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Crimea
Crimea
(/kraɪˈmiːə/; Russian: Крым; Ukrainian: Крим, romanized: Krym; Crimean Tatar: Къырым, romanized: Kirim/Qırım; Ancient Greek: Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, romanized: Kimmería/Taurikḗ) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
in Eastern Europe
Europe
that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the smaller Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, and west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch
Strait of Kerch
though linked by the Crimean Bridge. The Arabat Spit
Arabat Spit
is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash
Sivash
from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea
Black Sea
to its west is Romania
Romania
and to its south Turkey. Crimea
Crimea
(or Tauric Peninsula, as it was called from antiquity until the early modern period) has historically been at the boundary between the classical world and the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Its southern fringe was colonised by the Greeks, the Persians, the Romans, the Byzantine Empire, the Crimean Goths, the Genoese and the Ottoman Empire, while at the same time its interior was occupied by a changing cast of invading steppe nomads and empires, such as the Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Goths, Alans, Bulgars, Huns, Khazars, Kipchaks, Mongols and the Golden Horde. Crimea
Crimea
and adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
during the 15th to 18th century. In 1783, Crimea
Crimea
became a part of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
as the result of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Crimea
Crimea
became an autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the USSR. During World War II, Crimea
Crimea
was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast
Crimean Oblast
after its entire indigenous population, the Crimean Tatars, were deported to Central Asia, an act recognized as a genocide. In 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR from the Russian SFSR.[6] With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine
Ukraine
was reestablished as an independent state in 1991 and most of the peninsula was reorganized as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, while the city of Sevastopol retained its special status within Ukraine. The 1997 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet partitioned the former Soviet Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet and allowed Russia
Russia
to continue basing its fleet in Crimea: both the Ukrainian Naval Forces
Ukrainian Naval Forces
and Russian's Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet were to be headquartered in Sevastopol. Ukraine extended Russia's lease of the naval facilities under the 2010 Kharkiv Pact in exchange for further discounted natural gas. In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution
2014 Ukrainian revolution
that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces
Russian Armed Forces
took over the territory.[7] A controversial Crimea-wide referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian and Crimean constitutions,[8][9][10] was held on the issue of reunification with Russia
Russia
which official results indicated was supported by a large majority of Crimeans.[11][12] Russia
Russia
formally annexed Crimea
Crimea
on 18 March 2014, incorporating the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
and the federal city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
as the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.[13]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Ancient history 2.2 Medieval history 2.3 Mongol Conquest (1238-1449) 2.4 Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
(1449–1783) 2.5 Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1783–1917) 2.6 Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(1917–1921) 2.7 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1921–1991)

2.7.1 Autonomy in Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1921–1944) 2.7.2 Region in Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1945–1954) 2.7.3 Region in Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1954–1991)

2.8 Ukrainian Republic (1991–2014) 2.9 De facto subjects of Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(since 2014)

3 Languages 4 Geography

4.1 Places 4.2 Crimean Mountains 4.3 Hydrography 4.4 Steppe 4.5 Crimean Riviera 4.6 Climate 4.7 Strategic value

5 Economy

5.1 Energy 5.2 Infrastructure 5.3 Tourism 5.4 Sanctions

6 Politics 7 Demographics

7.1 Religion

8 Culture

8.1 Sport

9 References in popular culture 10 Gallery 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Name The classical name Tauris or Taurica is from the Greek Ταυρική (Taurikḗ), after the peninsula's Scytho-Cimmerian inhabitants, the Tauri. Strabo
Strabo
(Geography vii 4.3, xi. 2.5), Polybius, (Histories 4.39.4), and Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(Geographia. II, v 9.5) refer variously to the Strait of Kerch as the Κιμμερικὸς Βόσπορος (Kimmerikos Bosporos, romanized spelling, Bosporus Cimmerius), its easternmost part as the Κιμμέριον Ἄκρον (Kimmerion Akron, Roman name: Promontorium Cimmerium,[14] as well as to the city of Cimmerium and whence the name of the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Κιμμερικοῦ Βοσπόρου). The earliest recorded use of the toponym “Crimea” for the peninsula[15] occurred between 1315-1329 AD by the Arab writer Abū al-Fidā where he recounts a political fight in 1300-1301 AD resulting in a rival's decapitation and having “sent his head to the Crimea”.[16] The Crimean Tatar name of the peninsula is Qırım (Crimean Tatar: Къырым, romanized: Kirim/Qırım) and so also for the city of Krym which is now called Stary Krym[17] which served as a capital of the Crimean province of the Golden Horde. Some sources hold that the name of the capital was extended to the entire peninsula at some point during Ottoman suzerainty.[18] The origin of the word Qırım is uncertain. Suggestions argued in various sources include:

a corruption of Cimmerium (Greek, Kimmerikon, Κιμμερικόν).[19][20][21] a derivation from the Turkic term qirum ("fosse, trench"), from qori- ("to fence, protect").[22][23][24] Other suggestions either unsupported or contradicted by sources, apparently based on similarity in sound, include:

a derivation from the Greek Cremnoi (Κρημνοί, in post-classical Koiné Greek
Koiné Greek
pronunciation, Crimni, i.e., "the Cliffs", a port on Lake Maeotis (Sea of Azov) cited by Herodotus
Herodotus
in The Histories 4.20.1 and 4.110.2).[25] However, Herodotus
Herodotus
identifies the port not in Crimea, but as being on the west coast of the Sea of Azov. No evidence has been identified that this name was ever in use for the peninsula. The Turkic term (e.g., in Turkish: Kırım) is related to the Mongolian appellation kerm "wall", but sources indicate that the Mongolian appellation of the Crimean peninsula of Qaram is phonetically incompatible with kerm/kerem and therefore deriving from another original term.[26][27][28] The name "Crimea" is the Italian form, i.e., la Crimea, since at least the 17th century[29] and the "Crimean peninsula" becomes current during the 18th century, gradually replacing the classical name of Tauric Peninsula
Peninsula
in the course of the 19th century.[30] In English usage since the early modern period the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
is referred to as Crim Tartary.[31] The omission of the definite article in English ("Crimea" rather than "the Crimea") became common during the later 20th century.[citation needed] The classical name was used in 1802 in the name of the Russian Taurida Governorate.[32] While it was replaced with Krym (Ukrainian: Крим; Russian: Крым) in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and has had no official status since 1921, it is still used by some institutions in Crimea, such as the Taurida National University, the Tavriya Simferopol
Simferopol
football club, or the Tavrida federal highway.

History Main article: History of Crimea Ancient history Ruins of ancient Greek colony of Chersonesos Swallow's Nest, built in 1912 for businessman Baron Pavel von Steingel Further information: Bosporan Kingdom, Greeks
Greeks
in pre-Roman Crimea, and Roman Crimea In the 8th century BC the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
migrated to the area in retreat from Scythian advances, of whom the latter also migrated to the region. Contemporaneously, and possibly because of the migration, the region came within the sphere of Greek maritime interest and became the site of Greek colonies. The most important Greek city was Chersonesos at the edge of today's Sevastopol. The Persian Achaemenid Empire, under Darius I, expanded to Crimea
Crimea
as part of his campaigns against the Scythians
Scythians
in 513 BC. The peninsula, then under the control of the Bosporan Kingdom, later became a client kingdom of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 63 BC.

Medieval history In the 9th century CE, Byzantium established the Theme of Cherson
Theme of Cherson
to defend against incursions by the Rus' Khaganate. The Crimean peninsula from this time was contested between Byzantium, Rus' and Khazaria. The area remained the site of overlapping interests and contact between the early medieval Slavic, Turkic and Greek spheres. It became a center of slave trade. Slavs
Slavs
were sold to Byzantium and other places in Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Middle-East during this period.

Mongol Conquest (1238-1449) Trapezuntine Perateia
Perateia
had already been subjected to pressure from the Genoese and Kipchaks
Kipchaks
by the time Alexios I of Trebizond died in 1222 before the Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
began its western swept through Volga Bulgaria in 1223. With them, control of the peninsula changed in 1238, as all but the Perateia
Perateia
of Crimea
Crimea
was incorporated into the territory of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
throughout the 14th century CE. In the course of the 13th century CE, portions were controlled by the Republic of Venice and by the Republic of Genoa, the Perateia
Perateia
soon became the Principality of Theodoro
Principality of Theodoro
and Genoese Gazaria, respectively.

Armenian monastery of the Holy Cross (Սուրբ Խաչ, Surb Khach), established in 1358 Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
(1449–1783) Main article: Crimean Khanate Further information: Crimean-Nogai raids into East Slavic lands
Crimean-Nogai raids into East Slavic lands
and Crimean Goths The Crimean Khanate, a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire, succeeded the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and lasted from 1449 to 1783.[33] In 1571, the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin.[34] Until the late 18th century, Crimean Tatars maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire, exporting about 2 million slaves from Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
over the period 1500–1700.[35]

Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1783–1917) See also: New Russia
Russia
and Taurida Governorate In 1774, the Khanate was proclaimed independent under the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca with the Ottomans,[36] but was then conquered by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in 1783.[37][38] The Taurida Oblast was created by a decree of Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
on 2 February 1784. The center of the oblast was first in Karasubazar
Karasubazar
but was moved to Simferopol
Simferopol
later in 1784. The establishment decree divided the oblast into 7 uyezds. However, by a decree of Paul I on 12 December 1796, the oblast was abolished and the territory, divided into 2 uyezds (Akmechetsky [Акмечетский] and Perekopsky [Перекопский]) was attached to the second incarnation of the Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk
Governorate.

The eleven-month siege of a Russian naval base at Sevastopol
Sevastopol
during the Crimean War From 1853 to 1856, the peninsula was the site of the principal engagements of the Crimean War, a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Sardinia.[39]

Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(1917–1921) See also: Crimean People's Republic, Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic, Crimean Regional Government, and Crimean Socialist Soviet Republic Following the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917, the military and political situation in Crimea
Crimea
was chaotic like that in much of Russia. During the ensuing Russian Civil War, Crimea
Crimea
changed hands numerous times and was for a time a stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White Army. The White Army
White Army
controlled Crimea
Crimea
before remnants were finally driven out by the Red Army
Red Army
in November 1920. It was in Crimea
Crimea
that the White Russians
Russians
led by General Wrangel made their last stand against Nestor Makhno and the Red Army. When resistance was crushed, many of the anti-Communist fighters and civilians escaped by ship to Istanbul. Between 56,000 and 150,000 of the Whites were murdered as part of the Red Terror, organized by Béla Kun.

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1921–1991) See also: Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
and Crimean Oblast Crimea
Crimea
became part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1921 as the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, which became part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1922.

Autonomy in Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(1921–1944) The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
in Crimea: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin. The Artek youth camp was created in 1925. During the Second World War the peninsula was invaded by Nazi Germany and Romanian troops
Romanian troops
in summer 1941 across the Isthmus of Perekop. Following the capture of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
on 4 July 1942, Crimea
Crimea
was occupied until German and Romanian forces were expelled in an offensive by Soviet forces ending in May 1944. The Nazis murdered around 40,000 Crimean Jews.[40]

Region in Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(1945–1954) On 25 June 1946, it was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast, and the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
were deported for alleged collaboration with the Nazi forces. A total of more than 230,000 people – about a fifth of the total population of the Crimean Peninsula
Peninsula
at that time – were deported, mainly to Uzbekistan. 14,300 Greeks, 12,075 Bulgarians, and about 10,000 Armenians
Armenians
were also expelled.

Region in Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1954–1991) Main article: 1954 transfer of Crimea On 19 February 1954, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the USSR issued a decree on the transfer of the Crimean region of the RSFSR to the Ukrainian SSR.[41] This Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
Decree states that this transfer was motivated by "the commonality of the economy, the proximity, and close economic and cultural relations between the Crimean region and the Ukrainian SSR".[42] At that time no vote or referendum took place, and Crimean population had no say in the transfer (also typical of other Soviet border changes). After the annexation of Crimea
Crimea
by the Russian Federation, doubts have been expressed - from the Russian side by all means, but even by Western historians (Richard Sakwa, "Frontline Ukraine. Crisis In the Borderlands", 2015) - about the very legitimacy of the 1954 transition of Crimea
Crimea
to Ukraine; in the critics' view the transition contradicted even the Soviet law. In post-war years, Crimea
Crimea
thrived as a tourist destination, with new attractions and sanatoriums for tourists. Tourists came from all around the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and neighbouring countries, particularly from the German Democratic Republic.[43] In time the peninsula also became a major tourist destination for cruises originating in Greece and Turkey. Crimea's infrastructure and manufacturing also developed, particularly around the sea ports at Kerch
Kerch
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and in the oblast's landlocked capital, Simferopol. Populations of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Russians
Russians
alike doubled, with more than 1.6 million Russians
Russians
and 626,000 Ukrainians
Ukrainians
living on the peninsula by 1989.[43]

Ukrainian Republic (1991–2014) Simferopol's city centre Main article: Autonomous Republic of Crimea See also: 1991 Crimean sovereignty referendum In January 1991, a referendum was held in the Crimean Oblast, and voters approved restoring the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. However, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
less than a year later, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
was formed as a constituent entity of independent Ukraine,[44][45] with a slight majority of Crimean voters approving Ukrainian independence in a December referendum.[46] On 5 May 1992, the Crimean legislature declared conditional independence,[47] but a referendum to confirm the decision was never held amid opposition from Kiev: elected president of Crimea
Crimea
Yuriy Meshkov, was replaced by Kiev
Kiev
appointed Anatoliy Franchuk, which was done with the intent to rein in Crimean aspirations of autonomy.[45][48] The Verkhovna Rada, the parliament of Crimea, voted to grant Crimea "extensive home rule" during the dispute.[46][47] Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances
Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances
acknowledged Ukrainian integrity.[49] The last election of the Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
of Crimea
Crimea
took place on 31 October 2010 and was won by the Party of Regions.[50] On 15 March 2014, the Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
of Ukraine
Ukraine
officially dissolved the Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
of Crimea, and, on 17 March 2014, one day before the Russian annexation of Crimea,[51] the State Council of Crimea was established in place of the Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
of Crimea.

De facto subjects of Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(since 2014) Main article: Republic of Crimea See also: 2014 Ukrainian revolution; Crimean status referendum, 2014; Annexation
Annexation
of Crimea
Crimea
by the Russian Federation; and Political status of Crimea June 2015: Tourists in Crimea
Crimea
with Russian flag flying After the 2014 Ukrainian revolution
2014 Ukrainian revolution
and the flight of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych
Viktor Yanukovych
from Kiev
Kiev
on 21 February 2014, Russian President, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
stated to colleagues that "we must start working on returning Crimea
Crimea
to Russia."[52] Within days, unmarked forces with local militias took over the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Crimea
and Sevastopol, as well as occupying several localities in Kherson Oblast
Kherson Oblast
on the Arabat Spit, which is geographically a part of Crimea. Following a controversial referendum, the official results of which showed majority support for joining Russia, Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
signed a treaty of accession with the self-declared Republic of Crimea, annexing it into the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as two federal subjects: the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
and the federal city of Sevastopol. Though Russia
Russia
had control over the peninsula, sovereignty was disputed as Ukraine
Ukraine
and the majority of the international community consider the annexation illegal,[53] as was shown by the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
adopting a non-binding resolution calling upon states not to recognise changes to the integrity of Ukraine.[54][55] A range of international sanctions have remained in place against Russia
Russia
and a number of named individuals as a result of the events of 2014. Russia
Russia
withdrew its forces from southern Kherson
Kherson
in December 2014[56] Since Russian control over Crimea
Crimea
was established in 2014, the peninsula has been administered as part of the Russian Federation except for the northern areas of the Arabat Spit
Arabat Spit
and the Syvash
Syvash
which are still controlled by Ukraine.[57] Within days of the signing of the accession treaty, the process of integrating Crimea
Crimea
into the Russian federation began: in March the Russian ruble
Russian ruble
went into official circulation[58] and clocks were moved forward to Moscow time,[59] in April a new revision of the Russian Constitution was officially released with the Republic of Crimea
Crimea
and the federal city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
included in the list of federal subjects of the Russian Federation,[60] and in June the Russian ruble
Russian ruble
became the only form of legal tender.[61] In July 2015, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
stated that Crimea had been fully integrated into Russia.[62]

May Day
May Day
parade in Sevastopol, in May 2019. Since 2014 the Russian government has invested heavily in the peninsula’s infrastructure—repairing roads, modernizing hospitals and building the Crimean Bridge
Crimean Bridge
that links the peninsula to the Russian mainland. New sources of water are trying to be developed, with huge difficulties, to replace closed Ukrainian sources.[63] Crimea
Crimea
in 2017 has modernised the Simferopol
Simferopol
International Airport.[64] Russia
Russia
provides electricity to Crimea
Crimea
via a cable beneath the Kerch Strait. In June 2018 there was a full electrical outage for all of Crimea, but the power grid company Rosseti reported to have fixed the outage in approximately one hour.[65] On 28 December 2018, Russia
Russia
completed a high-tech security fence marking the de facto border between Crimea
Crimea
and Ukraine.[66]

Languages According to Article 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea, there are three official languages in the republic: Russian, Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar. However, in practice, Russian is by far the main language. The history of Crimea
Crimea
is complex as it lies at a conjunction of European and Asian peoples, with a mosaic of distinct and affiliated ethnic communities. From the ancient period to the medieval period, the principal ethnic communities classed by linguistic origins are: -The Indo-European language family:

-The Iranian language group comprising the Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, and the Alans -The Greek language
Greek language
group comprising the Greeks, Byzantines, and the Spartocids (Hellenized) -The Italic language group comprising the Romans, Venetians, and the Genoese -The Germanic language group comprising the Goths, Ashkenazi Jews -The Slavic language group comprising the Russians
Russians
and Ukrainians -The Armenian language group comprising the Armenians -The Semitic language group comprising the Jews -The Turkic language family comprising the Bulgars, Khazars, Kipchaks, Tatars, Turkicized Greeks
Greeks
(Urums), and the Ottomans -The Mongolic family is represented by the Mongols -The Huns
Huns
were of uncertain linguistic origins. From the medieval period to the early modern period[citation needed] additional ethnic communities migrated to the area. Prominent representation includes the Armenian, German, Serbian, and Jewish ethnic communities.

Geography SarychSimferopolSevastopolKerchIsthmus of PerekopCape FonarCape PriboinyKarkinit BaySyvashKalamita BayBlack Sea Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
Geography of Crimea Further information: East European Plain Covering an area of 27,000 km2 (10,425 sq mi), Crimea is located on the northern coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
and on the western coast of the Sea of Azov; the only land border is shared with Ukraine's Kherson Oblast
Kherson Oblast
on the north. Crimea
Crimea
is almost an island and only connected to the continent by the Isthmus of Perekop, a strip of land about 5–7 kilometres (3.1–4.3 mi) wide. Much of the natural border between the Crimean Peninsula
Peninsula
and the Ukrainian mainland comprises the Sivash
Sivash
or "Rotten Sea", a large system of shallow lagoons stretching along the western shore of the Sea of Azov. Besides the isthmus of Perekop, the peninsula is connected to the Kherson
Kherson
Oblast's Henichesk Raion
Henichesk Raion
by bridges over the narrow Chonhar and Henichesk straits and over Kerch
Kerch
Strait to the Krasnodar Krai. The northern part of Arabat Spit
Arabat Spit
is administratively part of Henichesk Raion
Henichesk Raion
in Kherson
Kherson
Oblast, including its two rural communities of Shchaslyvtseve and Strilkove. The eastern tip of the Crimean peninsula comprises the Kerch
Kerch
Peninsula, separated from Taman Peninsula
Peninsula
on the Russian mainland by the Kerch
Kerch
Strait, which connects the Black Sea
Black Sea
with the Sea of Azov, at a width of between 3–13 kilometres (1.9–8.1 mi). Geographers generally divide the peninsula into three zones: steppe, mountains and southern coast.

Places PerekopChornomorskeDonuzlavEupatoriaSevastopolBalaklavaForosAlupkaYaltaGurzufAlushtaSudakKaffaKerchMangupBakhchisariSimferopolKarasuStaryKrymDzhankoy Places in Crimea Given its long history and many conquerors, most towns in Crimea
Crimea
have several names. West: The Isthmus of Perekop
Isthmus of Perekop
/Perekop/Or Qapi, about 7 km wide, connects Crimea
Crimea
to the mainland. It was often fortified and sometimes garrisoned by the Turks. The North Crimean Canal
North Crimean Canal
now crosses it to bring water from the Dnieper. To the west Karkinit Bay
Karkinit Bay
separates the Tarkhankut Peninsula
Peninsula
from the mainland. On the north side of the peninsula is Chernomorskoe/Kalos Limen. On the south side is the large Donuzlav
Donuzlav
Bay and the port and ancient Greek settlement of Eupatoria/Yevpatoria/Kerkinitis/Gozleve. The coast then runs south to Sevastopol/Chersonesus, a good natural harbor, great naval base and the largest city on the peninsula. At the head of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Bay stands Inkermann/Kalamita. South of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
is the small Heracles Peninsula. South: In the south, between the Crimean Mountains
Crimean Mountains
and the sea runs a narrow coastal strip which was held by the Genoese and (after 1475) by the Turks. Under Russian rule it became a kind of riviera. In Soviet times the many palaces were replaced[by whom?] with dachas and health resorts. From west to east are: Heracles Peninsula; Balaklava/Symbalon/Cembalo, a smaller natural harbor south of Sevastopol; Foros, the southernmost point; Alupka
Alupka
with the Vorontsov Palace (Alupka); Gaspra; Yalta; Gurzuf; Alushta. Further east is Sudak/Sougdia/Soldaia with its Genoese fort. Further east still is Kaffa/Theodosia/Feodosia, once a great slave-mart and a kind of capital for the Genoese and Turks. Unlike he other southern ports, Feodosia
Feodosia
has no mountains to its north. At the east end of the 90 km Kerch
Kerch
Peninsula
Peninsula
is Kerch/Panticapaeum, once the capital of the Bosporian Kingdom. Just south of Kerch
Kerch
the new Crimean Bridge (opened in 2018) connects Crimea
Crimea
to the Taman Peninsula. Sea of Azov: There is little on the south shore. The west shore is marked by the Arabat Spit. Behind it is the Syvash
Syvash
or "Putrid Sea", a system of lakes and marshes which in the far north extend west to the Perekop
Perekop
Isthmus. Road- and rail-bridges cross the northern part of Syvash. Interior: Most of the former capitals of Crimea
Crimea
stood on the north side of the mountains. Mangup/Doros (Gothic, Theodoro). Bakhchisarai (1532-1783). Southeast of Bakhchisarai
Bakhchisarai
is the cliff-fort of Chufut-Kale/Qirq Or which was used in more warlike times. Simferopol/Ak-Mechet, the modern capital. Karasu-Bazar/Bilohorsk was a commercial center. Solkhat/Stary Krym was the old Tatar capital. Towns on the northern steppe area are all modern, notably Dzhankoy, a major road- and rail-junction. Rivers: The longest is the Salhir River
Salhir River
which rises southeast of Simferopol
Simferopol
and flows north and northeast to the Sea of Azov. The Alma River flows west to reach the Black Sea
Black Sea
between Eupatoria and Sevastopol. The shorter Chornaya River (Crimea)
Chornaya River (Crimea)
flows west to Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Bay. Nearby: East of the Kerch
Kerch
Strait the Ancient Greeks
Greeks
founded colonies at Phanagoria
Phanagoria
(at the head of Taman Bay), Hermonassa
Hermonassa
(later Tmutarakan and Taman), Gorgippia
Gorgippia
(later a Turkish port and now Anapa). At the northeast point of the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
at the mouth of the Don River were Tanais, Azak/ Azov
Azov
and now Rostov-on-Don. North of the peninsula the Dnieper
Dnieper
turns westward and enters the Black Sea
Black Sea
through the east-west Dnieper-Bug Estuary
Dnieper-Bug Estuary
which also receives the Bug River. At the mouth of the Bug stood Olvia. At the mouth of the estuary is Ochakiv. Odessa stands where the coast turns southwest. Further southwest is Tyras/Akkerman/Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi.

South coast of Crimea Crimean Mountains Main article: Crimean Mountains Eclizee-Burun Mountain The southeast coast is flanked at a distance of 8–12 kilometres (5.0–7.5 mi) from the sea by a parallel range of mountains: the Crimean Mountains.[67] These mountains are backed by secondary parallel ranges. The main range of these mountains rises with extraordinary abruptness from the deep floor of the Black Sea
Black Sea
to an altitude of 600–1,545 metres (1,969–5,069 ft), beginning at the southwest point of the peninsula, called Cape Fiolente [uk]. It was believed[by whom?] that this cape was supposedly crowned with the temple of Artemis
Artemis
where Iphigeneia
Iphigeneia
is said to have officiated as priestess.[68] Uchan-su, on the south slope of the mountains, is the highest waterfall in Crimea.[69]

Hydrography There are 257 rivers and major streams on the Crimean peninsula; they are primarily fed by rainwater, with snowmelt playing a very minor role. This makes for significant annual fluctuation in water flow, with many streams drying up completely during the summer.[70] The largest rivers are the Salhir (Salğır, Салгир), the Kacha (Кача), the Alma (Альма), and the Belbek (Бельбек). Also important are the Kokozka (Kökköz or Коккозка), the Indole (Indol or Индо́л), the Chorna (Çorğun, Chernaya or Чёрная), the Derekoika (Dereköy or Дерекойка),[71] the Karasu-Bashi (Biyuk-Karasu or Биюк-Карасу) (tributary of Salhir river), the Burulcha (Бурульча) (tributary of Salhir river), the Uchan-su, and the Ulu-Uzen'. The longest river of Crimea
Crimea
is the Salhir at 204 km. The Belbek has the greatest average discharge at 2.16 cubic metres per second (76 cu ft/s).[72] The Alma and the Kacha are the second- and third-longest rivers.[73] There are more than fifty salt lakes and salt pans on the peninsula, the largest of them is Lake Sasyk (Сасык) on the southwest coast; others include Aqtas, Koyashskoye, Kiyatskoe, Kirleutskoe, Kizil-Yar, Bakalskoe, and Donuzlav.[74][75] The general trend is for the former lakes to become salt pans.[76] Lake Syvash (Sıvaş or Сива́ш) is a system of interconnected shallow lagoons on the north-eastern coast, covering an area of around 2,560 km2. A number of dams have created reservoirs, among the largest are the Simferopolskoye, Alminskoye,[77] the Taygansky and the Belogorsky just south of Bilohirsk
Bilohirsk
in Bilohirsk Raion.[78] The North Crimea
Crimea
Canal, which transports water from the Dnieper, is the largest of the man-made irrigation channels on the peninsula.[79]

Steppe Main article: Pontic-Caspian steppe Seventy-five percent of the remaining area of Crimea
Crimea
consists of semiarid prairie lands, a southward continuation of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, which slope gently to the northwest from the foothills of the Crimean Mountains. Numerous kurgans, or burial mounds, of the ancient Scythians
Scythians
are scattered across the Crimean steppes.

Crimean Riviera The Crimean Mountains
Crimean Mountains
in the background and Yalta
Yalta
as seen from the Tsar's Path. The terrain that lies south of the sheltering Crimean Mountain range is of an altogether different character. Here, the narrow strip of coast and the slopes of the mountains are smothered with greenery. This "riviera" stretches along the southeast coast from capes Fiolente and Aya, in the south, to Feodosiya. It is studded with summer sea-bathing resorts such as Alupka, Yalta, Gurzuf, Alushta, Sudak, and Feodosiya. During the years of Soviet rule, the resorts and dachas of this coast served as prime perquisites of the politically loyal.[citation needed]why here? and ref? In addition, vineyards and fruit orchards are located in the region. Fishing, mining, and the production of essential oils are also important. Numerous Crimean Tatar villages, mosques, monasteries, and palaces of the Russian imperial family and nobles are found here, as well as picturesque ancient Greek and medieval castles. The Crimean Mountains
Crimean Mountains
and the southern coast are part of the Crimean Submediterranean forest complex ecoregion. The natural vegetation consists of scrublands, woodlands, and forests, with a climate and vegetation similar to the Mediterranean Basin.

Climate Crimea's south coast has a subtropical climate Crimea
Crimea
is located between the temperate and subtropical climate belts and is characterized by warm and sunny weather.[80] It is characterized by diversity and the presence of microclimates.[80] The northern parts of Crimea
Crimea
have a moderate continental climate with short, mild winters and moderately hot dry summers.[81] In the central and mountainous areas the climate is transitional between the continental climate to the north and the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
to the south.[81] Winters are mild at lower altitudes (in the foothills) and colder at higher altitdues.[81] Summers are hot at lower altitudes and warm in the mountains.[81] A subtropical, Mediterranean climate dominates the southern coastal regions, is characterized by mild winters and moderately hot, dry summers.[81] The climate of Crimea
Crimea
is influenced by its geographic location, relief, and influences from the Black sea.[80] The Crimean coast is shielded from cold air masses coming from the north and as a result has milder winters.[80] Maritime influences from the Black Sea
Black Sea
are restricted to coastal areas; in the interior of the peninsula the maritime influence is weak and does not play an important role.[80] Because a high-pressure system is located north of Crimea
Crimea
in both summer and winter, winds predominantly come from the north and northeast year-round.[80] In winter these winds bring in cold, dry continental air, while in summer they bring in dry and hot weather.[80] Winds from the northwest bring warm and wet air from the Atlantic Ocean, causing precipitation during spring and summer.[80] As well, winds from the southwest bring very warm and wet air from the subtropical latitudes of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean sea and cause precipitation during fall and winter.[80] Mean annual temperatures range from 10 °C (50.0 °F) in the far north (Armiansk) to 13 °C (55.4 °F) in the far south (Yalta).[80] In the mountains, the mean annual temperature is around 5.7 °C (42.3 °F).[80] For every 100 m (330 ft) increase in altitude, temperatures decrease by 0.65 °C (1.17 °F) while precipitation increases.[80] In January mean temperatures range from −3 °C (26.6 °F) in Armiansk
Armiansk
to 4.4 °C (39.9 °F) in Myskhor.[80] Cool-season temperatures average around 7 °C (44.6 °F) and it is rare for the weather to drop below freezing except in the mountains, where there is usually snow.[82] In July mean temperatures range from 15.4 °C (59.7 °F) in Ai-Petri
Ai-Petri
to 23.4 °C (74.1 °F) in the central parts of Crimea
Crimea
to 24.4 °C (75.9 °F) in Myskhor.[80] The frost-free period ranges from 160–200 days in the steppe and mountain regions to 240–260 days on the south coast.[80] Precipitation in Crimea
Crimea
varies significantly based on location; it ranges from 310 millimetres (12.2 in) in Chornomorske
Chornomorske
to 1,220 millimetres (48.0 in) at the highest altitudes in the Crimean mountains.[80] The Crimean mountains greatly influence the amount of precipitation present in the peninsula.[80] However, most of Crimea
Crimea
(88.5%) receives 300 to 500 millimetres (11.8 to 19.7 in) of precipitation per year.[80] The plains usually receive 300 to 400 millimetres (11.8 to 15.7 in) of precipitation per year, increasing to 560 millimetres (22.0 in) in the southern coast at sea level.[80] The western parts of the Crimean mountains receive more than 1,000 millimetres (39.4 in) of precipitation per year.[80] Snowfall is common in the mountains during winter.[81] Most of the peninsula receives more than 2,000 sunshine hours per year; it reaches up to 2,505 sunshine hours in Karabi–Yayla in the Crimean mountains.[80] As a result, the climate favors recreation and tourism.[80] Because of its climate and subsidized travel-packages from Russian state-run companies, the southern Crimean coast
Crimean coast
has remained a popular resort for Russian tourists.[83]

Strategic value Further information: Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet Map of the historical trade route (shown in purple) connecting Uppsala
Uppsala
with Constantinople
Constantinople
via Cherson. The major centers of Kievan Rus' - Kiev
Kiev
itself, Novgorod
Novgorod
and Ladoga - arose along this route. The Black Sea
Black Sea
ports of Crimea
Crimea
provide quick access to the Eastern Mediterranean, Balkans
Balkans
and Middle East. Historically, possession of the southern coast of Crimea
Crimea
was sought after by most empires of the greater region since antiquity (Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, Russian, British and French, Nazi German, Soviet).[84] The nearby Dnieper
Dnieper
River is a major waterway and transportation route that crosses the European continent from north to south and ultimately links the Black Sea
Black Sea
with the Baltic Sea, of strategic importance since the historical trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. The Black Sea
Black Sea
serves as an economic thoroughfare connecting the Caucasus region and the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to central and Eastern Europe.[85] According to the International Transport Workers' Federation, as of 2013[update] there were at least 12 operating merchant seaports in Crimea.[86]

Economy See also: International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis Tourism is an important sector of Crimea's economy In 2016 Crimea
Crimea
had Nominal GDP of US$7 billion and US$3,000 per capita.[87] The main branches of the modern Crimean economy are agriculture and fishing oysters pearls else, industry and manufacturing along mining and chemical, tourism, ports. Industrial plants are situated for the most part in the southern coast (Eupatoria Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Feodosia
Feodosia
Kerch) regions of the republic, few northern ( Armyansk
Armyansk
Krasnoperekopsk Dzhankoj), aside central area, mainly Simferopol
Simferopol
okrug and eastern region in Nizhnegorsk (few plants, same for Dzhankoj) city. Important industrial cities include Dzhankoy, housing a major railway connection, Krasnoperekopsk
Krasnoperekopsk
and Armyansk, among others. After the Russian annexation of Crimea
Crimea
in early 2014 and subsequent sanctions targeting Crimea, the tourist industry suffered major losses for two years. The flow of holidaymakers dropped 35 percent in the first half of 2014 over the same period of 2013.[88] The number of tourist arrivals reached a record in 2012 at 6.1 million.[89] According to the Russian administration of Crimea, they dropped to 3.8 million in 2014,[90] and rebounded to 5.6 million by 2016.[91] The most important industries in Crimea
Crimea
include food production, chemical fields, mechanical engineering and metal working, and fuel production industries.[92] Sixty percent of the industry market belongs to food production. There are a total of 291 large industrial enterprises and 1002 small business enterprises.[92] Agriculture in the region includes cereals, vegetable-growing, gardening, and wine-making, particularly in the Yalta
Yalta
and Massandra regions. Livestock production includes cattle breeding, poultry keeping, and sheep breeding.[92] Other products produced on the Crimean Peninsula
Peninsula
include salt, porphyry, limestone, and ironstone (found around Kerch) since ancient times.[93] In 2014, the republic's annual GDP was $4.3 billion (500 times smaller than the size of Russia's economy). The average salary was $290 per month. The budget deficit was $1.5 billion.[94]

Energy Crimea
Crimea
also possesses several natural gas fields both onshore and offshore, which were starting to be drilled by western oil and gas companies before annexation.[95][96] The inland fields are located in Chornomorske
Chornomorske
and Dzhankoy, while offshore fields are located in the western coast in the Black Sea
Black Sea
and in the northeastern coast in the Azov
Azov
Sea:[97]

Name

Type

Location

Reserves

Dzhankoyske gas field

onshore

Dzhankoy

Golitsyna gas field

offshore

Black Sea

Karlavske gas field

onshore

Chornomorske

Krym gas field

offshore

Black Sea

Odessa
Odessa
gas field[98]

offshore

Black Sea

21 billion m3

Schmidta gas field

offshore

Black Sea

Shtormvaya gas field

offshore

Black Sea

Strilkove
Strilkove
gas field

offshore

Sea of Azov

The republic also possesses two oil fields: one onshore, the Serebryankse oil field in Rozdolne, and one offshore, the Subbotina oil field in the Black Sea.

Electricity Crimea
Crimea
has 540 MW of its own electricity generation capacity including Simferopol
Simferopol
Thermal Power Plant (100 MW), Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Thermal Power Plant (22 MW) and Kamish-Burunskaya Thermal Power Plant (19 MW).[99] This is insufficient for local consumption and since annexation by Russia, Crimea
Crimea
is reliant on an underwater power cable to mainland Russia.[100] Building and near start up are two combined cycle gas steam turbo thermal plants PGU, both 470 MW (116 167 MW GT, 235 MW block), build (plant) by TPE along others and turbines by Power Machines (UTZ KalugaTZ ?), NPO Saturn with Perm PMZ, either GTD-110M modified or GTE-160 or 180 units or UTZ KTZ or a V94.2 bought by MAPNA, modified in Russian plants for PGU Thermal plants specifics. Also many solar photovoltaic SES plants lie along the peninsula (north of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
too, a smaller facility). Also gas thermal Saki plant close to Jodobrom chemical plant and SaKhZ(SaChP) boosted production with Perm GTE GTU25P (PS90GP25 25 MW aeroderivative GP) PGU turbogenerators. Older plants are Sevastopol
Sevastopol
TEC (close to Inkerman) which use AEG and Ganz Elektro turbines and turbogenerators about 25 MW each, Sinferopol TEC (north, in Agrarne locale) Eupatoria, Kamysh Burun TEC ( Kerch
Kerch
south - Zaliv) and few others.

Infrastructure This section contains an enumeration of examples, but lacks a general overview of its topic. You can help by adding an appropriate introductory section. Editing help is available. (March 2014) Crimean Bridge Crimean Bridge Trolleybus near Alushta The cableway in Yalta Main article: Crimean Bridge
Crimean Bridge
(Crimea) In May 2015, work began on a multibillion-dollar road-rail link (a pair of parallel bridges) across the Kerch
Kerch
Strait.[101] The road bridge opened in May 2018, and the rail bridge is projected to be fully completed and operational by 2019. With a length of 19 km, it is the longest bridge in Europe, as it overcame Vasco da Gama Bridge in Lisbon.

Public transportation Almost every settlement in Crimea
Crimea
is connected with another settlement by bus lines. Crimea
Crimea
contains the longest (96 km or 59 mi) trolleybus route in the world, stretching from Simferopol
Simferopol
to Yalta.[102] The trolleybus line starts near Simferopol's Railway Station (in Soviet times it started near Simferopol International Airport) through the mountains to Alushta
Alushta
and on to Yalta. The length of line is about 90 km and passengers are assigned a seat. It was founded in 1959. Railroad lines running through Crimea
Crimea
include Armyansk— Kerch
Kerch
(with a link to Feodosiya), and Melitopol— Sevastopol
Sevastopol
(with a link to Yevpatoria), connecting Crimea
Crimea
to the Ukrainian mainland.

International airport Simferopol
Simferopol
International Airport's new terminal opened in from April 2018 with the ability to handle 6.5 million passengers a year.[103] It was built in 22 months and covers an area of 78,000 square meters.[104] Highways (under construction) Tavrida highway (route (Eupatoria-) Sevastopol
Sevastopol
- Simferopol
Simferopol
(SW to W N to East ring) - Belogorsk - north Feodosia
Feodosia
- Kerch
Kerch
south (strait bridge) . E105/M18 – Syvash
Syvash
(bridge, starts), Dzhankoy, North Crimean Canal (bridge), Simferopol, Alushta, Yalta
Yalta
(ends) E97/M17 – Perekop
Perekop
(starts), Armyansk, Dzhankoy, Feodosiya, Kerch (ferry, ends) A290 - Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk
to Kerch
Kerch
via Crimean Bridge
Crimean Bridge
(formerly known as Highway M25) H05 – Krasnoperekopsk, Simferopol
Simferopol
(access to the Simferopol International Airport) H06 – Simferopol, Bakhchisaray, Sevastopol H19 – Yalta, Sevastopol P16 P23 – Simferopol, Feodosiya P25 – Simferopol, Yevpatoria P27 – Sevastopol, Inkerman
Inkerman
(completely within the city of Sevastopol) P29 – Alushta, Sudak, Feodosiya P34 – Alushta, Yalta P35 – Hrushivka, Sudak P58 – Sevastopol, Port "Komysheva Bukhta" (completely within the city of Sevastopol) P59 (completely within the city of Sevastopol) Railways Armyansk
Armyansk
Dzhankoi, Dzhankoi Sinferopol, Eupatoria Sinferopol Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Sinferopol, Dzhankoi Nezhgorsk (Feodosia) Kerch, Kerch (bridge) Taman Krasnodar project building shortcut north Simferopol
Simferopol
south Nezhgorsk or Sinferopol Belogorsk (Feodosia) Kerch
Kerch
route Sea transport The cities of Yalta, Feodosiya, Kerch, Sevastopol, Chornomorske
Chornomorske
and Yevpatoria
Yevpatoria
are connected to one another by sea routes. In the cities of Yevpatoria
Yevpatoria
and nearby townlet Molochnoye are tram systems.

Tourism Boardwalk in Yalta. Genoese fortress of Caffa. Mosque and yard in the Khan Palace in Bakhchisaray The development of Crimea
Crimea
as a holiday destination began in the second half of the 19th century. The development of the transport networks brought masses of tourists from central parts of the Russian Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century, a major development of palaces, villas, and dachas began—most of which remain. These are some of the main attractions of Crimea
Crimea
as a tourist destination. There are many Crimean legends about famous touristic places, which attract the attention of tourists. A new phase of tourist development began when the Soviet government realised the potential of the healing quality of the local air, lakes and therapeutic muds. It became a "health" destination for Soviet workers, and hundreds of thousands of Soviet tourists visited Crimea. Artek is a former Young Pioneer camp
Young Pioneer camp
on the Black Sea
Black Sea
in the town of Hurzuf, near Ayu-Dag, established in 1925. In 1969 it had an area of 3.2 km². The camp consisted of 150 buildings Unlike most of the young pioneer camps, Artek was an all-year camp, due to the warm climate. Artek was considered to be a privilege for Soviet children during its existence, as well as for children from other communist countries. During its heyday, 27,000 children a year vacationed at Artek. Between 1925 and 1969 the camp hosted 300,000 children.[105] After the breaking up of the Young Pioneers in 1991 its prestige declined, though it remained a popular vacation destination.[106] In the 1990s, Crimea
Crimea
became more of a get-away destination than a "health-improvement" destination. The most visited areas are the south shore of Crimea
Crimea
with cities of Yalta
Yalta
and Alushta, the western shore – Eupatoria and Saki, and the south-eastern shore – Feodosia
Feodosia
and Sudak. According to National Geographic, Crimea
Crimea
was among the top 20 travel destinations in 2013.[107] Places of interest include

Koktebel Livadia Palace Mount Mithridat Scythian Treasure Swallow's Nest Tauric Chersonesos Vorontsov Palace Bakhchisaray
Bakhchisaray
Palace Massandra
Massandra
Palace and Winery Novyi Svit Nikitsky Botanical Garden Aivazovsky
Aivazovsky
National Art Gallery in Feodosia Naval museum complex Balaklava The Valley of Ghosts

Sanctions Main article: International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis Following the Russia's largely unrecognized annexation of Crimea, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and several other countries (including Ukraine) imposed economic sanctions against Russia, including some specifically targeting Crimea. Many of these sanctions were directed at individuals—both Russian and Crimean.[108][109] In general they prohibit the sale, supply, transfer, or export of goods and technology in several sectors, including services directly related to tourism and infrastructure. They list seven ports where cruise ships cannot dock.[110][111][112][113] Sanctions against individuals include travel bans and asset freezes. Visa and MasterCard
MasterCard
temporarily stopped service in Crimea
Crimea
in December 2014.[114][115] The Russian national payment card system now allows Visa and MasterCard
MasterCard
cards issued by Russian banks to work in Crimea.[116] The Mir (payment system) operated by the Central Bank of Russia
Russia
operates in Crimea
Crimea
as well as Master Card and Visa.[116] However, there are no major international banks in the Crimea.[citation needed]

Politics Main article: Politics of Crimea See also: Federal subjects of Russia Concert to mark the fifth anniversary of annexation in Sevastopol, Crimea, March 2019 The politics of Crimea
Crimea
is that of the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
on one hand, and that of the federal city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
on the other. Since becoming the 84th and 85th Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation in 2014,[117] both have strongly supported United Russia
Russia
in both local and national elections. At the most recent Crimean parliamentary election on 14 September 2014, United Russia
Russia
won 70 of the 75 seats in the State Council of Crimea
Crimea
based on just over 70% of the vote. Despite calls from local Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
for a boycott of the elections, turnout was over 53% which compared well with elections in other regions of Russia. Following the election, Sergey Aksyonov
Sergey Aksyonov
became Head of the Republic of Crimea: he had previously been Acting Head from 14 April 2014. United Russia
Russia
is also the leading party in the Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
having won 22 of the 24 seats at the last election.[118] The Governor of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
is Dmitry Ovsyannikov who was first appointed on 28 July 2016 following the resignation of Sergey Menyaylo, and secured re-election on 71% of the vote on 10 September 2017. United Russia
Russia
maintained its position as the most supported political party across Crimea
Crimea
at the Russian legislative election on 18 September 2016, achieving 72.8% of the vote.[2] At 49.1%, turnout was slightly ahead of that for Russia
Russia
as a whole which was only 47.8%.[3] At the 2018 Russian presidential election, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
secured 92% of the vote in Crimea
Crimea
compared to 77% across Russia
Russia
as a whole.[119]

Demographics Main article: Demographics of Crimea As of 2014[update], the total population of the Republic of Crimea
Crimea
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
was 2,248,400 people (Republic of Crimea: 1,889,485, Sevastopol: 395,000).[120] This is down from the 2001 Ukrainian Census figure, which was 2,376,000 (Autonomous Republic of Crimea: 2,033,700, Sevastopol: 342,451).[121]

The Foros Church
Foros Church
near Yalta According to the 2014 Russian census, 84% of Crimean inhabitants named Russian as their native language; 7.9% – Crimean Tatar; 3.7% – Tatar; and 3.3% – Ukrainian.[citation needed] It was the first official Russian census in Crimea
Crimea
since Ukrainian that held in 2001.[122] According to the 2001 census, 77% of Crimean inhabitants named Russian as their native language; 11.4% – Crimean Tatar; and 10.1% – Ukrainian.[123] In 2013, however, the Crimean Tatar language was estimated to be on the brink of extinction, being taught in Crimea only in around 15 schools at that point. Turkey
Turkey
provided the greatest support to Tatars in Ukraine, which had been unable to resolve the problem of education in their mother tongue in Crimea, by bringing the schools to a modern state.[124][125] Ethnic composition of Crimea's population has changed dramatically since the early 20th century. The 1897 Russian Empire
Russian Empire
Census for the Taurida Governorate
Taurida Governorate
reported: 196,854 (13.06%) Crimean Tatars, 404,463 (27.94%) Russians
Russians
and 611,121 (42.21%) Ukrainians. But these numbers included Berdyansky, Dneprovsky and Melitopolsky uyezds which were on mainland, not in Crimea. The population number excluding these uyezds is given in the table below.

Date

1897[126][127]

1926[128]

1939[129]

1959[130]

1970

1979[131]

1989[132][133]

2001[133]

2014[134]

Carried out by

Russian Empire

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

Ukraine

Russia

Ethnic group

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Russians

180,963 33.11%

301,398 42.2%

558,481 49.6%

858,273 71.4%

1,220,484 67.3%

1,460,980 66.9%

1,629,542 67.0%

1,450,400 60.4%

1,492,078 67.9%

Ukrainians

64,703 11.84%

77,405 10.6%

154,123 13.7%

267,659 22.3%

480,733 26.5%

547,336 25.1%

625,919 25.8%

576,600 24.0%

344,515 15.7%

Crimean Tatars

194,294 35.55%

179,094 25.1%

218,879 19.4%

5,422 0.2%

38,365 1.6%

245,200 10.2%

232,340 10.6%

Belarusians

2,058 0.38%

3,842 0.5%

6,726 0.6%

21,672 1.8%

39,793 2.2%

45,000 (e) 2.1%

50,045 2.1%

35,000 1.5%

21,694 1.0%

Armenians

8,317 1.52%

10,713 1.5%

12,923 1.1%

3,091 0.2%

2,794 0.1%

10,000 0.4%

11,030 0.5%

Jews

24,168 4.42%

45,926 6.4%

65,452 5.8%

26,374 2.2%

25,614 1.4%

17,371 0.7%

5,500 0.2%

3,374 0.1%

Others

72,089 13.19%

c.27,500 2.3%

92,533 4.2%

Total population stating nationality

546,592

713,823

1,126,429

1,813,502

2,184,000

2,430,495

2,401,200

2,197,564

Nationality not stated

12,000

87,205

Total population

1,201,517

2,458,600

2,413,200

2,284,769

Crimean Tatars, a predominantly Muslim
Muslim
ethnic minority who in 2001 made up 12.1% of the population,[135] formed in Crimea
Crimea
in the late Middle Ages, after the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
had come into existence. The Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
were forcibly expelled to Central Asia
Asia
by Joseph Stalin's government as a form of collective punishment, on the grounds that they had formed pro-German Tatar Legions. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
began to return to the region.[136] According to the 2001 Ukrainian population census, 58% of the population of Crimea
Crimea
are ethnic Russians
Russians
and 24% are ethnic Ukrainians.[135] Jews
Jews
in Crimea
Crimea
were historically Krymchaks
Krymchaks
and Karaites (the latter a small group centered at Yevpatoria). The 1879 census for the Taurida Governorate reported a Jewish population of 4.20%, not including a Karaite population of 0.43%. The Krymchaks
Krymchaks
(but not the Karaites) were targeted for annihilation during Nazi occupation. The number of Crimea Germans
Crimea Germans
was 60,000 in 1939. During WWII, they were forcibly deported on the orders of Stalin, as they were regarded as a potential "fifth column".[137][138][139] This was part of the 800,000 Germans in Russia
Russia
who were relocated within the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during Stalinist times.[140] The 2001 Ukrainian census reports just 2,500 ethnic Germans (0.1% of population) in Crimea. Besides the Crimean Germans, Stalin in 1944 also deported 70,000 Greeks, 14,000 Bulgarians[141] and 3,000 Italians.

Religion

Religion in Crimea
Religion in Crimea
(2013)[142]

  Orthodox (58%)   Muslim
Muslim
(15%)  Belief without religion (10%)  Atheist (2%)  Other religion (2%)  Not stated (13%)

In 2013, Orthodox Christians made up 58% of the Crimean population, followed by Muslims (15%) and believers in God without religion (10%).[142] Following the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea
2014 Russian annexation of Crimea
38 out of 46 the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kiev
Kiev
Patriarchate parishes in Crimea ceased to exist, in three cases churches were seized by the Russian authorities.[143] Notwithstanding the annexation the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) kept control of its eparchies in Crimea.[144]

Culture See also: Crimean legends and Crimean Tatar cuisine Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin
in Bakhchisaray
Bakhchisaray
Palace. Painting by Grigory Chernetsov Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin
visited Bakhchysarai
Bakhchysarai
in 1820 and later wrote the poem The Fountain of Bakhchisaray. Crimea
Crimea
was the background for Adam Mickiewicz's seminal work, The Crimean Sonnets inspired by his 1825 travel. A series of 18 sonnets constitute an artistic telling of a journey to and through the Crimea, they feature romantic descriptions of the oriental nature and culture of the East which show the despair of an exile longing for the homeland, driven from his home by a violent enemy. Ivan Aivazovsky, the 19th-century marine painter of Armenian origin, who is considered one of the major artists of his era was born in Feodosia
Feodosia
and lived there for the most part of his life. Many of his paintings depict the Black Sea. He also created battle paintings during the Crimean War.[145] Crimean Tatar singer Jamala
Jamala
won the Eurovision Song Contest 2016 representing Ukraine
Ukraine
with her song 1944, about the historic deportation of Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
in that year by Soviet authorities.[146] According to the, broken in practice by Russian companies, Ukrainian “law on concert activities” only Ukrainian companies can organise concerts in Crimea.[147]

Painting of the Russian squadron in Sevastopol
Sevastopol
by Ivan Aivazovsky (1846)

The grave of Russian poet and artist Maximilian Voloshin

People at the Kazantip
Kazantip
music festival in 2007

Sport Following Crimea's vote to join Russia
Russia
and subsequent annexation in March 2014, the top football clubs withdrew from the Ukrainian leagues. Some clubs registered to join the Russian leagues but the Football Federation of Ukraine
Ukraine
objected. UEFA
UEFA
ruled that Crimean clubs could not join the Russian leagues but should instead be part of a Crimean league system. The Crimean Premier League is now the top professional football league in Crimea.[148] A number of Crimean-born athletes have been given permission to compete for Russia
Russia
instead of Ukraine
Ukraine
at future competitions, including Vera Rebrik, the European javelin champion.[149] Due to Russia
Russia
currently being suspended from all international athletic competitions Rebrik participates in tournaments as a "neutral" athlete.[150]

References in popular culture In 2016, Jamala
Jamala
represented Ukraine
Ukraine
at The Eurovision Song Contest and won with her song 1944 which is about the conflict in Crimea.

Gallery

Bakhchisaray
Bakhchisaray
Palace

Dulber
Dulber
Palace in Koreiz

Vorontsov Palace

Livadia Palace

Catholic church in Yalta

St. Vladimir's Cathedral, dedicated to the Heroes of Sevastopol (Crimean War).

See also List of cities in Crimea Politics of Crimea Crimean War
Crimean War
of 1853 – 1856 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet of 1991 (guaranteeing Russia's use of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
port and stationing of up to 25,000 troops on the peninsula) Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty
Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty
of 1997 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine Crimean Gothic References

^ "Treaty to accept Crimea, Sevastopol
Sevastopol
to Russian Federation
Russian Federation
signed". rt.com. Autonomous Nonprofit Organization "TV-Novosti". March 18, 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ "Results of Census: Population of Crimea
Crimea
is 2.284 Million
Million
People". en.krymedia.ru. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016.

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-20. Retrieved 2016-01-07.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ "Катастрофический фактор | Все блоги | Блоги | Каспаров.Ru". Kasparov.ru. Retrieved 2018-07-03.

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-27. Retrieved 2015-04-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ Why Did Russia
Russia
Give Away Crimea
Crimea
Sixty Years Ago?, Mark Kramer, The Wilson Center, 19 March 2014

^ "Meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club". Kremlin.ru. 24 October 2014. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. I will be frank; we used our Armed Forces to block Ukrainian units stationed in Crimea

^ КС признал неконституционным постановление крымского парламента о вхождении АРК в состав РФ и проведении референдума о статусе автономии [Constitutional Court of Ukraine
Ukraine
deemed Crimean parliament resolution on accession of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
to the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
and holding of the Crimean status referendum unconstitutional] (in Russian). Interfax-Ukraine. 14 March 2014."Judgement of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine
Ukraine
on all-Crimean referendum". Embassy of Ukraine
Ukraine
in the United States of America. 15 March 2014.

^ Tokarev, Alexey (2014). "Archived copy" Электоральная история постсоветского Крыма: от УССР до России [The electoral history of the post-Soviet Crimea: from Ukrainian SSR to Russia] (PDF). MGIMO Review of International Relations (in Russian). 5 (44): 32–41. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-12. Retrieved 2017-08-11. Спустя 22 года и 364 дня после первого в СССР референдума в автономной республике Украины Крым состоялся последний референдум. Проводился он вопреки украинскому законодательству, не предусматривающему понятия региональный референдум и предписывающему решать территориальные вопросы только на всеукраинском референдумеCS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ Marxen, Christian (2014). "The Crimea
Crimea
Crisis – An International Law Perspective" (PDF). Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Heidelberg Journal of International Law). 74. Organizing and holding the referendum on Crimea's accession to Russia was illegal under the Ukrainian constitution. Article 2 of the constitution establishes that " Ukraine
Ukraine
shall be a unitary state" and that the "territory of Ukraine
Ukraine
within its present border is indivisible and inviolable". This is confirmed in regard to Crimea
Crimea
by Chapter X of the constitution, which provides for the autonomous status of Crimea. Article 134 sets forth that Crimea
Crimea
is an "inseparable constituent part of Ukraine". The autonomous status provides Crimea
Crimea
with a certain set of authorities and allows, inter alia, to hold referendums. These rights are, however, limited to local matters. The constitution makes clear that alterations to the territory of Ukraine
Ukraine
require an all-Ukrainian referendum.

^ " Crimea
Crimea
'votes to rejoin Russia' after controversial poll". ITV. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2017.

^ " Crimea
Crimea
applies to be part of Russian Federation
Russian Federation
after vote to leave Ukraine". The Guardian. 17 March 2014.

^ Распоряжение Президента Российской Федерации от 17.03.2014 № 63-рп 'О подписании Договора между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов'. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2016.

^ Compiled from original authors (1779). "The History of the Bosporus". An Universal History,rom the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time. pp. 127–129. Retrieved 1 April 2015.

^ Edward Allworth, The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland: Studies and Documents, Duke University Press, 1998, p.6

^ Abū al-Fidā , Mukhtaṣar tāʾrīkh al-bashar (“A Brief History of Mankind”) , 1315-1329; English translation of chronicle contemporaneous with Abū al-Fidā in The Memoirs of a Syrian Prince : Abul̓-Fidā,̕ sultan of Ḥamāh (672-732/1273-1331) by Peter M. Holt, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1983, pp. 38-39.

^ William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), s.v. Taurica Chersonesus. vol. ii, p. 1109.

^ W. Radloff, Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte (1888), ii. 745

^ Encyclopædia Britannica (1810). Encyclopædia Britannica: or, A dictionary of arts and sciences, compiled by a society of gentlemen in Scotland [ed. by W. Smellie]. Suppl. to the 3rd. ed., by G. Gleig. p. 153. Retrieved 1 April 2015.

^ Alexander MacBean; Samuel Johnson (1773). A Dictionary of Ancient Geography: Explaining the Local Appellations in Sacred, Grecian, and Roman History; Exhibiting the Extent of Kingdoms, and Situations of Cities, &c. And Illustrating the Allusions and Epithets in the Greek and Roman Poets. The Whole Established by Proper Authorities, and Designed for the Use of Schools. G. Robinson. p. 185. Retrieved 1 April 2015.

^ Asimov, Isaac (1991). Asimov's Chronology of the World. New York: HarperCollins. p. 50..

^ George Vernadsky, Michael Karpovich, A History of Russia, Yale University Press, 1952, p. 53. Quote: "The name Crimea
Crimea
is to be derived from the Turkish word qirim (hence the Russian krym), which means "fosse" and refers more specifically to the Perekop
Perekop
Isthmus, the old Russian word perekop being an exact translation of the Turkish qirim.

^ The Proto-Turkic root is cited as *kōrɨ- "to fence, protect" Starling (citing Севортян Э. В. и др. [E. W. Sewortyan et al.], Этимологический словарь тюркских языков [An Etymological Dictionary of the Turkic languages] (1974–2000) 6, 76–78).

^ Edward Allworth, The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland : Studies and Documents, Duke University Press, 1998, pp. 5–7

^ A. D. (Alfred Denis) Godley. Herodotus. Cambridge. Harvard University Press. vol. 2, 1921, p. 221.

^ See John Richard Krueger, specialist in the studies of Chuvash, Yakut, and the Mongolian languages in Edward Allworth, The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland : Studies and Documents, Duke University Press, 1998, p. 24.

^ Jews
Jews
in Byzantium: Dialectics of Minority and Majority Cultures, BRILL, 2011, p.753, n. 102.

^ The Mongolian kori⁻ is explained as a loan from Turkic by Doerfer Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen 3 (1967), 450 and by Щербак, Ранние тюркско-монгольские языковые связи (VIII-XIV вв.) (1997) p. 141.

^ Maiolino Bisaccioni, Giacomo Pecini, Historia delle guerre ciuili di questi vltimi tempi, cioe, d'Inghilterra, Catalogna, Portogallo, Palermo, Napoli, Fermo, Moldauia, Polonia, Suizzeri, Francia, Turco. per Francesco Storti. Alla Fortezza, sotto il portico de' Berettari, 1655, p. 349: "dalla fortuna de Cosacchi dipendeva la sicurezza della Crimea". Nicolò Beregani, Historia delle guerre d'Europa, Volume 2 (1683), p. 251.

^ "State Papers". The Annual Register or a View of the History, Politics, and Literature for the Year 1783. J. Dodsley. 1785. p. 364. Retrieved 1 April 2015.

^ Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 1, 306f. "the peninsula of Crim Tartary, known to the ancients under the name of Chersonesus
Chersonesus
Taurica"; ibid. Volume 10 (1788), p. 211: "The modern reader must not confound this old Cherson of the Tauric or Crimean peninsula with a new city of the same name". See also John Millhouse, English-Italian (1859), p. 597

^ Edith Hall, Adventures with Iphigenia in Tauris (2013), p. 176: "it was indeed at some point between the 1730s and the 1770s that the dream of recreating ancient 'Taurida' in the southern Crimea
Crimea
was conceived. Catherine's plan was to create a paradisiacal imperial 'garden' there, and her Greek archbishop Eugenios Voulgaris
Eugenios Voulgaris
obliged by inventing a new etymology for the old name of Tauris, deriving it from taphros, which (he claimed) was the ancient Greek for a ditch dug by human hands."

^ Brian Glyn Williams (2013). "The Sultan's Raiders: The Military Role of the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
in the Ottoman Empire" (PDF). The Jamestown Foundation. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2015.

^ "The Unending Frontier: An Environmental History of the Early Modern World". John F. Richards (2006). University of California Press. p.260. ISBN 0-520-24678-0

^ Darjusz Kołodziejczyk, as reported by Mikhail Kizilov (2007). "Slaves, Money Lenders, and Prisoner Guards: The Jews
Jews
and the Trade in Slaves and Captives in the Crimean Khanate". The Journal of Jewish Studies. p. 2. Retrieved 30 March 2015.

^ "Treaty of Peace (Küçük Kaynarca), 1774". nus.edu.sg. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.

^ Полное собрание законов Российской Империи. Собрание Первое. Том XXI. 1781 – 1783 гг. [Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. The first meeting. Volume XXI. 1781–1783.]. Runivers (in Russian). Retrieved 30 March 2015.

^ M. S. Anderson (December 1958). "The Great Powers and the Russian Annexation
Annexation
of the Crimea, 1783-4". The Slavonic and East European Review. 37 (88): 17–41. JSTOR 4205010.

^ " Crimean War
Crimean War
(1853–1856)". Gale Encyclopedia of World History: War. 2. 2008. Archived from the original on 2015-04-16.

^ Arad, Yitzhak. The Holocaust in the Soviet Union. U of Nebraska Press. p. 211. ISBN 080322270X.

^ " Ukraine
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and the west: hot air and hypocrisy". The Guardian. March 10, 2014.

^ "The Transfer of Crimea
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to Ukraine". International Committee for Crimea. July 2005. Retrieved March 25, 2007.

^ a b "History". blacksea-crimea.com. Retrieved March 28, 2007.

^ The Strategic Use of Referendums: Power, Legitimacy, and Democracy By Mark Clarence Walke (page 107)

^ a b National Identity and Ethnicity in Russia
Russia
and the New States of Eurasia edited by Roman Szporluk (page 174)

^ a b Secession as an International Phenomenon: From America's Civil War to Contemporary Separatist Movements edited by Don Harrison Doyle (page 284) — 67.5% of the total Crimean electorate voted, and 54.2% said yes.

^ a b Schmemann, Serge (6 May 1992). " Crimea
Crimea
Parliament Votes to Back Independence From Ukraine". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2015.

^ Paul Kolstoe; Andrei Edemsky (January 1995). "The Eye of the Whirlwind: Belarus and Ukraine". Russians
Russians
in the Former Soviet Republics. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-85065-206-9. Retrieved 1 April 2015.

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^ "Australia and sanctions – Consolidated List – Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Dfat.gov.au. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.

^ "Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the European Union on the alignment of certain third countries with the Council Decision 2014/145/CFSPconcerning restrictive measures in respect of actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine" (PDF). European Union. 11 April 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.

^ " Crimea
Crimea
hit by multiple sanctions as power, transport and banking communications are cut off". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 28 March 2015.

^ "Visa and MasterCard
MasterCard
quit Crimea
Crimea
over US sanctions". Euronews. Retrieved 28 March 2015.

^ a b "Visa and MasterCard
MasterCard
resume operations in Crimea". RT.com. TV-Novosti. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.

^ " Crimea
Crimea
– Russia's return". 31 March 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.

^ "The Territories of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
2015". p. 311. Retrieved 1 August 2017.

^ "Putin wins elections with 77% of the votes at 67.5% turnout". 19 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-04. Retrieved 2016-02-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ "Regions of Ukraine
Ukraine
/ Autonomous Republic of Crimea". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved December 16, 2006.

^ "Census of the population is transferred to 2016". Dzerkalo Tzhnia (in Ukrainian). 20 September 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2014.

^ "Results / General results of the census / Linguistic composition of the population / Autonomous Republic of Crimea". 2001 Ukrainian Census.

^ " Crimean Tatar language
Crimean Tatar language
in danger". avrupatimes.com. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2015.

^ "Crimean Tatar". Ethnologue. 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2015.

^ These numbers exclude the population numbers for Berdyansky, Dneprovsky and Melitopolsky Uyezds, which were on mainland. See the administrative divisions of the Taurida Governorate

^ "The First General Census of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
of 1897 – Taurida Governorate". demoscope.ru. Демоскоп. Retrieved 18 June 2014.

Taurida Governate

Berdyansk County

Dneiper County

Melitopol
Melitopol
County

Crimea

Russians 404,463 55,303 42,180 126,017 180,963

Ukrainians 611,121 179,177 156,151 211,090 64,703

Tatars 196,854 770 506 1,284 194,294

Belarusians 9,726 1,323 3,005 3,340 2,058

Armenians 8,938 201 47 373 8,317

Jews 55,418 8,889 6,298 16,063 24,168

Other 161,270 59,055 4,054 26,072 72,089

Total Population 1,447,790 304,718 212,241 384,239 546,592

^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". demoscope.ru.

^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". demoscope.ru.

^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". demoscope.ru.

^ Crimea
Crimea
– Dynamics, challenges and prospects / edited by Maria Drohobycky. Page 73

^ Crimea
Crimea
– Dynamics, challenges and prospects / edited by Maria Drohobycky. Page 72

^ a b this combines the figures for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol, listing groups of more than 5,000 individuals. "About number and composition population of Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
by data All-Ukrainian population census". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 26 October 2015.; "Sevastopol". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 26 October 2015.;"About number and composition population of Ukraine
Ukraine
by data All-Ukrainian Population Census 2001". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 26 October 2015.

^ Итоги Переписи Населения В Крымском Федеральном Округе [Censuses in Crimean Federal District], Таблицы с итогами Федерального статистического наблюдения "Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе" [Tables with the results of the Federal Statistical observation "Census in the Crimean Federal District"] 4.1 Национальный Состав Населения [4.1. National composition of population]

^ a b "About number and composition population of Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Crimea
by data All-Ukrainian population census". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 24 March 2014.

^ Pohl, J. Otto. The Stalinist Penal System: A Statistical History of Soviet Repression and Terror. Mc Farland & Company, Inc, Publishers. 1997. "23". Archived from the original on June 4, 2000. Retrieved 2000-06-04. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

^ "The Deportation and Destruction of the German Minority in the USSR" (PDF)

^ "On Germans Living on the Territory of the Ukrainian SSR"

^ "NKVD Arrest List" (PDF)

^ "A People on the Move: Germans in Russia
Russia
and in the Former Soviet Union: 1763 – 1997. North Dakota State University Libraries.

^ "The Persecution of Pontic Greeks
Pontic Greeks
in the Soviet Union" (PDF)

^ a b "Public Opinion Survey Residents of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea" (PDF)., The sample consisted of 1,200 permanent Crimea residents older than the age of 18 and eligible to vote and is representative of the general population by age, gender, education and religion.

^ Russia
Russia
seeks to crush Ukrainian Orthodox Church in Crimea
Crimea
for helping resist Russification, UNIAN (11 October 2018)

^ ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) Статус епархий в Крыму остался неизменным, заявили в УПЦ Московского патриархата NEWSru, 10 March 2015.‹See Tfd›(in Russian) The Ukrainian Church of the Moscow Patriarchate demanded the return of the Crimea, RBK Group
RBK Group
(18 August 2014)

^ Rogachevsky, Alexander. "Ivan Aivazovsky
Aivazovsky
(1817–1900)". Tufts University. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2013.

^ Stephens, Heidi. "Eurovision 2016: Ukraine's Jamala
Jamala
wins with politically charged 1944". www.theguardian.com. Retrieved 18 May 2016.

^ Why Scooter are playing in Putin’s annexed Crimea, Bild
Bild
(16 June 2017)

^ "UEFA-backed league starts play in Crimea". Yahoo Sports. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016.

^ "Ukrainian Sport Minister urges Federations not to let athletes switch to Russia
Russia
without serving qualifying period". 8 December 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2016.

^ 14 Russians
Russians
bid to take part in IAAF World Championships, TASS news agency (5 July 2017)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crimea.

"Crimea" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. .mw-parser-output .subjectbar background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;clear:both;margin-bottom:0.5em;margin-top:0.5em;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box;font-size:88% PortalsAccess related topics Crimea
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WorldCat Identities
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vteCrimea articles Political status Sevastopol Republic of Crimea Autonomous Republic of Crimea History Bosporan Kingdom Roman Crimea
Roman Crimea
(Cherson (theme)) Kipchaks Khazars Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 Crimean Khanate 1783 annexation by Russia Crimean Goths Crimean War Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Crimea
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(historical) 2003 Tuzla Island conflict 2014 Crimean status referendum 2014 annexation by Russia Supreme Council of Crimea
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Prime Minister of Crimea
(until 2014) Council of Ministers (until 2014) Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People Geography Arabat Spit Arabat Bay Azov
Azov
Sea Black Sea Caves Marble Vyalova Crimean Mountains Kerch
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Perekop
Isthmus Pontic–Caspian steppe Syvash Subdivisions Cities Raions Urban-type settlements Politics Republic of Crimea/Autonomous Republic of Crimea Constitution Head State Council 2014 parliamentary election Sevastopol Legislative Assembly Governor 2017 election Black Sea
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