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Commodore is a naval rank used in many navies that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. Non-English-speaking nations often use the rank of flotilla admiral or counter admiral or senior captain as an equivalent, although counter admiral may also correspond to rear admiral. Traditionally, "commodore" is the title for any officer assigned to command more than one ship at a time, even temporarily, much as "captain" is the traditional title for the commanding officer of a single ship even if the officer's official title in the service is a lower rank. As an official rank, a commodore typically commands a flotilla or squadron of ships as part of a larger task force or naval fleet commanded by an admiral. A commodore's ship is typically designated by the flying of a Broad pennant, as opposed to an admiral's flag. It is often regarded as a one-star rank with a NATO
NATO
code of OF-6 (which is known in the U.S. as "rear admiral (lower half)"), but whether it is regarded as a flag rank varies between countries.[1] It is sometimes abbreviated: as "Cdre" in British Royal Navy, "CDRE" in the US Navy, "Cmdre" in the Royal Canadian Navy, "COMO" in the Spanish Navy
Navy
and in some navies speaking the Spanish language, or "CMDE" as used in the Indian Navy
Navy
or in some other Navies.[2]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 United States 2.2 Argentina

3 Naval rank 4 Air force ranks 5 Merchant Marine's rank and Yacht Club's chief directors 6 Convoy
Convoy
commodore 7 Other uses 8 See also 9 References

Etymology[edit] The rank of commodore derives from the French commandeur, which was one of the highest ranks in the orders of knighthood, and in military orders the title of the knight in charge of a commande (a local part of the order's territorial possessions). History[edit] The Dutch Navy
Navy
also used the rank of commandeur from the end of the 16th century for a variety of temporary positions, until it became a conventional permanent rank in 1955. The Royal Netherlands Air Force has adopted the English spelling of commodore for an equivalent rank. In the Royal Navy, the position was introduced in the 17th Century to combat the cost of appointing more admirals—a costly business with a fleet as large as the Royal Navy's at that time. The rank of commodore was at first a position created as a temporary title to be bestowed upon captains who commanded squadrons of more than one vessel. In many navies, the rank of commodore was merely viewed as a senior captain position, whereas other naval services bestowed upon the rank of commodore the prestige of flag officer status. United States[edit] Main article: Commodore (United States) In 1899, the substantive rank of commodore was discontinued in the United States Navy, but revived during World War II in both the U.S. Navy
Navy
and U.S. Coast Guard. It was discontinued as a rank in these services during the postwar period, but as an appointment, the title "commodore" was then used to identify senior U.S. Navy
Navy
captains who commanded squadrons of more than one vessel or functional air wings or air groups that were not part of a carrier air wing or carrier air group. Concurrently, until the early 1980s, U.S. Navy
Navy
and U.S. Coast Guard captains selected for promotion to the rank of rear admiral (lower half), would wear the same insignia as rear admiral (upper half), i.e., two silver stars for collar insignia or sleeve braid of one wide and one narrow gold stripe, even though they were actually only equivalent to one-star officers and paid at the one-star rate. To correct this inequity, the rank of commodore as a single star flag officer was reinstated by both services in the early 1980s. This immediately caused confusion with those senior U.S. Navy
Navy
captains commanding destroyer squadrons, submarine squadrons, functional air wings and air groups, and so on, who held the temporary "title" of commodore while in their major command billet. As a result of this confusion, the services soon renamed the new one-star rank as commodore admiral (CADM) within the first six months following the rank's reintroduction. However, this was considered an awkward title and the one-star flag rank was renamed a few months later to its current title of rear admiral (lower half), later abbreviated by the U.S. Navy
Navy
and U.S. Coast Guard as RDML. The "title" of commodore continues to be used in the U.S. Navy
Navy
and Coast Guard for those senior captains in command of organizations consisting of groups of ships or submarines organized into squadrons; air wings or air groups of multiple aviation squadrons other than carrier air wings (the latter whose commanders still use the title "CAG"); explosive ordnance disposal (EOD), mine warfare and special warfare (SEAL) groups; and construction battalion (SeaBee) regiments. Although not flag officers, modern day commodores in the U.S. Navy rate a blue and white command pennant, also known as a broad pennant, that is normally flown at their headquarters facilities ashore or from ships that they are embarked aboard when they are the senior officer present afloat (SOPA). Argentina[edit] In the Argentine Navy, the position of commodore was created in the late 1990s, and is usually, but not always, issued to senior captains holding rear-admirals' positions. It is not a rank but a distinction and, as such, can be issued by the chief of staff without congressional approval. Its equivalents are colonel-major in the Army and commodore-major in the Air Force. It is usually—but incorrectly—referred to as "navy commodore", to avoid confusion with the "air force commodore", which is equivalent to the navy's captain and army's colonel. The sleeve lace is identical to that of the Royal Navy, and wears one star on the epaulette. Naval rank[edit] The following articles deal with the rank of commodore (or its equivalent) as it is employed OF-6
OF-6
one-star flag officer rank in various countries.

Country Rank Remark

Argentina Comodoro abbreviated "COMO"

Australia Commodore abbreviated as CDRE[3]

Bangladesh Commodore abbreviated as "Cdre"

Bulgaria Komodor

Canada Commodore abbreviated "Cmdre"

Croatia Komodor

Finland Kommodori Equivalent to colonel

France Chef de division France (deprecated)

Germany Flottillenadmiral Deutsche Marine rank OF-6

Kommodore German Kriegsmarine rank OF-5 until 1945

India Commodore abbreviated "CMDE"

Indonesia Komodor used until 1973, then replaced with Laksamana Pertama

Iran Daryādār (دریادار)

Italy Sottoammiraglio o Comandante superiore SA during Kingdom of Italy 1918-1923; CS it continues

Netherlands Commandeur

Pakistan Commodore Cdre. (One-star)

Poland Kontradmirał Komandor OF-5 rank

Portugal Comodoro

Romania Contraamiral de flotilă Comandor OF-5 rank

Spain Contraalmirante

Turkey Tugamiral

United Kingdom Commodore

United States Commodore United States - abbreviated when used "CDRE"[4]

Australian Navy shoulder board

Bangladesh Navy

Egyptian Navy shoulder board

Greek Navy shoulder board

Iranian Navy shoulder board

Indian Navy shoulder Board

Pakistan Navy shoulder board

Portuguese Navy sleeve insignia

Air force ranks[edit] Commodore, in Spanish comodoro, is a rank in the Argentine Air Force. This rank is the equivalent of a colonel in the Argentine Army, and a colonel or group captain in other air forces of the world. The Argentine rank below commodore is the rank of vice-commodore (Spanish vicecomodoro) equivalent to a lieutenant-colonel in the Argentine Army, and a lieutenant-colonel or wing commander in other air forces. Commodore is a rank in the Royal Netherlands Air Force. It is a one-star rank and has essentially the same rank insignia as the British air commodore. Many air forces use the rank of air commodore. This rank was first used by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
and is now used in many countries such as Australia, Bangladesh, Greece, India, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Thailand and Zimbabwe. It is the equivalent rank to the navy rank of "commodore", and the army ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. The German air force used the concept of a unit commodore for the commander of a wing, usually in the rank of colonel (OF-5). Merchant Marine's rank and Yacht Club's chief directors[edit] Commodore is also a title held by many captains with a recognised very high grade of navigation and seagoing seniority in the Merchant Marine, and by the directors of a few yacht clubs and boating associations. Commodores in command as Master aboard merchant marine ships, wear rank ensignia and particular golden cap ensignia. Convoy
Convoy
commodore[edit] During wartime, a shipping convoy will have a ranking officer—sometimes an active-duty naval officer, at other times a civilian master or retired naval officer—designated as the convoy commodore. This title is not related to the individual's military rank (if any), but instead is the title of the senior individual responsible for the overall operation of the merchant ships and naval auxiliary ships that make up the convoy. The convoy commodore does not command the convoy' escort forces (if any), which are commanded by a naval officer who serves as escort commander. Other uses[edit] The U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary also employs variants of the title of commodore. Members of the Auxiliary are civilian volunteers who do not have military rank, but who do wear modified U.S. Coast Guard uniforms and U.S. military-style officer rank insignia to indicate office. Auxiliary members who have been elected or appointed to positions in the highest levels of the organization, similar in nature to active and reserve rear admirals and vice admirals use the term commodore (e.g., District Commodore, Assistant National Commodore, Deputy National Commodore, National Commodore, etc.). These Coast Guard Auxiliarists may permanently append the title commodore, sometimes abbreviated COMO, to their names (e.g., Commodore James A. Smith, National Commodore; or COMO Jim Smith, (NACO)).[5] In the Philippine Coast Guard Auxiliary—PCGA—each of the directors in command of the ten Coast Guard Auxiliary districts are commodores, as well as most of the Deputy National Directors (some may be rear admirals). Commodore is appreviated to COMMO in the PCGA. Vanderbilt University's intercollegiate athletics teams are nicknamed the "Commodores", a reference to Cornelius Vanderbilt's self-appointed title (he was the master of a large shipping fleet). In the U.S. Sea Scouting program (which is part of the Boy Scouts of America), all National, Regional, Area, and Council committee chairs are titled as commodore, while senior committee members are addressed as vice commodore. Ship committee chairs do not hold this recognition. See also[edit]

Air Commodore Commodore-in-Chief Comparative military ranks

References[edit]

Notes

^ Whether "commodore" is a flag rank (or not) varies by country. Often, "rear admiral" is the first of the "flag ranks". For example, it was not until 2001 that the UK made "commodore" a "flag rank", and changed the shoulder rank insignia (although not the cuff rings) of the higher ranking admirals accordingly. Australia made this change in the mid-1990s, and also changed the commodore rank insignia to include a star. ^ The "Cdre" abbreviation for the OF-6
OF-6
rank of commodore is sometimes confused with the "Cmdr" abbreviation for the OF-4 rank of "commander". ^ "Uniform Ranks". Royal Australian Navy. Australian Government. Archived from the original on 24 January 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2016.  ^ The modern US rank for this level is rear admiral (lower half) ^ "USCGAux Insignia of Office: Flotilla, Division, District and National Offices". United States Coast Guard Auxiliary
United States Coast Guard Auxiliary
Division. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 

v t e

Military ranks and insignia by country

List of comparative military ranks

Africa

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros DR Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt

Army Navy Air Force

Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Former

Biafra Bophuthatswana Ciskei Kingdom of Egypt Ethiopian Empire Rhodesia South West Africa Transkei Venda Zaire

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Apartheid States in Southern Africa

Americas

Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Bahamas Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile

Army Air Force Navy

Colombia Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico

Army Navy

Nicaragua Paraguay Peru Saint Kitts and Nevis Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States

Officers:

Army Navy Air Force Coast Guard

Enlisted:

Army Navy Air Force Coast Guard

Other:

Marine Corps Warrant officer

Uruguay Venezuela

Former

United States Army enlisted

World War I World War II

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Asia

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh

Army Navy Air Force

Bhutan Brunei Cambodia PR of China

Army Navy Air Force

Republic of China(Taiwan)

Army Navy Air Force

East Timor India

Army Air Force Navy

Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Korea(North & South) Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar

Army Navy Air Force

Nepal Oman Pakistan

Army Air Force Navy

Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka

Army Navy Air Force

Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

Former

Democratic Kampuchea Imperial Iran Imperial Japan

Army Navy

Mengjiang Manchukuo South Vietnam

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Europe

Albania Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark

Army Navy Air Force

Estonia Finland France

Army Navy Gendarmerie Air Force Foresters

Germany

Rank information Rank insignia

Georgia Greece Hungary Iceland

Land Forces Coast Guard

Ireland Italy

Army Navy Air Force Carabinieri Finance Guard

Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia

Army Navy Air Force Between 1994 and 2010

San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Army officers Army other ranks Navy
Navy
officers Navy
Navy
ratings Air Force officers Air Force other ranks

Vatican

Former

Austria–Hungary

Army Navy

Independent State of Croatia Czechoslovakia German Empire Nazi Germany

Army Navy Air Force People's Militia SA SS Nazi Party

East Germany Kingdom of Greece

Army Navy Air Force

Kingdom of Hungary Hungarian People's Republic Kingdom of Italy

Blackshirts

Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Soviet Union

1918–35 1935–40 1940–43 1943–55 1955–91

Kingdom of Yugoslavia SFR Yugoslavia FR Yugoslavia

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Oceania

Australia Fiji New Zealand Papua New Guinea Tonga Vanuatu

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Post-Soviet states

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Commonwealth of Nations

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

NATO

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air Force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Comparative officer ranks of

World War I World War II

v t e

Star officer grades

General officer Flag officer Air officer

By star ranks

Six-star rank
Six-star rank
(proposed) Five-star rank Four-star rank Three-star rank Two-star rank One-star rank

By titles

Generalissimo Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Supreme Allied Commander Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy General of the Armies Generalfeldmarschall Field marshal Mareşal Marshal of the air force Marshal of the Russian Federation Marshal of the Soviet Union Mushir Caudillo Magister militum Spahbed Ispahsalar Beylerbey Constable of France Grand Domestic Dux bellorum Grand marshal Hetman Jenderal besar Reichsmarschall Sardar Serasker Strategos autokrator First marshal of the empire Dai-gensui Taewonsu Voivoda Wonsu Yuan Shuai Da yuan shuai Marshal of Yugoslavia

v t e

Highest military ranks

General officer Flag officer Air officer

Imperator Marshal of Italy Generalissimo Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Supreme Allied Commander Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy General of the Armies General of the Air Force Generalfeldmarschall Mareşal Marshal of the air force Marshal of the Soviet Union Marshal of the Russian Federation Mushir Magister militum Spahbed Ispahsalar Beylerbey Bojni Vojvoda Chom Thap Thai Constable of France Domestic of the Schools Grand Domestic Shōgun Dux bellorum Grand marshal Hetman Jenderal besar Polemarch Reichsmarschall Federal General of Switzerland Sardar Serasker Autokrator First marshal of the empire Da yuan shuai Dai-gensui Taewonsu Yuan shuai Wonsu Marshal o