Parouse.com
 Parouse.com



A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in size to smallest, they are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.[1] Geologically, the continents largely correspond to areas of continental crust that are found on the continental plates. However, some areas of continental crust are regions covered with water not usually included in the list of continents. Zealandia
Zealandia
is one such area (see submerged continents below). Islands are frequently grouped with a neighbouring continent to divide all the world's land into geopolitical regions. Under this scheme, most of the island countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
are grouped together with the continent of Australia
Australia
to form a geopolitical region called Oceania.

Contents

1 Definitions and application

1.1 Extent 1.2 Separation 1.3 Number

2 Area and population 3 Other divisions

3.1 Supercontinents 3.2 Subcontinents 3.3 Submerged continents 3.4 Microcontinents 3.5 Botanical continents

4 History of continental configurations 5 History of the concept

5.1 Early concepts of the Old World
World
continents 5.2 European arrival in the Americas 5.3 The word continent 5.4 Beyond four continents

6 Geology 7 Highest and lowest points 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Definitions and application

A Dymaxion map
Dymaxion map
shows land masses with minimal shape distortion.

By convention, "continents are understood to be large, continuous, discrete masses of land, ideally separated by expanses of water."[2] Several of the seven conventionally recognized continents are not discrete landmasses separated completely by water. The criterion "large" leads to arbitrary classification: Greenland, with a surface area of 2,166,086 square kilometres (836,330 sq mi) is considered the world's largest island, while Australia, at 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi) is deemed the smallest continent. Earth's major landmasses all have coasts on a single, continuous World Ocean, which is divided into a number of principal oceanic components by the continents and various geographic criteria.[3][4] Extent The most restricted meaning of continent is that of a continuous[5] area of land or mainland, with the coastline and any land boundaries forming the edge of the continent. In this sense the term continental Europe
Europe
(sometimes referred to in Britain as "the Continent") is used to refer to mainland Europe, excluding islands such as Great Britain, Ireland, Malta
Malta
and Iceland, and the term continent of Australia
Australia
may refer to the mainland of Australia, excluding Tasmania
Tasmania
and New Guinea. Similarly, the continental United States refers to the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
in central North America
North America
and may include Alaska
Alaska
in the northwest of the continent (the two being separated by Canada), while excluding Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Guam
Guam
in the oceans. From the perspective of geology or physical geography, continent may be extended beyond the confines of continuous dry land to include the shallow, submerged adjacent area (the continental shelf)[6] and the islands on the shelf (continental islands), as they are structurally part of the continent.[7] From this perspective, the edge of the continental shelf is the true edge of the continent, as shorelines vary with changes in sea level.[8] In this sense the islands of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
are part of Europe, while Australia
Australia
and the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
together form a continent.

Map of island countries: these states are often grouped geographically with a neighboring continental landmass.

As a cultural construct, the concept of a continent may go beyond the continental shelf to include oceanic islands and continental fragments. In this way, Iceland
Iceland
is considered part of Europe
Europe
and Madagascar
Madagascar
part of Africa. Extrapolating the concept to its extreme, some geographers group the Australian continental plate with other islands in the Pacific into one continent called Oceania. This divides the entire land surface of Earth
Earth
into continents or quasi-continents.[9] Separation Main article: Boundaries between the continents of Earth See also: List of transcontinental countries The ideal criterion that each continent is a discrete landmass is commonly relaxed due to historical conventions. Of the seven most globally recognized continents, only Antarctica
Antarctica
and Australia
Australia
are completely separated from other continents by the ocean. Several continents are defined not as absolutely distinct bodies but as "more or less discrete masses of land".[10] Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
are joined by the Isthmus
Isthmus
of Suez, and North and South America
South America
by the Isthmus
Isthmus
of Panama. In both cases, there is no complete separation of these landmasses by water (disregarding the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and Panama Canal, which are both narrow and shallow, as well as being artificial). Both these isthmuses are very narrow compared to the bulk of the landmasses they unite. North America
North America
and South America
South America
are treated as separate continents in the seven-continent model. However, they may also be viewed as a single continent known as America or the Americas. This viewpoint was common in the United States until World
World
War II, and remains prevalent in some Asian six-continent models.[11] This remains the more common vision in Latin American countries, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy
Italy
and Greece, where they are taught as a single continent. The criterion of a discrete landmass is completely disregarded if the continuous landmass of Eurasia
Eurasia
is classified as two separate continents: Europe
Europe
and Asia. Physiographically, Europe
Europe
and South Asia are peninsulas of the Eurasian landmass. However, Europe
Europe
is widely considered a continent with its comparatively large land area of 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), while South Asia, with less than half that area, is considered a subcontinent. The alternative view—in geology and geography—that Eurasia
Eurasia
is a single continent results in a six-continent view of the world. Some view separation of Eurasia
Eurasia
into Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
as a residue of Eurocentrism: "In physical, cultural and historical diversity, China and India
India
are comparable to the entire European landmass, not to a single European country. [...]."[12] However, for historical and cultural reasons,[which?] the view of Europe
Europe
as a separate continent continues in several categorizations.[citation needed] If continents are defined strictly as discrete landmasses, embracing all the contiguous land of a body, then Africa, Asia, and Europe
Europe
form a single continent which may be referred to as Afro-Eurasia. This produces a four-continent model consisting of Afro-Eurasia, America, Antarctica
Antarctica
and Australia. When sea levels were lower during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
ice ages, greater areas of continental shelf were exposed as dry land, forming land bridges. At those times Australia– New Guinea
New Guinea
was a single, continuous continent. Likewise, the Americas
Americas
and Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
were joined by the Bering land bridge. Other islands such as Great Britain were joined to the mainlands of their continents. At that time there were just three discrete continents: Afro-Eurasia-America, Antarctica, and Australia-New Guinea. Number There are several ways of distinguishing the continents:

Models

Color-coded map showing the various continents. Similar shades exhibit areas that may be consolidated or subdivided.

Four continents[13]     Afro-Eurasia    America   Antarctica   Australia

Five continents   Africa    Eurasia    America   Antarctica   Australia

Six continents[14]   Africa   Asia   Europe    America   Antarctica   Australia

Six continents [15][16]   Africa    Eurasia   North America   South America   Antarctica   Australia/Oceania

Seven continents [16][17][18][19][20][21]   Africa   Asia   Europe   North America   South America   Antarctica   Australia/Oceania

The seven-continent model is usually taught in China, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, parts of Western Europe
Europe
and most English-speaking countries, including Australia[22] and the United Kingdom.[23] The six-continent combined- Eurasia
Eurasia
model is mostly used in Russia, Eastern Europe, and Japan. The six-continent combined-America model is often used in France
France
and its former possessions, Italy, Portugal, Spain,[24] Romania, Latin America,[24] and Greece.[14]

A five-continent model is obtained from this model by excluding Antarctica
Antarctica
as uninhabited. This is used, for example in the United Nations[25] and in the Olympic Charter[26] in its description of the Olympic flag.

The term Oceania
Oceania
refers to a group of island countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean, together with the continent of Australia.[14][18] Pacific islands
Pacific islands
with ties to other continents (such as Japan, Hawaii
Hawaii
or Easter Island) are usually grouped with those continents rather than Oceania. This term is used in several different continental models instead of Australia. Area and population

This section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

See also: List of continents by population The following table summarizes the area and population of each continental region using the seven continent model.[27]

Continent

Area (km²) [not in citation given] Area (mi²) [not in citation given] Percent total landmass [not in citation given] Population Percent total pop. Most populous city (proper)

Africa [note 1] 30,370,000 11,730,000 20.4% 1,186,178,000 16.1% Lagos, Nigeria

Antarctica [note 2] 13,720,000 5,300,000 9.2% 4,490[28] 0.0% McMurdo Station

Asia [note 3] 43,820,000 16,920,000 29.5% 4,393,296,000 59.8% Shanghai, China

Europe [note 4] 10,180,000 3,930,000 6.8% 738,442,000 10.0% Moscow, Russia[29]

North America [note 5] 24,490,000 9,460,000 16.5% 573,777,000 7.8% Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico

Australia [note 6] 9,008,500 3,478,200 5.9% 39,331,000 0.5% Sydney, Australia

South America

17,840,000 6,890,000 12.0% 418,447,000 5.7% São Paulo, Brazil

^ Includes the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
in Egypt. ^ Population is non-permanent and varies. ^ Includes East Thrace (Turkey) and Western New Guinea
New Guinea
(Indonesia), excludes Russia
Russia
and Egypt. ^ Includes Asiatic Russia, excludes Turkey. ^ Includes Central America
Central America
and the Caribbean. ^ Excludes Indonesia.

Comparison of area (by tens of millions of square kilometers) and population (by billions of people)

Graph showing population by continent as a percentage of world population (1750–2005)

The total land area of all continents is 148,647,000 square kilometres (57,393,000 sq mi), or 29.1% of earth's surface (510,065,600 km2 or 196,937,400 sq mi). Other divisions Supercontinents Aside from the conventionally known continents, the scope and meaning of the term continent varies. Supercontinents, largely in evidence earlier in the geological record, are landmasses that comprise more than one craton or continental core. These have included Laurasia, Gondwana, Vaalbara, Kenorland, Columbia, Rodinia, and Pangaea. Subcontinents Certain parts of continents are recognized as subcontinents, especially the large peninsulas separated from the main continental landmass by geographical features. The most notable examples are the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and the Arabian Peninsula.[30] The Southern Cone of South America
South America
and Alaskan peninsula of North America
North America
are other examples.[30] In many of these cases, the "subcontinents" concerned are on different tectonic plates from the rest of the continent, providing a geological justification for the terminology.[31] Greenland, generally reckoned as the world's largest island on the northeastern periphery of the North American Plate, is sometimes referred to as a subcontinent.[32][33] This is a significant departure from the more conventional view of a subcontinent as comprising a very large peninsula on the fringe of a continent. Where the Americas
Americas
are viewed as a single continent (America), it is divided into two subcontinents ( North America
North America
and South America)[34][35][36] or three (with Central America
Central America
being the third).[37][38] When Eurasia
Eurasia
is regarded as a single continent, Europe is treated as a subcontinent.[30] Submerged continents Some areas of continental crust are largely covered by the sea and may be considered submerged continents. Notable examples are Zealandia, emerging from the sea primarily in New Zealand
New Zealand
and New Caledonia, and the almost completely submerged Kerguelen Plateau
Kerguelen Plateau
in the southern Indian Ocean. Microcontinents Some islands lie on sections of continental crust that have rifted and drifted apart from a main continental landmass. While not considered continents because of their relatively small size, they may be considered microcontinents. Madagascar, the largest example, is usually considered an island of Africa
Africa
but has been referred to as "the eighth continent" from a biological perspective[clarification needed].[39] Botanical continents

"Botanical continents" defined by the World
World
Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions.

"Continents" may be defined differently for specific purposes. The Biodiversity Information Standards organization has developed the World
World
Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, used in many international plant databases. This scheme divides the world into nine "botanical continents". Some match the traditional geographical continents, but some differ significantly. Thus the Americas
Americas
are divided between Northern America
Northern America
( Mexico
Mexico
northwards) and Southern America ( Central America
Central America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
southwards) rather than between North America
North America
and South America.[40] History of continental configurations Main article: Geological history of the Earth History of the concept

The Ancient Greek geographer Strabo
Strabo
holding a globe showing Europa and Asia

Early concepts of the Old World
World
continents The term "continent" translates Greek ἤπειρος, properly "landmass, terra firma", the proper name of Epirus
Epirus
and later especially used of Asia
Asia
(i.e. Asia
Asia
Minor),[41] The first distinction between continents was made by ancient Greek mariners who gave the names Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
to the lands on either side of the waterways of the Aegean Sea, the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
strait, the Sea of Marmara, the Bosporus
Bosporus
strait and the Black Sea.[42] The names were first applied just to lands near the coast and only later extended to include the hinterlands.[43] But the division was only carried through to the end of navigable waterways and "... beyond that point the Hellenic geographers never succeeded in laying their finger on any inland feature in the physical landscape that could offer any convincing line for partitioning an indivisible Eurasia
Eurasia
..."[42] Ancient Greek thinkers subsequently debated whether Africa
Africa
(then called Libya) should be considered part of Asia
Asia
or a third part of the world. Division into three parts eventually came to predominate.[44] From the Greek viewpoint, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
was the center of the world; Asia
Asia
lay to the east, Europe
Europe
to the north and west, and Africa
Africa
to the south.[45] The boundaries between the continents were not fixed. Early on, Europe– Asia
Asia
boundary was taken to run from the Black Sea
Black Sea
along the Rioni River
Rioni River
(known then as the Phasis) in Georgia. Later it was viewed as running from the Black Sea
Black Sea
through Kerch Strait, the Sea of Azov and along the Don River (known then as the Tanais) in Russia.[46] The boundary between Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
was generally taken to be the Nile
Nile
River. Herodotus[47] in the 5th century BC, however, objected to the unity of Egypt
Egypt
being split into Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
("Libya") and took the boundary to lie along the western border of Egypt, regarding Egypt as part of Asia. He also questioned the division into three of what is really a single landmass,[48] a debate that continues nearly two and a half millennia later. Eratosthenes, in the 3rd century BC, noted that some geographers divided the continents by rivers (the Nile
Nile
and the Don), thus considering them "islands". Others divided the continents by isthmuses, calling the continents "peninsulas". These latter geographers set the border between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
at the isthmus between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Caspian Sea, and the border between Asia and Africa
Africa
at the isthmus between the Red Sea
Red Sea
and the mouth of Lake Bardawil on the Mediterranean Sea.[49]

Medieval T and O map
T and O map
showing the three continents as domains of the sons of Noah— Asia
Asia
to Sem (Shem), Europe
Europe
to Iafeth (Japheth), and Africa
Africa
to Cham (Ham).

Through the Roman period and the Middle Ages, a few writers took the Isthmus of Suez as the boundary between Asia
Asia
and Africa, but most writers continued to consider it the Nile
Nile
or the western border of Egypt
Egypt
(Gibbon)[citation needed]. In the Middle Ages, the world was usually portrayed on T and O maps, with the T representing the waters dividing the three continents. By the middle of the 18th century, "the fashion of dividing Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
at the Nile, or at the Great Catabathmus [the boundary between Egypt
Egypt
and Libya] farther west, had even then scarcely passed away".[50] European arrival in the Americas Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
sailed across the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
to the West Indies in 1492, sparking a period of European exploration of the Americas. But despite four voyages to the Americas, Columbus never believed he had reached a new continent—he always thought it was part of Asia. In 1501, Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
and Gonçalo Coelho attempted to sail around what they considered the southern end of the Asian mainland into the Indian Ocean, passing through Fernando de Noronha. After reaching the coast of Brazil, they sailed a long way further south along the coast of South America, confirming that this was a land of continental proportions and that it also extended much further south than Asia
Asia
was known to.[51] On return to Europe, an account of the voyage, called Mundus Novus ("New World"), was published under Vespucci's name in 1502 or 1503,[52] although it seems that it had additions or alterations by another writer.[53] Regardless of who penned the words, Mundus Novus credited Vespucci with saying, "I have discovered a continent in those southern regions that is inhabited by more numerous people and animals than our Europe, or Asia
Asia
or Africa",[54] the first known explicit identification of part of the Americas
Americas
as a continent like the other three. Within a few years, the name "New World" began appearing as a name for South America
South America
on world maps, such as the Oliveriana (Pesaro) map of around 1504–1505. Maps of this time though, still showed North America connected to Asia
Asia
and showed South America
South America
as a separate land.[53]

Universalis Cosmographia, Waldseemüller's 1507 world map—the first to show the Americas
Americas
separate from Asia

In 1507 Martin Waldseemüller
Martin Waldseemüller
published a world map, Universalis Cosmographia, which was the first to show North and South America
South America
as separate from Asia
Asia
and surrounded by water. A small inset map above the main map explicitly showed for the first time the Americas
Americas
being east of Asia
Asia
and separated from Asia
Asia
by an ocean, as opposed to just placing the Americas
Americas
on the left end of the map and Asia
Asia
on the right end. In the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, Waldseemüller noted that the earth is divided into four parts, Europe, Asia, Africa
Africa
and the fourth part, which he named "America" after Amerigo Vespucci's first name.[55] On the map, the word "America" was placed on part of South America. The word continent From the 16th century the English noun continent was derived from the term continent land, meaning continuous or connected land[56] and translated from the Latin terra continens.[57] The noun was used to mean "a connected or continuous tract of land" or mainland.[56] It was not applied only to very large areas of land—in the 17th century, references were made to the continents (or mainlands) of Isle of Man, Ireland
Ireland
and Wales
Wales
and in 1745 to Sumatra.[56] The word continent was used in translating Greek and Latin writings about the three "parts" of the world, although in the original languages no word of exactly the same meaning as continent was used.[58] While continent was used on the one hand for relatively small areas of continuous land, on the other hand geographers again raised Herodotus's query about why a single large landmass should be divided into separate continents. In the mid-17th century, Peter Heylin
Peter Heylin
wrote in his Cosmographie that "A Continent
Continent
is a great quantity of Land, not separated by any Sea from the rest of the World, as the whole Continent
Continent
of Europe, Asia, Africa." In 1727, Ephraim Chambers wrote in his Cyclopædia, "The world is ordinarily divided into two grand continents: the old and the new." And in his 1752 atlas, Emanuel Bowen defined a continent as "a large space of dry land comprehending many countries all joined together, without any separation by water. Thus Europe, Asia, and Africa
Africa
is one great continent, as America is another."[59] However, the old idea of Europe, Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
as "parts" of the world ultimately persisted with these being regarded as separate continents.

Hollandia Nova, 1659 map prepared by Joan Blaeu
Joan Blaeu
based on voyages by Abel Tasman
Abel Tasman
and Willem Jansz, this image shows a French edition of 1663

Beyond four continents From the late 18th century, some geographers started to regard North America and South America
South America
as two parts of the world, making five parts in total. Overall though, the fourfold division prevailed well into the 19th century.[60] Europeans discovered Australia
Australia
in 1606, but for some time it was taken as part of Asia. By the late 18th century, some geographers considered it a continent in its own right, making it the sixth (or fifth for those still taking America as a single continent).[60] In 1813, Samuel Butler wrote of Australia
Australia
as "New Holland, an immense island, which some geographers dignify with the appellation of another continent" and the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
was just as equivocal some decades later.[61] Antarctica
Antarctica
was sighted in 1820 during the First Russian Antarctic Expedition and described as a continent by Charles Wilkes
Charles Wilkes
on the United States Exploring Expedition
United States Exploring Expedition
in 1838, the last continent identified, although a great "Antarctic" (antipodean) landmass had been anticipated for millennia. An 1849 atlas labelled Antarctica
Antarctica
as a continent but few atlases did so until after World
World
War II.[62] From the mid-19th century, atlases published in the United States more commonly treated North and South America
South America
as separate continents, while atlases published in Europe
Europe
usually considered them one continent. However, it was still not uncommon for American atlases to treat them as one continent up until World
World
War II.[63] From the 1950s, most U.S. geographers divided the Americas
Americas
into two continents.[63] With the addition of Antarctica, this made the seven-continent model. However, this division of the Americas
Americas
never appealed to Latin Americans, who saw their region spanning an América as a single landmass, and there the conception of six continents remains dominant, as it does in scattered other countries.[citation needed] Some geographers regard Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
together as a single continent, dubbed Eurasia.[64] In this model, the world is divided into six continents, with North America
North America
and South America
South America
considered separate continents. Geology

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Further information: Continental crust
Continental crust
and Plate tectonics Geologists use the term continent in a different manner from geographers. In geology a continent is defined by continental crust: a platform of metamorphic and igneous rock, largely of granitic composition. Some geologists restrict the term 'continent' to portions of the crust built around stable Precambrian
Precambrian
"shield", typically 1.5 to 3.8 billion years old, called a craton. The craton itself is an accretionary complex of ancient mobile belts (mountain belts) from earlier cycles of subduction, continental collision and break-up from plate tectonic activity. An outward-thickening veneer of younger minimally deformed sedimentary rock covers much of the craton. The margins of geologic continents are characterized by currently active or relatively recently active mobile belts and deep troughs of accumulated marine or deltaic sediments. Beyond the margin, there is either a continental shelf and drop off to the basaltic ocean basin or the margin of another continent, depending on the current plate-tectonic setting of the continent. A continental boundary does not have to be a body of water. Over geologic time, continents are periodically submerged under large epicontinental seas, and continental collisions result in a continent becoming attached to another continent. The current geologic era is relatively anomalous in that so much of the continental areas are "high and dry"; that is, many parts of the continents that were once below sea level are now elevated well above it due to changes in sea levels and the subsequent uplifting of those continental areas from tectonic activity.[65]

The tectonic plates underlying the continents and oceans

Some argue that continents are accretionary crustal "rafts" that, unlike the denser basaltic crust of the ocean basins, are not subjected to destruction through the plate tectonic process of subduction. This accounts for the great age of the rocks comprising the continental cratons. By this definition, Eastern Europe, India
India
and some other regions could be regarded as continental masses distinct from the rest of Eurasia
Eurasia
because they have separate ancient shield areas (i.e. East European craton
East European craton
and Indian craton). Younger mobile belts (such as the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
and Himalayas) mark the boundaries between these regions and the rest of Eurasia. There are many microcontinents, or continental fragments, that are built of continental crust but do not contain a craton. Some of these are fragments of Gondwana
Gondwana
or other ancient cratonic continents: Zealandia, which includes New Zealand
New Zealand
and New Caledonia; Madagascar; the northern Mascarene Plateau, which includes the Seychelles. Other islands, such as several in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, are composed largely of granitic rock as well, but all continents contain both granitic and basaltic crust, and there is no clear boundary as to which islands would be considered microcontinents under such a definition. The Kerguelen Plateau, for example, is largely volcanic, but is associated with the breakup of Gondwanaland and is considered a microcontinent,[66][67] whereas volcanic Iceland
Iceland
and Hawaii
Hawaii
are not. The British Isles, Sri Lanka, Borneo, and Newfoundland are margins of the Laurasian continent—only separated by inland seas flooding its margins. Plate tectonics
Plate tectonics
offers yet another way of defining continents. Today, Europe
Europe
and most of Asia
Asia
constitute the unified Eurasian Plate, which is approximately coincident with the geographic Eurasian continent excluding India, Arabia, and far eastern Russia. India
India
contains a central shield, and the geologically recent Himalaya
Himalaya
mobile belt forms its northern margin. North America
North America
and South America
South America
are separate continents, the connecting isthmus being largely the result of volcanism from relatively recent subduction tectonics. North American continental rocks extend to Greenland
Greenland
(a portion of the Canadian Shield), and in terms of plate boundaries, the North American plate includes the easternmost portion of the Asian landmass. Geologists do not use these facts to suggest that eastern Asia
Asia
is part of the North American continent, even though the plate boundary extends there; the word continent is usually used in its geographic sense and additional definitions ("continental rocks," "plate boundaries") are used as appropriate. The movement of plates has caused the formation and break-up of continents over time, including occasional formation of a supercontinent that contains most or all of the continents. The supercontinent Columbia or Nuna formed during a period of 2.0–1.8 billion years ago and broke up about 1.5–1.3 billion years ago.[68][69] The supercontinent Rodinia
Rodinia
is thought to have formed about 1 billion years ago and to have embodied most or all of Earth's continents, and broken up into eight continents around 600 million years ago. The eight continents later re-assembled into another supercontinent called Pangaea; Pangaea
Pangaea
broke up into Laurasia
Laurasia
(which became North America
North America
and Eurasia) and Gondwana
Gondwana
(which became the remaining continents). Highest and lowest points See also: Extremes on Earth, Extreme points of Earth, and Seven Summits The following table lists the seven continents with their highest and lowest points on land, sorted in decreasing highest points.

Continent Highest point Elevation (m) Elevation (ft) Country or territory containing highest point Lowest point Elevation (m) Elevation (ft) Country or territory containing lowest point

Asia Mount Everest 8,848 29,029 China
China
and Nepal Dead Sea −427 −1,401 Israel, Jordan
Jordan
and Palestine

South America Aconcagua 6,960 22,830 Argentina Laguna del Carbón −105 −344 Argentina

North America Denali 6,198 20,335 United States Death Valley
Death Valley
† −86 −282 United States

Africa Mount Kilimanjaro 5,895 19,341 Tanzania Lake Assal −155 −509 Djibouti

Europe Mount Elbrus 5,642 18,510 Russia Caspian Sea −28 −92 Russia

Antarctica Vinson Massif 4,892 16,050 (none) Deep Lake, Vestfold Hills
Vestfold Hills
† −50 −160 (none)

Australia Puncak Jaya 4,884 16,024 Indonesia
Indonesia
(Papua) Lake Eyre −15 −49 Australia

† The lowest exposed points are given for North America
North America
and Antarctica. The lowest non-submarine bedrock elevations in these continents are the trough beneath Jakobshavn Glacier
Jakobshavn Glacier
(−1,512 metres (−4,961 ft)[70]) and Bentley Subglacial Trench
Bentley Subglacial Trench
(−2,540 metres (−8,330 ft)), but these are covered by kilometers of ice. Some sources list the Kuma–Manych Depression
Kuma–Manych Depression
(a remnant of the Paratethys) as the geological border between Europe
Europe
and Asia. This would place the Caucasus
Caucasus
outside of Europe, thus making Mont Blanc (elevation 4810 m) in the Graian Alps
Graian Alps
the highest point in Europe
Europe
- the lowest point would still be the shore of the Caspian Sea. See also

List of continent name etymologies List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent List of supercontinents List of transcontinental countries Lists of cities Subregion Continental Europe Continents – book

References

^ "Continents: What is a Continent?". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 2009-06-29.  "Most people recognize seven continents—Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia, from largest to smallest—although sometimes Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
are considered a single continent, Eurasia." ^ Lewis & Wigen, The Myth of Continents (1997), p. 21. ^ "Ocean". Columbia Encyclopedia (2006). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved 20 February 2007. ^ "Distribution of land and water on the planet Archived 31 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.." UN Atlas of the Oceans Archived 15 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. (2004). Retrieved 20 February 2007. ^ "continent n. 5. a." (1989) Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press ; "continent1 n." (2006) The Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th edition revised. (Ed.) Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press; "continent1 n." (2005) The New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd edition. (Ed.) Erin McKean. Oxford University Press; "continent [2, n] 4 a" (1996) Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. ProQuest Information and Learning ; "continent" (2007) Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 January 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. ^ "continent [2, n] 6" (1996) Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. ProQuest
ProQuest
Information and Learning. "a large segment of the earth's outer shell including a terrestrial continent and the adjacent continental shelf" ^ Monkhouse, F. J.; John Small (1978). A Dictionary of the Natural Environment. London: Edward Arnold. pp. 67–68. structurally it includes shallowly submerged adjacent areas (continental shelf) and neighbouring islands  ^ Ollier, Cliff D. (1996). Planet Earth. In Ian Douglas (Ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of Geography: The Environment and Humankind. London: Routledge, p. 30. " Ocean
Ocean
waters extend onto continental rocks at continental shelves, and the true edges of the continents are the steeper continental slopes. The actual shorelines are rather accidental, depending on the height of sea-level on the sloping shelves." ^ Lewis & Wigen, The Myth of Continents (1997), p. 40: "The joining of Australia
Australia
with various Pacific islands
Pacific islands
to form the quasi continent of Oceania
Oceania
... " ^ Lewis & Wigen, The Myth of Continents (1997), p. 35. ^ Lewis & Wigen, The Myth of Continents (1997), Chapter 1: "While it might seem surprising to find North and South America
South America
still joined into a single continent in a book published in the United States in 1937, such a notion remained fairly common until World
World
War II. [...] By the 1950s, however, virtually all American geographers had come to insist that the visually distinct landmasses of North and South America deserved separate designations." ^ Lewis & Wigen, The Myth of Continents (1997), p. ?. ^ R. W. McColl, ed. (2005). "continents". Encyclopedia of World Geography. 1. Facts on File, Inc. p. 215. ISBN 9780816072293. Retrieved 2012-06-26. And since Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
are connected at the Suez Peninsula, Europe, Africa, and Asia
Asia
are sometimes combined as Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
or Eurafrasia.  ^ a b c [1] Older/previous official Greek Paedagogical Institute 6th grade Geography
Geography
textbook (at the Wayback Machine), 5+1 continents combined-America model; Pankosmios Enyklopaidikos Atlas, CIL Hellas Publications, ISBN 84-407-0470-4, page 30, 5+1 combined-America continents model; Neos Eikonographemenos Geographikos Atlas, Siola-Alexiou, 6 continents combined-America model; Lexico tes Hellenikes Glossas, Papyros Publications, ISBN 978-960-6715-47-1, lemma continent (epeiros), 5 continents model; Lexico Triantaphyllide online dictionary, Greek Language Center (Kentro Hellenikes Glossas), lemma continent (epeiros), 6 continents combined-America model; Lexico tes Neas Hellenikes Glossas, G.Babiniotes, Kentro Lexikologias (Legicology Center) LTD Publications, ISBN 960-86190-1-7, lemma continent (epeiros), 6 continents combined-America model ^ " Continent
Continent
Archived 2 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.". The Columbia Encyclopedia Archived 5 February 2002 at the Wayback Machine. . 2001. New York: Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press
- Bartleby. ^ a b "Continent". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ^ World, National Geographic - Xpeditions Atlas. 2006. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society. ^ a b The World
World
- Continents Archived 21 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine., Atlas of Canada ^ The New Oxford Dictionary of English. 2001. New York: Oxford University Press. ^ "Continent". MSN Encarta
Encarta
Online Encyclopedia 2006.. Archived 2009-10-31. ^ "Continent". McArthur, Tom, ed. 1992. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. New York: Oxford University Press; p. 260. ^ "F-10 Curriculum Geograph". Australian Curriculum, Assessment, and Reporting Authority.  ^ "National curriculum in England: geography programmes of study". UK Department for Education.  ^ a b "Real Academia Española". Lema.rae.es. Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2016-11-09.  ^ "Preamble" (PDF). Olympic Charter. International Olympic Committee. 8 December 2014. p. 10. Retrieved 7 August 2015. the five interlaced rings, which represent the union of the five continents  ^ "Total Population – Both Sexes". World
World
Population Prospects, the 2015 Revision. United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs. July 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2016. ^ See also Demographics of Antarctica. Antarctica. CIA World
World
Factbook. March 2011 data. Retrieved December 24, 2011. ^ "Forbes проигнорировал Москву". www.irn.ru.  ^ a b c Baldwin, James A. (14 May 2014), "Continents", in R. W. McColl, Encyclopedia of World
World
Geography, Infobase Publishing, p. 215, ISBN 978-0-8160-7229-3  ^ Molnar, Peter (26 March 2015), Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction, OUP Oxford, ISBN 978-0-19-104396-3 

p. 98: Thus, we can calculate past positions of the India
India
plate, with the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
as its passenger, with respect to the Eurasia
Eurasia
plate. p. 116: The Arabian subcontinent later, approximately 35 million years ago, collided with southern Eurasia
Eurasia
to form the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran.

^ Nares Strait and the drift of Greenland: a conflict in plate tectonics, Museum Tusculanum Press, pp. 32–, ISBN 978-87-635-1150-6  ^ Farmer, G. Thomas; Cook, John (12 January 2013), Climate Change Science: A Modern Synthesis: Volume 1 - The Physical Climate, Springer Science & Business Media, pp. 281–, ISBN 978-94-007-5757-8  ^ Gallay, Alan (11 June 2015), Colonial Wars of North America, 1512-1763 (Routledge Revivals): An Encyclopedia, Routledge, pp. 204–, ISBN 978-1-317-48719-7  ^ Innes, John L.; Haron, Abu Hassan (2000), Air Pollution and the Forests of Developing and Rapidly Industrializing Regions, CABI, pp. 36–, ISBN 978-0-85199-932-6  ^ Vivares, Dr Ernesto (28 March 2014), Exploring the New South American Regionalism (NSAR), Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., pp. 40–, ISBN 978-1-4094-6961-2  ^ Leonard, Thomas M. (October 2005), Encyclopedia of the Developing World, Psychology Press, pp. 1637–, ISBN 978-1-57958-388-0  ^ In Ibero-America, North America
North America
usually designates a region (subcontinente in Spanish) of the Americas
Americas
containing Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and often Greenland, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Bermuda; the land bridge of Central America
Central America
is generally considered a subregion of North America.Norteamérica (Mexican version) Archived 30 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine./(Spaniard version). Encarta
Encarta
Online Encyclopedia.. Archived 2009-10-31. ^ Hillstrom, Kevin; Collier Hillstrom, Laurie (2003). Africa
Africa
and the Middle East: a continental overview of environmental issues. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-57607-688-0.  ^ Brummitt, R.K. (2001). World
World
Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions: Edition 2 (PDF). International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases For Plant Sciences (TDWG). Retrieved 2006-11-27.  ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, Henry Stuart Jones, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940), s.v. ἤπειρος. The English noun was introduced in the mid-16th century, shortened from continent land (15th century), adapted from Latin terra continens "continuous landmass". ^ a b Toynbee, Arnold J. (1954). A Study of History. London: Oxford University Press, v. 8, pp. 711-12. ^ Tozer, H. F. (1897). A History of Ancient Geography. Cambridge: University Press. p. 69.  ^ Tozer, H. F. (1897). A History of Ancient Geography. Cambridge: University Press. p. 67.  ^ Lewis & Wigen, The Myth of Continents (1997), pp. 21–22. ^ Tozer, H. F. (1897). A History of Ancient Geography. Cambridge: University Press. p. 68.  ^ Herodotus. Translated by George Rawlinson (2000). The Histories of Herodotus
Herodotus
of Halicarnassus [2]. Ames, Iowa: Omphaloskepsis, book 2, p. 18. Archived 19 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Herodotus. Translated by George Rawlinson (2000). The Histories of Herodotus
Herodotus
of Halicarnassus "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 2016-02-08. . Ames, Iowa: Omphaloskepsis, book 4, p. 38. "I cannot conceive why three names ... should ever have been given to a tract which is in reality one," ^ Strabo. Translated by Horace Leonard Jones (1917). Geography.[3] Harvard University Press, book 1, ch. 4.[4] ^ Goddard, Farley Brewer (1884). "Researches in the Cyrenaica". The American Journal of Philology, 5 (1) p. 38. ^ O'Gorman, Edmundo (1961). The Invention of America. Indiana University Press. pp. 106–112.  ^ Formisano, Luciano (Ed.) (1992). Letters from a New World: Amerigo Vespucci's Discovery of America. New York: Marsilio, pp. xx-xxi. ISBN 0-941419-62-2. ^ a b Zerubavel, Eviatar (2003). Terra Cognita: The Mental Discovery of America. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, pp. 77–79. ISBN 0-7658-0987-7. ^ Formisano, Luciano (Ed.) (1992). Letters from a New World: Amerigo Vespucci's Discovery of America. New York: Marsilio, p. 45. ISBN 0-941419-62-2. ^ Zerubavel, Eviatar (2003). Terra Cognita: The Mental Discovery of America. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, pp. 80–82. ISBN 0-7658-0987-7. ^ a b c "continent n." (1989) Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press. ^ "continent1 n." (2006) The Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th edition revised. (Ed.) Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press. ^ Lewis & Wigen, The Myth of Continents (1997), p. 29. ^ Bowen, Emanuel. (1752). A Complete Atlas, or Distinct View of the Known World. London, p. 3. ^ a b Lewis & Wigen, The Myth of Continents (1997), p. 30 ^ "continent n. 5. a." (1989) Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press. "the great island of Australia
Australia
is sometimes reckoned as another [continent]" ^ Lewis, Martin W.; Kären E. Wigen (1997). The Myth of Continents: a Critique of Metageography. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20743-2.  ^ a b Lewis, Martin W.; Kären E. Wigen (1997). The Myth of Continents: a Critique of Metageography. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-520-20742-4, ISBN 0-520-20743-2.  ^ Some geographers list only six continents, combining Europe
Europe
and Asia into Eurasia. In parts of the world, students learn that there are just five continents: Eurasia, Australia, Africa, Antarctica, and the Americas."How many continents are there?". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2010-09-26.  ^ Kominz, Michelle A. (2001). "Sea level variations over geologic time". Encyclopedia of Ocean
Ocean
Sciences (PDF). San Diego: Academic Press. p. 2609.  ^ "UT Austin scientist plays major rule in study of underwater "micro-continent"". Utexas.edu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2007. Retrieved 2012-08-26.  ^ "Sci/Tech 'Lost continent' discovered". BBC News. 1999-05-27. Retrieved 2012-08-26.  ^ Zhao, Guochun; Cawood, Peter A.; Wilde, Simon A.; Sun, M. (November 2002). "Review of global 2.1–1.8 Ga orogens: implications for a pre- Rodinia
Rodinia
supercontinent". Earth-Science Reviews. 59: 125–162. Bibcode:2002ESRv...59..125Z. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00073-9. Retrieved 2013-01-07.  ^ Zhao, Guochun; Sun, M.; Wilde, Simon A.; Li, S.Z. (November 2004). "A Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent: assembly, growth and breakup". Earth-Science Reviews. 67: 91–123. Bibcode:2004ESRv...67...91Z. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2004.02.003. Retrieved 2013-01-08.  ^ Plummer, Joel. Jakobshavn Bed Elevation Archived 27 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Center for the Remote Sensing of the Ice Sheets, Dept of Geography, University of Kansas.

Bibliography

Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären E. (1997). The Myth of Continents: a Critique of Metageography. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20742-4, ISBN 0-520-20743-2. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Continents (category)

"What are continents?" YouTube
YouTube
video by CGP Grey  "Continent". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). 1911. 

v t e

Earth

Continents

Africa Antarctica Asia Australia Europe North America South America

Oceans

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Southern Ocean

Earth

Geography Geology Future of Earth Geological history of Earth History of Earth Plate tectonics Structure of the Earth

Environment

Biome Ecology Ecosystem Nature Wilderness

Related

Earth
Earth
Day Earth
Earth
science Geologic record Geology
Geology
of solar terrestrial planets Location in Universe Solar System World

Category Portal Earth
Earth
sciences

v t e

Continents of the world

   

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

   

Afro-Eurasia

America

Eurasia

Oceania

   

Former supercontinents Gondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Nena Sclavia Ur Vaalbara

Historical continents Amazonia Arctica Asiamerica Atlantica Avalonia Baltica Cimmeria Congo craton Euramerica Kalaharia Kazakhstania Laurentia North China Siberia South China East Antarctica India

   

Submerged continents Kerguelen Plateau Zealandia

Possible future supercontinents Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima Amasia Novopangaea

Mythical and hypothesised continents Atlantis Kumari Kandam Lemuria Meropis Mu Hyperborea Terra Australis

See also Regions of the world Continental fragment

Book Category

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile
Nile
Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile
Nile
Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan
Japan
Arc Sakhalin Island
Island
Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China
China
proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China
China
Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China
China
Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan
Jordan
Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean
Caribbean
Zone Isthmus
Isthmus
of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre
Lake Eyre
basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean
Caribbean
South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China
China
Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China
China
Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

Authority control

LCCN: sh85031556 GND: 4165153-4

Geography
Geography
portal Environment portal Ec