. (2016) Στρατιωτική Θητεία και Πραγματικότητες: Ελλάδα, Τουρκία, Κύπρος (Military Service: Greece, Turkey and Cyprus). Cyprus
Cyprus
Center for Strategic Studies. ^ Efthymiou, S. 2016. The development of the ideology of Defence: militarism in Post-war Cyprus. Defence Studies. 16(4) ^ Αριστοτέλους, A. (2016) ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΟΥΣ: ΟΙ 3.000 ΣΥΟΠ ΟΥΔΟΛΩΣ ΚΑΛΥΠΤΟΥΝ ΤΟ ΚΕΝΟ ΣΤΗΝ Ε.Φ. ΑΠΟ ΜΕΙΩΣΕΙΣ ΣΕ ΘΗΤΕΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΘΡΩΠΙΝΟ ΔΥΝΑΜΙΚΟ. Cyprus
Cyprus
Center for Strategic Studies ^ Efthymiou, Stratis. (2017). Μείωση θητείας ή κοροϊδία; (in eng. Reduction of Military Service or are they fooling us?). Politis Newspaper. ^ Efthymiou, S. (2017). Η αντιεπαγγελματική επαγγελματοποίηση της Εθνικής Φρουράς / The unprofessional professionalisation of the National Guard. Nicosia: Cyprus
Cyprus
Center for Strategic Studies. ^ Αριστοτέλους, A. (2016b) ΜΕΙΩΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΘΗΤΕΙΑΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΚΥΠΡΟ: ΕΠΙΠΤΩΣΕΙΣ – ΕΠΙΛΟΓΕΣ. Nicosia: Cyprus
Cyprus
Center for Strategic Studies. ^ "Cypriot Armed Forces - Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
National Guard (GCNG) Land Operations Group - Maritime Wing - Air Wing - European Defence Information". www.armedforces.co.uk. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ The M47 and M48 Patton Tanks By Steven J. Zaloga. Osprey Publishing 1999. ^ "Defence news from Greece
Greece
and Cyprus". www.defencegreece.com. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ "CYPRUS: Big Troubles over a Small Island". TIME. July 29, 1974. ^ "The Kokkina
Kokkina
incident - About Polis and around". Rough Guides. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ The Michigan Daily, Friday 2 October 1964, P3 Vol LXXV Issue No.29 "Views Arms Deal by Cyprus, USSR". ^ Spartanburg Herald, Friday 2 October 1964, P2, Vol 74 No.233 ^ ARMOR IN CYPRUS EVOLUTION AND ACTION Ioannis Mamounidakis. April 2008. Doureios. ISBN 978-960-88355-4-2 ^ http://www.pyrovolitis.org.cy/cyprus/a-to-pyrobolo-bs-3-mk1944-100mm-38; ^ 286 M.T.P. (Mēchanokinēto Tagma Pezikou): polemiko hēmerologio 1974. Author: Dēmētrēs Ē Taliadōros. Publisher: Ekdosē Syndesmou Polemistōn. Date: 2010. Country: Cyprus ^ "Hürriyet Daily News - Archive news detail". Hürriyet Daily News - LEADING NEWS SOURCE FOR TURKEY AND THE REGION. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ Mallinson, William (June 30, 2005). Cyprus: A Modern History. I. B. Tauris. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-85043-580-8. ^ a b Drousiotis, Makarios. 2006. Cyprus
Cyprus
1974 - Greek Coup and Turkish Invasion. Bibliopolis. ISBN 3-933925-76-2 ^ The Genocide Files, by Harry Scott Gibbons. Savannah Koch (Dec. 1997) ISBN 978-0951446423 ^ http://the.shadock.free.fr/Surviving_Marmon_Herrington.pdf ^ a b SIPRI Trade Register 1960-2014 Cyprus
Cyprus
Recipient ^ SIPRI Trade Register 1960 - 2014 Recipient Cyprus ^ "ArtOfWar. Джебеян Рубен Генрихович. Военно-морские силы Кипра в 1964-1974 гг". artofwar.ru. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ a b http://www.acig.info/CMS/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=108&Itemid=47 ^ "Erenkoy, the truth is told!". cyprusscene. 18 August 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ FLIGHT International - 13 August 1964. Page 236 ^ http://okulweb.meb.gov.tr/04/06/255764/ctopel.htm[permanent dead link] ^ " Kato Pyrgos
Kato Pyrgos
- Heroes Monument 3". www.katopyrgos.org. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-07-27. Retrieved 2015-05-19.  ^ "Red Arms Poised in Cyprus". Christian Science Monitor. By John N Rigos. Jul 1 1965. ^ "Ship carrying Soviet Arms turned back". Los Angeles Times, March 28, 1965. ^ "Scramble". www.scramble.nl. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ Conway's all the World's Fighting Ships 1946-1995, US Naval Institute Press 1996 ^ Air Forces Monthly Oct 2003 p57 ^ World Air Power Journal No.25 p.5 ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-03-16. Retrieved 2015-07-31.  ^ "Military Database - Scramble". www.scramble.nl. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
Mail: Press Review in English, 00-01-05". www.hri.org. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
Mail: News Articles in English, 99-04-14". www.hri.org. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
Mail: News Articles in English, 02-07-13". www.hri.org. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ https://www.facebook.com/cypriotnationalguard (Posted 07/07/15) ^ "CYPRUS Mi-35
Mi-35
Hind photos finally declassified and published!". forum.keypublishing.com. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
Mi-35P". 22 April 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ "PC_9_LOSSES". www.ejection-history.org.uk. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ "Mil Mi-35P 'Hind-F' - Cyprus
Cyprus
Air Command - Aeroflight". Aeroflight. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident 05-JUL-2006 Mil Mi-35". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ Scramble Aircraft Database - Search Cyprus
Cyprus
SA342L- Accessed 31/07/15 ^ AIRheads/DS (1 October 2014). "AHF↑Inside: Maximizing the Gazelle". Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ "Lakatamia". www.forgottenairfields.com. Retrieved 21 July 2017. 

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