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Colin Luther Powell (/ˈkoʊlɪn/; born April 5, 1937)[1] is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.[2] Powell was born in Harlem
Harlem
as the son of Jamaican immigrants. During his military career, Powell also served as National Security Advisor (1987–1989), as Commander of the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
Forces Command (1989) and as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989–1993), holding the latter position during the Persian Gulf War. Powell was the first, and so far the only, African American
African American
to serve on the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving under U.S. President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
from 2001 to 2005, the first African American
African American
to serve in that position.[3][4][5][6] Powell was born in New York City
New York City
in 1937 and was raised in the South Bronx. His parents, Luther and Maud Powell, immigrated to the United States from Jamaica. Powell was educated in the New York City
New York City
public schools, graduating from the City College of New York
City College of New York
(CCNY), where he earned a bachelor's degree in geology. He also participated in ROTC
ROTC
at CCNY and received a commission as an Army second lieutenant upon graduation in June 1958. His further academic achievements include a Master of Business Administration degree from George Washington University.[7] Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, during which time he held myriad command and staff positions and rose to the rank of 4-star General. His last assignment, from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1993, was as the 12th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military position in the Department of Defense. During this time, he oversaw 28 crises, including Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm
in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. He also formulated the Powell Doctrine.[7] Following his military retirement, Powell wrote his best-selling autobiography, My American Journey. In addition, he pursued a career as a public speaker, addressing audiences across the country and abroad. Prior to his appointment as Secretary of State, Powell was the chairman of America's Promise
America's Promise
- The Alliance for Youth, a national nonprofit organization dedicated to mobilizing people from every sector of American life to build the character and competence of young people. He was nominated by President Bush on December 16, 2000 as Secretary of State. After being unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate, he was sworn in as the 65th Secretary of State on January 20, 2001.[7] Powell is the recipient of numerous U.S. and foreign military awards and decorations. Powell's civilian awards include two Presidential Medal of Freedom, the President's Citizens Medal, the Congressional Gold Medal, the Secretary of State Distinguished Service Medal, and the Secretary of Energy Distinguished Service Medal. Several schools and other institutions have been named in his honor and he holds honorary degrees from universities and colleges across the country. Powell is married to the former Alma Vivian Johnson of Birmingham, Alabama. The Powell family includes son Michael (ex-chairman of the Federal Communications Commission); daughters Linda and Anne; daughter-in-law Jane; and grandsons Jeffrey and Bryan.[7] In 2016, while not a candidate for that year's election, Powell received three electoral votes for the office of President of the United States.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Military career

2.1 Training 2.2 Vietnam
Vietnam
War 2.3 After the Vietnam
Vietnam
War 2.4 A "political general" 2.5 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 2.6 Dates of rank 2.7 Awards and decorations

2.7.1 Badges 2.7.2 Medals and ribbons 2.7.3 Foreign decorations

2.8 13 Rules of Leadership

3 Potential presidential candidate 4 Secretary of State 5 Life after diplomatic service 6 Political views

6.1 Views on the Iraq War 6.2 Role in presidential election of 2008 6.3 Views on the Obama administration 6.4 2016 presidential election

7 Personal life 8 Civilian awards and honors 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life and education Powell was born on April 5, 1937,[8] in Harlem, a neighborhood in the New York City
New York City
borough of Manhattan, to Jamaican immigrant parents Maud Arial (née McKoy) and Luther Theophilus Powell. His parents were both of mixed African and Scots ancestry.[9][10] Luther worked as a shipping clerk and Maud as a seamstress.[11] Powell was raised in the South Bronx
South Bronx
and attended Morris High School, from which he graduated in 1954. (This school has since closed.) While at school, Powell worked at a local baby furniture store, where he picked up Yiddish from the eastern European Jewish shopkeepers and some of the customers.[12] He also served as a Shabbos goy, helping Orthodox families with needed tasks on the Sabbath.[13] He received a Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science
degree in Geology
Geology
from the City College of New York in 1958[14][15] and has said he was a 'C average' student.[16] He later earned an MBA degree from the George Washington University
George Washington University
in 1971,[14] after his second tour in Vietnam. Despite his parents' pronunciation of his name as /ˈkɒlɪn/, Powell has pronounced his name /ˈkoʊlɪn/ since childhood, after the heroic World War II flyer Colin P. Kelly Jr.[17] Public officials and radio and television reporters have used Powell's preferred pronunciation. Military career Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, holding a variety of command and staff positions and rising to the rank of General.[18] Training Powell described joining the Reserve Officers' Training Corps
Reserve Officers' Training Corps
(ROTC) during college as one of the happiest experiences of his life; discovering something he loved and could do well, he felt he had "found himself." According to Powell:

It was only once I was in college, about six months into college when I found something that I liked, and that was ROTC, Reserve Officer Training Corps in the military. And I not only liked it, but I was pretty good at it. That's what you really have to look for in life, something that you like, and something that you think you're pretty good at. And if you can put those two things together, then you're on the right track, and just drive on.[19]

Cadet Powell joined the Pershing Rifles, the ROTC
ROTC
fraternal organization and drill team begun by General John Pershing. Even after he had become a general, Powell kept on his desk a pen set he had won for a drill team competition. Upon graduation, he received a commission as an Army second lieutenant.[20] After attending basic training at Fort Benning, Powell was assigned to the 48th Infantry, in West Germany, as a platoon leader.[21] Vietnam
Vietnam
War In his autobiography, Powell said he is haunted by the nightmare of the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and felt that the leadership was very ineffective. Captain Powell served a tour in Vietnam
Vietnam
as a South Vietnamese Army (ARVN) advisor from 1962 to 1963. While on patrol in a Viet Cong-held area, he was wounded by stepping on a punji stake.[22] The large infection made it difficult for him to walk, and caused his foot to swell for a short time, shortening his first tour. He returned to Vietnam
Vietnam
as a major in 1968, serving in the 23rd Infantry Division, then as assistant chief of staff of operations for the Americal Division. During the second tour in Vietnam
Vietnam
he was decorated for bravery after he survived a helicopter crash, single-handedly rescuing three others, including division commander Major General Charles M. Gettys, from the burning wreckage.[21][23] Powell was charged with investigating a detailed letter by 11th Light Infantry Brigade soldier Tom Glen, which backed up rumored allegations of the My Lai Massacre. He wrote: "In direct refutation of this portrayal is the fact that relations between American soldiers and the Vietnamese people
Vietnamese people
are excellent." Later, Powell's assessment would be described as whitewashing the news of the massacre, and questions would continue to remain undisclosed to the public. In May 2004 Powell said to television and radio host Larry King, "I was in a unit that was responsible for My Lai. I got there after My Lai happened. So, in war, these sorts of horrible things happen every now and again, but they are still to be deplored."[24]

Powell in April 1989, as the Commanding General of FORSCOM.

After the Vietnam
Vietnam
War Powell served a White House
White House
Fellowship under President Richard Nixon from 1972 to 1973. During 1975–1976 he attended the National War College, Washington, D.C.[25] In his autobiography, My American Journey, Powell named several officers he served under who inspired and mentored him. As a lieutenant colonel serving in South Korea, Powell was very close to General Henry "Gunfighter" Emerson. Powell said he regarded Emerson as one of the most caring officers he ever met. Emerson insisted his troops train at night to fight a possible North Korean attack, and made them repeatedly watch the television film Brian's Song
Brian's Song
to promote racial harmony. Powell always professed that what set Emerson apart was his great love of his soldiers and concern for their welfare. After a race riot occurred, in which African American
African American
soldiers almost killed a White officer, Powell was charged by Emerson to crack down on black militants; Powell's efforts led to the discharge of one soldier, and other efforts to reduce racial tensions.[21] A "political general" In the early 1980s, Powell served at Fort Carson, Colorado. After he left Fort Carson, Powell became senior military assistant to Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, whom he assisted during the 1983 invasion of Grenada and the 1986 airstrike on Libya.

President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and National Security Advisor Powell in 1988

In 1986, Powell took over the command of V Corps in Frankfurt, Germany, from Robert Lewis "Sam" Wetzel. Following the Iran Contra
Iran Contra
scandal, Powell became, at the age of 49, Ronald Reagan's National Security Advisor, serving from 1987 to 1989 while retaining his Army commission as a lieutenant general. In April 1989, after his tenure with the National Security Council, Powell was promoted to four-star general under President George H. W. Bush and briefly served as the Commander in Chief, Forces Command (FORSCOM), headquartered at Fort McPherson, Georgia, overseeing all Army, Army Reserve, and National Guard units in the Continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. He became the third general since World War II to reach four-star rank without ever serving as a division commander, joining Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
and Alexander Haig. Later that year, President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
selected him as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[26] Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Powell in November 1989, on his official Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff portrait.

Powell's last military assignment, from October 1, 1989, to September 30, 1993, was as the 12th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military position in the Department of Defense. At age 52, he became the youngest officer, and first Afro-Caribbean American, to serve in this position. Powell was also the first JCS Chair who received his commission through ROTC.[27] During this time, he oversaw 28 crises, including the invasion of Panama in 1989 to remove General Manuel Noriega
Manuel Noriega
from power and Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm
in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. During these events, Powell earned his nickname, "the reluctant warrior." He rarely advocated military intervention as the first solution to an international crisis, and instead usually prescribed diplomacy and containment.

General Colin Powell, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, waves from his motorcade during the Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
Welcome Home Parade in New York City.

As a military strategist, Powell advocated an approach to military conflicts that maximizes the potential for success and minimizes casualties. A component of this approach is the use of overwhelming force, which he applied to Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm
in 1991. His approach has been dubbed the "Powell Doctrine". Powell continued as chairman of the JCS into the Clinton presidency but as a dedicated "realist" he considered himself a bad fit for an administration largely made up of liberal internationalists.[28] He clashed with then-U.S. ambassador to the United Nations Madeleine Albright
Madeleine Albright
over the Bosnian crisis, as he opposed any military interventions that didn't involve US interests.[29] During his chairmanship of the JCS, there was discussion of awarding Powell a fifth star, granting him the rank of General of the Army. But even in the wake of public and Congressional pressure[30][31] to do so, Clinton-Gore
Clinton-Gore
presidential transition team staffers decided against it.[32][33][34] Dates of rank

Promotions

Rank Date

General April 4, 1989

Lieutenant general March 26, 1986

Major general August 1, 1983

Brigadier general June 1, 1979

Colonel February 1, 1976

Lieutenant colonel July 9, 1970

Major May 24, 1966

Captain June 2, 1962

First lieutenant December 30, 1959

Second lieutenant June 9, 1958

Awards and decorations Badges

Combat Infantryman Badge

Expert Infantryman Badge

Ranger Tab

Parachutist Badge

Pathfinder Badge

Air Assault Badge

Presidential Service Badge

Secretary of Defense Identification Badge

Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
Identification Badge

Army Staff Identification Badge

Medals and ribbons

Defense Distinguished Service Medal
Defense Distinguished Service Medal
with three oak leaf clusters

Distinguished Service Medal, Army with oak leaf cluster

Defense Superior Service Medal

Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
with oak leaf cluster

Soldier's Medal

Bronze Star

Purple Heart

Air Medal

Joint Service Commendation Medal

Army Commendation Medal
Army Commendation Medal
with two oak leaf clusters

Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
with Distinction (1993)[35]

Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
(1991)

Presidential Citizens Medal

National Defense Service Medal
National Defense Service Medal
with bronze service star

Vietnam
Vietnam
Service Medal with silver service star

Army Service Ribbon

Army Overseas Service Ribbon
Army Overseas Service Ribbon
with award numeral 4

Foreign decorations

Skanderbeg's Order
Skanderbeg's Order
(Albania)

Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
(KCB) (United Kingdom)

Légion d'honneur, Grand Cross (France)

Meritorious Service Cross
Meritorious Service Cross
(M.S.C.) (Canada)

Order of Stara Planina in the First Order (Bulgaria)[36][37]

Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
Gallantry Cross Unit Citation

Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
Campaign Medal

13 Rules of Leadership First printed in the August 13, 1989 issue of Parade magazine,[38] these are Colin Powell's 13 Rules of Leadership.[39][40]

It ain't as bad as you think. Get mad, then get over it. Avoid having your ego so close to your position that when your position falls, your ego goes with it. It can be done. Be careful what you choose. You may get it. Don't let adverse facts stand in the way of a good decision. You can't make someone else's choices. Check small things. Share credit. Remain calm. Be kind. Have a vision. Don't take counsel of your fears or naysayers. Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier.

Potential presidential candidate Powell's experience in military matters made him a very popular figure with both American political parties. Many Democrats admired his moderate stance on military matters, while many Republicans saw him as a great asset associated with the successes of past Republican administrations. Put forth as a potential Democratic Vice Presidential nominee in the 1992 U.S. presidential election[41] or even potentially replacing Vice President Dan Quayle
Dan Quayle
as the Republican Vice Presidential nominee,[42] Powell eventually declared himself a Republican and began to campaign for Republican candidates in 1995.[43] He was touted as a possible opponent of Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
in the 1996 U.S. presidential election, possibly capitalizing on a split conservative vote in Iowa[44] and even leading New Hampshire
New Hampshire
polls for the GOP nomination,[45] but Powell declined, citing a lack of passion for politics.[46] Powell defeated Clinton 50–38 in a hypothetical match-up proposed to voters in the exit polls conducted on Election Day.[47] Despite not standing in the race, Powell won the Republican New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Vice-Presidential primary on write-in votes.[48] In 1997 Powell founded America's Promise
America's Promise
with the objective of helping children from all socioeconomic sectors. That same year saw the establishment of The Colin L. Powell Center for Leadership and Service. The mission of the Center is to "prepare new generations of publicly engaged leaders from populations previously underrepresented in public service and policy circles, to build a strong culture of civic engagement at City College, and to mobilize campus resources to meet pressing community needs and serve the public good." [49] Powell was mentioned as a potential candidate in the 2000 U.S. presidential election, but decided against running.[50] Once Texas Governor George W. Bush
George W. Bush
secured the Republican nomination, Powell endorsed him for president and spoke at the 2000 Republican National Convention. Bush eventually won, and Powell was appointed Secretary of State. In the electoral college vote count of 2016, Powell received three votes from faithless electors from Washington. Secretary of State

Powell, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
listen to President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
speak.

As Secretary of State in the Bush administration, Powell was perceived as moderate. Powell was unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate. Over the course of his tenure he traveled less than any other U.S. Secretary of State in 30 years. [51] On September 11, 2001, Powell was in Lima, Peru, meeting with President Alejandro Toledo
Alejandro Toledo
and US Ambassador
US Ambassador
John Hamilton, and attending the special session of the OAS General Assembly that subsequently adopted the Inter-American Democratic Charter. After the September 11 attacks, Powell's job became of critical importance in managing America's relationships with foreign countries in order to secure a stable coalition in the War on Terrorism. Powell came under fire for his role in building the case for the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. In a press statement on February 24, 2001, he had said that sanctions against Iraq had prevented the development of any weapons of mass destruction by Saddam Hussein. As was the case in the days leading up to the Persian Gulf War, Powell was initially opposed to a forcible overthrow of Saddam, preferring to continue a policy of containment. However, Powell eventually agreed to go along with the Bush administration's determination to remove Saddam. He had often clashed with others in the administration, who were reportedly planning an Iraq invasion even before the September 11 attacks, an insight supported by testimony by former terrorism czar Richard Clarke in front of the 9/11 Commission. The main concession Powell wanted before he would offer his full support for the Iraq War
Iraq War
was the involvement of the international community in the invasion, as opposed to a unilateral approach. He was also successful in persuading Bush to take the case of Iraq to the United Nations, and in moderating other initiatives. Powell was placed at the forefront of this diplomatic campaign.

Computer-generated image of an alleged mobile production facility for biological weapons, presented by Powell at the UN Security Council. On May 27, 2003, US and UK experts examined the trailers and declared they had nothing to do with biological weapons.[52]

Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving a presentation to the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
in February 2003.

Powell's chief role was to garner international support for a multi-national coalition to mount the invasion. To this end, Powell addressed a plenary session of the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
on February 5, 2003, to argue in favor of military action. Citing numerous anonymous Iraqi defectors, Powell asserted that "there can be no doubt that Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
has biological weapons and the capability to rapidly produce more, many more." Powell also stated that there was "no doubt in my mind" that Saddam was working to obtain key components to produce nuclear weapons.[53] Most observers praised Powell's oratorical skills. However, Britain's Channel 4 News
Channel 4 News
reported soon afterwards that a UK intelligence dossier that Powell had referred to as a "fine paper" during his presentation had been based on old material and plagiarized an essay by American graduate student Ibrahim al-Marashi.[54][55] A 2004 report by the Iraq Survey Group concluded that the evidence that Powell offered to support the allegation that the Iraqi government possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) was inaccurate. In an interview with Charlie Rose, Powell contended that prior to his UN presentation, he had merely four days to review the data concerning WMD in Iraq.[56] A Senate report on intelligence failures would later detail the intense debate that went on behind the scenes on what to include in Powell's speech. State Department analysts had found dozens of factual problems in drafts of the speech. Some of the claims were taken out, but others were left in, such as claims based on the yellowcake forgery.[57] The administration came under fire for having acted on faulty intelligence, particularly what was single-sourced to the informant known as Curveball. Powell later recounted how Vice President Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
had joked with him before he gave the speech, telling him, "You've got high poll ratings; you can afford to lose a few points." Powell's longtime aide-de-camp and Chief of Staff from 1989–2003, Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson, later characterized Cheney's view of Powell's mission as to "go up there and sell it, and we'll have moved forward a peg or two. Fall on your damn sword and kill yourself, and I'll be happy, too."[58] In September 2005, Powell was asked about the speech during an interview with Barbara Walters
Barbara Walters
and responded that it was a "blot" on his record. He went on to say, "It will always be a part of my record. It was painful. It's painful now."[59] Wilkerson said that he inadvertently participated in a hoax on the American people in preparing Powell's erroneous testimony before the United Nations Security Council.[60] Because Powell was seen as more moderate than most figures in the administration, he was spared many of the attacks that have been leveled at more controversial advocates of the invasion, such as Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
and Paul Wolfowitz. At times, infighting among the Powell-led State Department, the Rumsfeld-led Defense Department, and Cheney's office had the effect of polarizing the administration on crucial issues, such as what actions to take regarding Iran
Iran
and North Korea.

Secretary Powell with NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer

After Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
had been deposed, Powell's new role was to once again establish a working international coalition, this time to assist in the rebuilding of post-war Iraq. On September 13, 2004, Powell testified before the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee,[61] acknowledging that the sources who provided much of the information in his February 2003 UN presentation were "wrong" and that it was "unlikely" that any stockpiles of WMDs would be found. Claiming that he was unaware that some intelligence officials questioned the information prior to his presentation, Powell pushed for reform in the intelligence community, including the creation of a national intelligence director who would assure that "what one person knew, everyone else knew." Additionally, Powell has been critical of other instances of U.S. foreign policy in the past, such as its support for the 1973 Chilean coup d'état. From two separate interviews in 2003, Powell stated in one about the 1973 event "I can't justify or explain the actions and decisions that were made at that time. It was a different time. There was a great deal of concern about communism in this part of the world. Communism was a threat to the democracies in this part of the world. It was a threat to the United States."[62] In another interview, however, he also simply stated "With respect to your earlier comment about Chile
Chile
in the 1970s and what happened with Mr. Allende, it is not a part of American history that we're proud of."[63] Powell announced his resignation as Secretary of State on November 15, 2004. According to The Washington Post, he had been asked to resign by the president's chief of staff, Andrew Card.[58] Powell announced that he would stay on until the end of Bush's first term or until his replacement's confirmation by Congress. The following day, Bush nominated National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
as Powell's successor. News of Powell's leaving the Administration spurred mixed reactions from politicians around the world — some upset at the loss of a statesman seen as a moderating factor within the Bush administration, but others hoping for Powell's successor to wield more influence within the cabinet. In mid-November, Powell stated that he had seen new evidence suggesting that Iran
Iran
was adapting missiles for a nuclear delivery system.[64] The accusation came at the same time as the settlement of an agreement between Iran, the IAEA, and the European Union. On December 31, 2004, Powell rang in the New Year by pressing a button in Times Square
Times Square
with New York City
New York City
Mayor Michael Bloomberg
Michael Bloomberg
to initiate the ball drop and 60 second countdown, ushering in the year 2005. He appeared on the networks that were broadcasting New Year's Eve specials and talked about this honor, as well as being a native of New York City.[65] Life after diplomatic service After retiring from the role of Secretary of State, Powell returned to private life. In April 2005, he was privately telephoned by Republican senators Lincoln Chafee
Lincoln Chafee
and Chuck Hagel,[66] at which time Powell expressed reservations and mixed reviews about the nomination of John R. Bolton as ambassador to the United Nations, but refrained from advising the senators to oppose Bolton (Powell had clashed with Bolton during Bush's first term).[67] The decision was viewed as potentially dealing significant damage to Bolton's chances of confirmation. Bolton was put into the position via a recess appointment because of the strong opposition in the Senate.

Powell with Ban Ki-moon, 2004.

On April 28, 2005, an opinion piece in The Guardian
The Guardian
by Sidney Blumenthal (a former top aide to President Bill Clinton) claimed that Powell was in fact "conducting a campaign" against Bolton because of the acrimonious battles they had had while working together, which among other things had resulted in Powell cutting Bolton out of talks with Iran
Iran
and Libya
Libya
after complaints about Bolton's involvement from the British. Blumenthal added that "The foreign relations committee has discovered that Bolton made a highly unusual request and gained access to 10 intercepts by the National Security Agency. Staff members on the committee believe that Bolton was probably spying on Powell, his senior advisors and other officials reporting to him on diplomatic initiatives that Bolton opposed."[68] In July 2005, Powell joined Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield & Byers, a well-known Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
venture capital firm, with the title of "strategic limited partner." In September 2005, Powell criticized the response to Hurricane Katrina.[69] Powell said that thousands of people were not properly protected, but because they were poor rather than because they were black.

Powell walks with newly crowned King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, Vice President Dick Cheney, and former President George H. W. Bush, Saudi Arabia, August 2005.

On January 5, 2006, he participated in a meeting at the White House
White House
of former Secretaries of Defense and State to discuss United States foreign policy with Bush administration officials. In September 2006, Powell sided with more moderate Senate Republicans in supporting more rights for detainees and opposing President Bush's terrorism bill. He backed Senators John Warner, John McCain
John McCain
and Lindsey Graham
Lindsey Graham
in their statement that U.S. military and intelligence personnel in future wars will suffer for abuses committed in 2006 by the U.S. in the name of fighting terrorism. Powell stated that "The world is beginning to doubt the moral basis of [America's] fight against terrorism."[70] Also in 2006, Powell began appearing as a speaker at a series of motivational events called Get Motivated, along with former New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani. In his speeches for the tour, he openly criticized the Bush Administration on a number of issues. Powell has been the recipient of mild criticism for his role with Get Motivated which has been called a "get-rich-quick-without-much-effort, feel-good schemology."[71] In 2007 he joined the Board of Directors of Steve Case's new company Revolution Health. Powell also serves on the Council on Foreign Relations Board of directors.[72] Powell, in honor of Martin Luther King Day, dropped the ceremonial first puck at a New York Islanders
New York Islanders
ice hockey game at Nassau Coliseum on January 21, 2008. On November 11, 2008, Powell again dropped the puck in recognition of Military Appreciation Day and Veterans Day.[73][74] Recently, Powell has encouraged young people to continue to use new technologies to their advantage in the future. In a speech at the Center for Strategic and International Studies
Center for Strategic and International Studies
to a room of young professionals, he said, "That's your generation...a generation that is hard-wired digital, a generation that understands the power of the information revolution and how it is transforming the world. A generation that you represent, and you're coming together to share; to debate; to decide; to connect with each other."[75] At this event, he encouraged the next generation to involve themselves politically on the upcoming Next America Project, which uses online debate to provide policy recommendations for the upcoming administration. In 2008, Powell served as a spokesperson for National Mentoring Month, a campaign held each January to recruit volunteer mentors for at-risk youth.[76] Soon after Barack Obama's 2008 election, Powell began being mentioned as a possible cabinet member.[77] He was not nominated. In September 2009, Powell advised President Obama against surging US forces in Afghanistan.[78] The president announced the surge the following December. On March 14, 2014, Salesforce.com
Salesforce.com
announced that Powell had joined its Board of Directors.[79] Political views A liberal Republican, Powell is well known for his willingness to support liberal or centrist causes.[80] He is pro-choice regarding abortion, and in favor of "reasonable" gun control.[80][clarification needed] He stated in his autobiography that he supports affirmative action that levels the playing field, without giving a leg up to undeserving persons because of racial issues. Powell was also instrumental in the 1993 implementation of the military's don't ask, don't tell policy,[80] though he later supported its repeal as proposed by Robert Gates
Robert Gates
and Admiral Mike Mullen
Mike Mullen
in January 2010, saying "circumstances had changed".[81]

External video

Booknotes interview with Powell on My American Journey, January 7, 1996, C-SPAN

The Vietnam War
Vietnam War
had a profound effect on Powell's views of the proper use of military force. These views are described in detail in the autobiography My American Journey. The Powell Doctrine, as the views became known, was a central component of U.S. policy in the Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
(the first U.S. war in Iraq) and U.S. invasion of Afghanistan (the overthrow of the Taliban
Taliban
regime in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
following the September 11 attacks). The hallmark of both operations was strong international cooperation, and the use of overwhelming military force. Powell was the subject of controversy in 2004 when, in a conversation with British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw, he reportedly referred to neoconservatives within the Bush administration as "fucking crazies."[82] In addition to being reported in the press (although the expletive was generally censored in the U.S. press), the quotation was used by James Naughtie in his book, The Accidental American: Tony Blair and the Presidency, and by Chris Patten
Chris Patten
in his book, Cousins and Strangers: America, Britain, and Europe in a New Century. In a September 2006 letter to Sen. John McCain, General Powell expressed opposition to President Bush's push for military tribunals of those formerly and currently classified as enemy combatants. Specifically, he objected to the effort in Congress to "redefine Common Article 3 of the Geneva Convention." He also asserted: "The world is beginning to doubt the moral basis of our fight against terrorism."[83] Powell endorsed President Obama in 2008 and again in 2012. When asked why he is still a Republican on Meet the Press
Meet the Press
he said, "I’m still a Republican. And I think the Republican Party needs me more than the Democratic Party needs me. And you can be a Republican and still feel strongly about issues such as immigration, and improving our education system, and doing something about some of the social problems that exist in our society and our country. I don’t think there's anything inconsistent with this." [84] Views on the Iraq War While Powell was wary of a military solution, he supported the decision to invade Iraq after the Bush administration concluded that diplomatic efforts had failed. After his departure from the State Department, Powell repeatedly emphasized his continued support for American involvement in the Iraq War. At the 2007 Aspen Ideas Festival in Colorado,[85] Powell revealed that he had spent two and a half hours explaining to President Bush "the consequences of going into an Arab country and becoming the occupiers." During this discussion, he insisted that the U.S. appeal to the United Nations first, but if diplomacy failed, he would support the invasion: "I also had to say to him that you are the President, you will have to make the ultimate judgment, and if the judgment is this isn't working and we don't think it is going to solve the problem, then if military action is undertaken I'm with you, I support you."[86] In a 2008 interview on CNN, Powell reiterated his support for the 2003 decision to invade Iraq in the context of his endorsement of Barack Obama, stating: "My role has been very, very straightforward. I wanted to avoid a war. The president [Bush] agreed with me. We tried to do that. We couldn't get it through the U.N. and when the president made the decision, I supported that decision. And I've never blinked from that. I've never said I didn't support a decision to go to war."[87] Powell's position on the Iraq War
Iraq War
troop surge of 2007 has been less consistent. In December 2006, he expressed skepticism that the strategy would work and whether the U.S. military had enough troops to carry it out successfully. He stated: "I am not persuaded that another surge of troops into Baghdad for the purposes of suppressing this communitarian violence, this civil war, will work."[88] Following his endorsement of Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in October 2008, however, Powell praised General David Petraeus
David Petraeus
and U.S. troops, as well as the Iraqi government, concluding that "it's starting to turn around."[87] By mid-2009, he had concluded a surge of U.S. forces in Iraq should have come sooner, perhaps in late 2003.[89] Throughout this period, Powell consistently argued that Iraqi political progress was essential, not just military force. Role in presidential election of 2008 Powell donated the maximum allowable amount to John McCain's campaign in the summer of 2007[90] and in early 2008, his name was listed as a possible running mate for Republican nominee McCain's bid during the 2008 U.S. presidential election.[91] However, on October 19, 2008, Powell announced his endorsement of Barack Obama
Barack Obama
during a Meet the Press interview, citing "his ability to inspire, because of the inclusive nature of his campaign, because he is reaching out all across America, because of who he is and his rhetorical abilities", in addition to his "style and substance." He additionally referred to Obama as a "transformational figure".[92][93] Powell further questioned McCain's judgment in appointing Sarah Palin
Sarah Palin
as the vice presidential candidate, stating that despite the fact that she is admired, "now that we have had a chance to watch her for some seven weeks, I don't believe she's ready to be president of the United States, which is the job of the vice president." He said that Obama's choice for vice-president, Joe Biden, was ready to be president. He also added that he was "troubled" by the "false intimations that Obama was Muslim." Powell stated that "[Obama] is a Christian—he's always been a Christian... But the really right answer is, what if he is? Is there something wrong with being a Muslim in this country? The answer's no, that's not America." Powell then mentioned Kareem Rashad Sultan Khan, a Muslim American soldier in the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
who served and died in the Iraq War. He later stated, "Over the last seven weeks, the approach of the Republican Party has become narrower and narrower [...] I look at these kind of approaches to the campaign, and they trouble me."[92][93] Powell concluded his Sunday morning talk show comments, "It isn't easy for me to disappoint Sen. McCain in the way that I have this morning, and I regret that [...] I think we need a transformational figure. I think we need a president who is a generational change and that's why I'm supporting Barack Obama, not out of any lack of respect or admiration for Sen. John McCain."[94] Later in a December 12, 2008, CNN
CNN
interview with Fareed Zakaria, Powell reiterated his belief that during the last few months of the campaign, Palin pushed the Republican party further to the right and had a polarizing impact on it.[95] Views on the Obama administration In a July 2009 CNN
CNN
interview with John King, Powell expressed concern over President Obama growing the size of the federal government and the size of the federal budget deficit.[96] In September 2010, he criticized the Obama administration for not focusing "like a razor blade" on the economy and job creation. Powell reiterated that Obama was a "transformational figure."[97] In a video that aired on CNN.com in November 2011, Colin Powell
Colin Powell
said in reference to Barack Obama, "many of his decisions have been quite sound. The financial system was put back on a stable basis."[98] On October 25, 2012, 12 days before the presidential election, he gave his endorsement to President Obama for re-election during a broadcast of CBS This Morning. He cited success and forward progress in foreign and domestic policy arenas under the Obama Administration, and made the following statement: "I voted for him in 2008 and I plan to stick with him in 2012 and I'll be voting for he [sic] and for Vice President Joe Biden
Joe Biden
next month." As additional reason for his endorsement, Powell cited the changing positions and perceived lack of thoughtfulness of Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
on foreign affairs, and a concern for the validity of Romney's economic plans.[99] In an interview with ABC's Diane Sawyer and George Stephanopoulos during ABC's coverage of President Obama's second inauguration, Powell criticized members of the Republican Party who "demonize[d] the president". He called on GOP leaders to publicly denounce such talk.[100] 2016 presidential election Powell has been very vocal on the state of the Republican party. Speaking at a Washington Ideas forum in early October 2015, he warned the audience that the Republican party had begun a move to the fringe right, lessening the chances of a Republican White House
White House
in the future. He also remarked on Republican presidential contender Donald Trump's statements regarding immigrants, noting that there were many immigrants working in Trump hotels.[101] In March 2016, Powell denounced the "nastiness" of the 2016 Republican primaries during an interview on CBS This Morning. He compared the race to a "reality show", and stated that the campaign had gone "into the mud".[102] In August 2016, Powell accused the Clinton campaign of trying to pin Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton's email controversy
Hillary Clinton's email controversy
on him. Speaking to People magazine, Powell said, "The truth is, she was using [the private email server] for a year before I sent her a memo telling her what I did."[103] On September 13, 2016, emails were obtained that revealed Powell's private communications regarding both Donald Trump
Donald Trump
and Hillary Clinton. Powell privately reiterated his comments regarding Clinton's email scandal, writing, "I have told Hillary's minions repeatedly that they are making a mistake trying to drag me in, yet they still try," and complaining that "Hillary’s mafia keeps trying to suck me into it" in another email.[104] In another email discussing Clinton's controversy, Powell noted that she should have told everyone what she did "two years ago", and said that she has not "been covering herself with glory." Writing on the 2012 Benghazi attack
2012 Benghazi attack
controversy surrounding Clinton, Powell said to then U.S. Ambassador Susan Rice, "Benghazi is a stupid witch hunt." Commenting on Clinton in a general sense, Powell mused that "Everything [Clinton] touches she kind of screws up with hubris", and in another email stated "I would rather not have to vote for her, although she is a friend I respect."[105] Powell referred to Donald Trump
Donald Trump
as a "national disgrace", with "no sense of shame". He wrote candidly of Trump's role in the birther movement, which he referred to as "racist". Powell suggested that the media ignore Trump, saying, "To go on and call him an idiot just emboldens him." The emails were obtained by the media as the result of a hack.[106] Powell endorsed Clinton on October 25, 2016, stating it was "because I think she's qualified, and the other gentleman is not qualified."[107] Despite not running in the election, Powell received three electoral votes for president from faithless electors in Washington who had pledged to vote for Clinton, coming in third overall.[108] After Barack Obama, Powell was only the second African American
African American
to receive electoral votes in a presidential election. He was also the first Republican since 1984 to receive electoral votes from Washington in a presidential election, as well as the first Republican African American to do so. Personal life Powell married Alma Johnson on August 25, 1962. Their son, Michael Powell, was the chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) from 2001 to 2005. His daughters are Linda Powell, an actress, and Annemarie Powell. As a hobby, Powell restores old Volvo and Saab cars.[109][110] In 2013, he faced questions about a relationship with a Romanian diplomat, after a hacked AOL
AOL
email account had been made public. He acknowledged a "very personal" email relationship but denied further involvement.[111] Civilian awards and honors Powell's civilian awards include two Presidential Medals of Freedom (the second with distinction), the President's Citizens Medal, the Congressional Gold Medal, the Secretary of State Distinguished Service Medal, the Secretary of Energy Distinguished Service Medal, and the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Freedom Award. Several schools and other institutions have been named in his honor and he holds honorary degrees from universities and colleges across the country.

In 1988, Powell received the Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award. In 1990, Powell received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[112] In 1991, Powell was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
by President George H. W. Bush. In 1991, Powell was awarded the Spingarn Medal
Spingarn Medal
from the NAACP.[113] In 1991, Powell was inducted into the Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans,[114] which "honors the achievements of outstanding individuals in U.S. society who have succeeded in spite of adversity and of encouraging young people to pursue their dreams through higher education." On September 30, 1993, Powell was awarded his second Presidential Medal of Freedom with distinction by President Bill Clinton.[35] On November 9, 1993, Powell was awarded the second Ronald Reagan Freedom Award, by President Ronald Reagan. Powell served as Reagan's National Security Advisor from 1987–1989.[115] On December 15, 1993, Colin Powell
Colin Powell
was created an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. In 1998, he was awarded the prestigious Sylvanus Thayer Award
Sylvanus Thayer Award
by the United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy
for his commitment to the ideals of "Duty, Honor, Country." The 2002 Liberty Medal
Liberty Medal
was awarded to Colin Powell
Colin Powell
on July 4 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In his acceptance speech, Powell reminded Americans that "It is for America, the Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave, to help freedom ring across the globe, unto all the peoples thereof. That is our solemn obligation, and we will not fail."[116]

Coat of arms

The Coat of Arms of Colin Powell
Colin Powell
was granted by the Lord Lyon
Lord Lyon
in Edinburgh on February 4, 2004. Technically the grant was to Powell's father (a British subject) to be passed on by descent. Scotland's King of Arms is traditionally responsible for granting arms to Commonwealth citizens of Scottish descent. Blazoned as

Azure, two swords in saltire points downwards between four mullets Argent, on a chief of the Second a lion passant Gules. On a wreath of the Liveries is set for Crest the head of an American bald-headed eagle erased Proper. And in an escrol over the same this motto, "DEVOTED TO PUBLIC SERVICE."

The swords and stars refer to the former general's career, as does the crest, which is the badge of the 101st Airborne (which he served as a brigade commander in the mid-1970s). The lion may be an allusion to Scotland. The shield can be shown surrounded by the insignia of an honorary Knight Commander of the Most Honorable Order of the Bath (KCB), an award the General received after the first Gulf War.

In 2005 Powell received the Bishop John T. Walker Distinguished Humanitarian Service Award for his contributions to Africa. AARP
AARP
honored Powell with the 2006 AARP
AARP
Andrus Award, the Association's highest honor. This award, named in honor of AARP's founder, Dr. Ethel Percy Andrus, is presented biennially to distinguished individuals who have generated positive social change in the world, and whose work and achievements reflect AARP's vision of bringing lifetimes of experience and leadership to serve all generations. In 2005 Colin and Alma Powell were awarded the Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars of the Smithsonian Institution. Colin Powell
Colin Powell
was initiated as an honorary brother in Sigma Phi Epsilon. Powell is a recipient of the Silver Buffalo Award, the highest adult award given by the Boy Scouts of America. A street in Gelnhausen, Germany was named after him: "General-Colin-Powell-Straße".[117] In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante
Molefi Kete Asante
listed Colin Powell
Colin Powell
on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.[118] In 2009, an elementary school named for Colin Powell
Colin Powell
opened in El Paso. It is in the El Paso Independent School District, located on Fort Bliss
Fort Bliss
property, and serves a portion of Fort Bliss.[119] There is also a street in El Paso named for Powell, Colin Powell
Colin Powell
Drive. Powell is an Honorary Board Member of the humanitarian organization Wings of Hope[120] Since 2006, he is the chairman of the Board of Trustees for Eisenhower Fellowships[121] In 2006, The Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
awarded Colin Powell
Colin Powell
with the Truman Peace Prize for his efforts to conduct the "war against terrorism", through diplomatic as well as military means, and to avert regional and civil conflicts in many parts of the world.[122] In September 2012 Union City, New Jersey
Union City, New Jersey
opened Colin Powell Elementary School, which was named after Powell, and dedicated the school on February 7, 2013, with governor Chris Christie
Chris Christie
in attendance.[123] Powell himself visited the school on June 4, 2013.[124] In 2014, Colin Powell
Colin Powell
was named to the National Board of Advisors for High Point University.[125]

See also

Biography portal United States Army
United States Army
portal Military of the United States portal

List of African-American Republicans List of African-American United States Cabinet
United States Cabinet
Secretaries Plame affair Pottery Barn rule Republican and conservative support for Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2008

References

^ "Biographies of the Secretary of State:Colin Luther Powell". U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 16, 2015.  ^ Preferred pronunciation rhymes with "bowel", not "bowl" (as in Charles Powell, Baron Powell of Bayswater) – see Alexander Chancellor, "You Say Tomato", New Yorker. August 9, 1993, p. 27. ^ The first African American
African American
secretary of state, Colin Powell
Colin Powell
Archived June 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., The African American
African American
Registry. ^ Biographies – Colin Powell: United States Secretary of State, African American
African American
History Month, US Department of Defense. ^ Colin Powell, Britannica Online Encyclopedia. ^ Profile: Colin Powell, BBC News. ^ a b c d "Secretary of State Colin L. Powell". The White House. Retrieved 24 December 2016.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ Reitwiesner, William Addams. "Ancestry of Colin Powell". wargs.com. Retrieved October 20, 2008.  ^ Branigan, Tania (May 12, 2004). " Colin Powell
Colin Powell
claims Scottish coat of arms". The Guardian. London.  ^ "Colin Powell's Scottish Ancestry". Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter. 9 (20). May 17, 2004.  ^ CNN
CNN
staff (March 30, 2016). " Colin Powell
Colin Powell
Fast Facts". CNN. Retrieved September 30, 2016.  ^ Daly, Michael (August 2, 2000). "Powell's Old Nabe Boss a Big Backer". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on November 10, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008. Powell explained that he had joined ROTC. He became an officer after graduation, leaving Sickser's with a smattering of Yiddish...  ^ "Former Secretary of State Gen. Colin Powell
Colin Powell
and Mario Cuomo, former governor of New York State, each a former Shabbos goy, both share fond recollections of their youth, when they were uniquely qualified to lend a Jewish neighbor a hand." Fertig, Avi. "Glatt Kosher Adventure To The Land Down Under", The Jewish Press, November 21, 2007. ^ a b " Colin Powell
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Fast Facts". CNN. April 2, 2017. Education: City College of New York, B.S. in geology,1958; George Washington University, M.B.A.,1971; National War College, 1976  ^ "About Gen. Colin L. Powell, USA (Ret.)". The Colin Powell
Colin Powell
School for Civic and Global Leadership, The City College of New York. He attended New York City
New York City
public schools and the City College of New York where he earned a B.S. in Geology.  ^ Schwab, Nikki (May 30, 2012). "Colin Powell: bad student". Washington Examiner. My cousins became lawyers and doctors and judges and I just sort of hung around," he recalled. "I had a straight C average all the way through high school and the City College of New York — I'm not sure how I got in.  ^ "Major Player: Gen. Colin L. Powell (Ret.)". Washington Post. July 28, 2000. Retrieved April 30, 2010.  ^ "Colin (Luther) Powell Biography (1937– )". The Biography Channel. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved May 31, 2007.  ^ " Colin Powell
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Interview". achievement.org. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ "Secretary of State Colin L. Powell (biography)". The White House. April 29, 2003. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ a b c "Colin Powell". CNN. 1996. Retrieved 7 December 2012.  ^ Kearny, Cresson H. (1996). Jungle Snafus...And Remedies. Cave Junction, Oregon: Oregon Institute of Science & Medicine. p. 179. ISBN 978-1-884067-10-5. OCLC 41447083.  ^ Finlayson, Reggie (2003). Colin Powell. Biography (A & E). Twenty-First Century Books. p. 55. ISBN 9780822549666. Retrieved 7 December 2012.  ^ "Interview on CNN's Larry King
Larry King
Live". New York: U.S. Department of State. May 4, 2004. Archived from the original on January 10, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ Brown, Warren; Wagner, Heather Lehr (1 Jan 2009). Colin Powell: Soldier and Statesman. Infobase Publishing. p. 41,43.  ^ "Online NewsHour: Colin Powell". Pbs.org. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ "The 14 Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff". Joint History Office, U.S. Department of Defense. American Forces Press Service. August 10, 1999. Retrieved April 24, 2008.  ^ O'Sullivan, Christopher (2010). Colin Powell: A Political Biography. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-7425-5187-9.  ^ "Reluctant warrior", The Observer, September 30, 2001. ^ Company, Johnson Publishing (March 1991). "U.S. Sen. Kasten Pushing Effort To Award Powell With Historic Fifth Star". Jet. 79 (23). ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved February 21, 2011. ...there is a movement afoot in the U.S. Senate to award an historic fifth star to the nation's first Black Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
Chairman Gen. Colin L. Powell for his military proficiency.  ^ Italia, Bob (1991). Armed Forces: War in the Gulf. Abdo & Daughters. pp. 44–6. ISBN 978-1-56239-026-6. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Others want to make him a five-star general. [...] Congress is talking about giving him a fifth silver star, which is very rare.  ^ Stephanopoulos, George (1999). All Too Human: A Political Education. Thorndike Press. pp. 330–1. ISBN 978-0-7862-2016-8. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Mack asked me to secretly research the procedure for awarding a fifth star to a general. [...] If Powell did challenge Clinton, the fifth star would forestall criticism of the general's military record.  ^ Hamilton, Nigel (2007). Bill Clinton: Mastering the Presidency. PublicAffairs. pp. 190, 399. ISBN 978-1-58648-516-0. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Moreover, for the very reason he admired Colin Powell
Colin Powell
as the most distinguished living black American, Clinton also feared the general as a potential rival. [...] Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
had denied Powell his rightful fifth star...  ^ Halberstam, David (2001). War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals. Scribner. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-7432-0212-1. Retrieved February 22, 2011. They checked it out and found that the last general to get a fifth star was Omar Bradley
Omar Bradley
forty-three years earlier. Powell, they decided, was not Bradley. Besides, as George Stephanopoulos noted, if they gave him one more star, it might help him one day politically.  ^ a b Clinton, W. J. (September 30, 1993). "Remarks on the Retirement of General Colin Powell
Colin Powell
in Arlington, Virginia". University of California, Santa Barbara: The American Presidency Project. Retrieved September 18, 2016. In recognition of your legacy and service, of your courage and accomplishment, today, General Powell, I was honored to present you with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with distinction. I want to tell all those here in attendance that this was the second Medal of Freedom you have received, the first from President Bush in 1991. And today, you became only the second American citizen in the history of the Republic to be the recipient of two Medals of Freedom.  ^ "Remarks With Bulgarian President Georgi Purvanov At Award Ceremony for the Stara Planina First Order Medal". Presidential Palace, Coat of Arms Hall, Sofia, Bulgaria: U.S. Department of State. December 7, 2004.  ^ "Parvanov-Powell". President of the Republic of Bulgaria. December 7, 2004. President Georgi Parvanov awarded US Secretary of State Colin Powell with the highest Bulgarian order "Stara Planina" for his extraordinary services to the advancement of Bulgarian-American relations and in connection with the 100th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Bulgaria and the United States.  ^ Powell, Colin (2012). It Worked for Me. HarperCollins. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-06-213512-4.  ^ McClimon, Tim (27 August 2012). "Colin Powell's 13 Rules of Leadership". American Express. Retrieved 12 April 2013.  ^ "Can we apply Colin Powell's 13 rules?" (PDF). Texas Child Care Quarterly. Summer 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2013.  ^ Schram, Martin (January 21, 1995). "Don't Count Out Colin Powell". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 24, 2008.  ^ Van Dyk, Ted (September 6, 1990). "Will Powell Run With Bush in '92?". The New York Times. Retrieved October 24, 2008.  ^ Lusane C. Colin Powell
Colin Powell
and Condoleezza Rice: Foreign Policy, Race and the New American Century. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-98309-9, p. 46. ^ Apple, R. W. (October 28, 1995). "Life in Iowa
Iowa
May Not Have Changed, But the Political Turf Is Another Story". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2008.  ^ Berke, Richard L. (October 19, 1995). " New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Poll Finds Powell With an Edge". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2008.  ^ Clines, Francis X. (November 9, 1995). "The Powell Decision: The Announcement". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2008.  ^ Plissner, Martin (February 7, 2007). "Ready for Obama Already". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2008.  ^ "NH US Vice President – R Primary Race". Our Campaigns. Feb 20, 1996. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ "Colin L. Powell Center for Public Policy". Retrieved 16 February 2013.  ^ "How Mccain Does It". 2000-03-06. Retrieved 2016-08-12.  ^ Kessler, Glenn (July 14, 2004). "Powell Flies in the Face of Tradition; The Secretary of State Is Least Traveled in 30 Years". Washington Post. p. A01.  ^ Warrick, Joby (April 12, 2006). "Lacking Biolabs, Trailers Carried Case for War; Administration Pushed Notion of Banned Iraqi Weapons Despite Evidence to Contrary". Washington Post. p. A01.  ^ Powell, Secretary Colin L. (February 5, 2003). "Remarks to the United Nations Security Council". New York City: U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on January 9, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ Lawless, Jill (February 7, 2003). "U.S. Scholar Uncredited in Iraq Report". Associated Press. Retrieved June 26, 2009.  ^ "UK accused of lifting dossier text". CNN. February 7, 2003.  ^ Charlie Rose. charlierose.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-17. ^ Miller, Greg (July 15, 2004). "Flaws Cited in Powell's U.N. Speech on Iraq". Los Angeles Times. reprinted by CommonDreams.org. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ a b DeYoung, Karen (October 1, 2006). "Falling on His Sword: Colin Powell's most significant moment turned out to be his lowest". Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ " Colin Powell
Colin Powell
on Iraq, Race, and Hurricane Relief". ABC News: 20/20. September 8, 2005. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ Brancaccio, David (February 3, 2006). "Iraq Pre-War Intelligence". NOW. PBS. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ Pincus, Walter (February 14, 2004). "Support for Intelligence Plan". Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ "Remarks at the 2003 Groundhog Job Shadow Day Program, Secretary Colin L. Powell, Remarks and question and answer session with students, Washington, DC, January 31, 2003, excerpt on 1973 Chile coup, Federation of American Scientists". Fas.org. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ "Secretary of State Colin L. Powell, Interview On Black Entertainment Television's Youth Town Hall, February 20, 2003, excerpt on 1973 U.S. covert action in Chile, Federation of American Scientists". Fas.org. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ Sciolino, Elaine (November 18, 2004). "Exiles Add to Claims on Iran Nuclear Arms". New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 2007.  ^ Anderson, Cooper (December 31, 2004). "Transcripts: New Year's Eve Special". CNN. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ VandeHei, Jim; Robin Wright (April 22, 2005). "Powell Playing Quiet Role in Bolton Battle". Washington Post.  ^ Borger, Julian (April 23, 2005). "Powell's remarks harm Bolton's chances of UN job". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ Blumenthal, Sidney (April 28, 2005). "The good soldier's revenge". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ "Powell criticises storm response". BBC News. September 9, 2005.  ^ "Senators defy Bush on tribunals". BBC News. September 15, 2006. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ Wilken, Dennis (September 7, 2008). "Down the Rabbit Hole". American Satellite Magazine. Retrieved October 10, 2008.  ^ "Board of Directors". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved December 6, 2007.  ^ "islanderspointblank.com". islanderspointblank.com. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ "nhl.com". nhl.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ Powell, General Colin L, USA (Ret.) (July 8, 2008). "Keynote Address – A New Vision for America's Future: Young Leaders Shaping an International Agenda". CSIS Launch of Next America. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Who Mentored Colin Powell?". President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2008.  ^ "Al Gore, Colin Powell, Caroline Kennedy in Obama's Administration? – Washington Whispers". usnews.com. November 11, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ "Powell advised against Afghan surge", Politico (September 27, 2009). http://www.politico.com/blogs/laurarozen/0909/Powell_advised_against_Afghan_surge.html ^ Ingrid Lunden. "General Colin Powell
Colin Powell
Joins Salesforce Board Of Directors, As CRM Giant Zeros In On Public Sector". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ a b c Colin Powell's biography from 'On The Issues'. ^ DeYoung, Karen (February 3, 2010). " Colin Powell
Colin Powell
shifts stance on 'don't ask, don't tell' policy". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2010.  ^ Blumenthal, Sidney (November 18, 2004). "Colin and the crazies". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ "Sen. McCain Releases Letter from Gen. Colin Powell", Washington Post (September 14, 2006). https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/graphic/2006/09/14/GR2006091400728.html ^ "Colin Powell: Republican Party Needs Me More Than The Democratic Party Needs Me". TheLonelyConservative.com. February 7, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.  ^ See Official website: Aspen Ideas Festival ^ "Conversation with Colin Powell" (PDF). Aspen Ideas Festival. July 2007. Retrieved February 22, 2008.  ^ a b "Powell: Support for Obama doesn't mean Iraq war wrong", CNN (October 19, 2008). http://edition.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/10/19/powell.transcript/ ^ James M. Klatell, "Powell: We Are Losing In Iraq", CBS (December 17, 2006). http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/12/17/ftn/main2274583.shtml ^ "Powell says Iraq surge should have come earlier", Seattle Times (July 5, 2009) ^ Henry, Ed (August 9, 2007). "Powell donates to McCain". CNN. Retrieved August 9, 2007.  ^ Holland, Steve (March 5, 2008). "McCain now has to pick a vice presidential nominee". Boston Globe. Reuters. Retrieved April 14, 2008.  ^ a b "Powell endorses Obama for president; Republican ex-Secretary of State calls Democrat 'transformational figure'". Meet the Press. MSNBC and NBC News. October 19, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.  ^ a b "Meet the Press' transcript for October 19, 2008". MSNBC. October 19, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.  ^ Ohlemacher, Stephen (October 20, 2008). " Colin Powell
Colin Powell
endorses Barack Obama
Barack Obama
for president". USA Today. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ "Powell on Rush Limbaugh". CNN. July 16, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ "Powell airs doubts on Obama agenda". The Washington Times. July 3, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2010.  ^ Carrie Budoff Brown, " Colin Powell
Colin Powell
critical of President Obama", Politico (September 19, 2010). http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0910/42381.html ^ "Video". CNN.  ^ [1] retrieved October 25, 2012. ^ "ABC News". Retrieved 2013-01-22.  ^ https://www.yahoo.com/news/colin-powell-slams-donald-trumps-immigration-plan-163454530.html. Colin Powell
Colin Powell
slams Donald Trump's immigration plan. October 1, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2016. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/colin-powell-gop-race_us_56dda980e4b0000de405301a Colin Powell: The GOP Race Has ‘Gone Into The Mud’. The Huffington Post. March 7, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016. ^ http://www.people.com/article/colin-powell-hillary-clinton-pinning-email-scandal-on-him Colin Powell
Colin Powell
Says Hillary Clinton's 'People Have Been Trying to Pin' Email Scandal on Him. People Magazine. August 21, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016. ^ " Colin Powell
Colin Powell
calls Trump 'national disgrace' in hacked emails".  ^ Blumenthal, Paul (September 14, 2016). " Colin Powell
Colin Powell
Attacked Hillary Clinton's 'Hubris' In Leaked Emails". The Huffington Post.  ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/09/14/here-are-the-juiciest-colin-powell-comments-about-trump-and-clinton-from-his-leaked-emails/ Here are the juiciest Colin Powell
Colin Powell
comments about Trump and Clinton from his hacked emails. The Washington Post. September 14, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016. ^ https://www.facebook.com/aaronblakewp?fref=ts. "78 Republican politicians, donors and officials who are supporting Hillary Clinton". Washington Post.  ^ "Four Washington state electors break ranks and don't vote for Clinton". December 19, 2016.  ^ Powell, Colin (October 17, 2005). "Interview transcript". Larry King Live (Interview). Interview with Larry King. CNN. Retrieved June 14, 2009.  ^ Powell, Colin (August 2, 2004). "A Conversation with Colin Powell". The Atlantic
The Atlantic
(Interview). Interview with P. J. O'Rourke. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2009.  ^ Colin Powell
Colin Powell
insists ‘there was no affair then and there is not one now’ with diplomat. NY Daily News. Retrieved on 2013-08-17. ^ National Winners public service awards. Jefferson Awards.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-17. ^ " Spingarn Medal
Spingarn Medal
Winners: 1915 to Today". naacp.org. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ "Colin L. Powell". The Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans. n.d. Retrieved February 3, 2007.  ^ "The Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Freedom Award". Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Foundation & Library. Archived from the original on October 16, 2006.  ^ Powell, Colin (July 4, 2002). "2002 Liberty Medal
Liberty Medal
Acceptance Speech". Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: National Constitution Center.  ^ "GEN Colin Powell". March 8, 2016. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8. ^ According to the Fort Bliss
Fort Bliss
Bugle, as of 10/24/2013, nine schools have been named for Colin Powell. ^ ":.: The Official Wings Of Hope Homepage :.:". Wings-of-hope.org. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ efworld Archived August 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Powell: Friendship with Israel means friendship with Arabs" (PDF). afhu.org.  ^ McDonald, Terrence T. (February 8, 2013). "Gov. Christie visits Union City school opening, hears Democratic mayor praise him". NJ.com. ^ Wenik, Ian (June 9, 2013). "Saluting the general". The Union City Reporter. pp. 1 and 11. ^ " High Point University
High Point University
National Board of Advisors". 

Further reading

LaFeber, Walter, "The Rise and Fall of Colin Powell
Colin Powell
and the Powell Doctrine", Political Science Quarterly, 124 (Spring 2009), 71–93. Powell, Colin A. and Joseph Persico, My American Journey, Ballantine Books, 1995. ISBN 0-345-40728-8. Excerpts from My American Journey, TIME, September 18, 1995. DeYoung, Karen, Soldier: The Life of Colin Powell, Alfred A. Knopf, 2006. ISBN 1-4000-4170-8. "Alex Haley's Other Roots: African-Americans with Irish Ancestors". February 25, 2006. Retrieved February 22, 2008.  Powell, Colin; Koltz, Tony (2012). It Worked for Me: Lessons in Leadership and Life. Harper. ISBN 978-0062135124. 

External links

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Appearances on C-SPAN Colin Powell
Colin Powell
on Charlie Rose Colin Powell
Colin Powell
on IMDb " Colin Powell
Colin Powell
collected news and commentary". The New York Times.  " Colin Powell
Colin Powell
collected news and commentary". The Guardian.  Works by or about Colin Powell
Colin Powell
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Colin Powell: America's Best Leaders from U.S. News & World Report Issue positions and quotes at On the Issues Colin Powell
Colin Powell
Quotes African Americans in the U.S. Army The American Presidency Project: Remarks on the Retirement of General Colin Powell
Colin Powell
in Arlington, Virginia, September 30, 1993 Address to the National Summit on Africa, Washington, D.C., February 2000 Remarks to the United Nations Security Council, February 5, 2003 Complete text, audio, video of Colin Powell's Remarks to the UN Security Council AmericanRhetoric.com "Curveball" Revelations Indicate falsified info used to start Iraq war and esp used for Powell's UN presentation on Iraq WMDs, November 5, 2007 Colin Powell
Colin Powell
demands answers over Curveball's WMD lies, Ed Pikington, Helen Pidd and Martin Chulov, The Guardian, February 16, 2011 WARGS: Ancestry of Gen. Colin Powell

Political offices

Preceded by Peter Rodman Deputy National Security Advisor 1987 Succeeded by John Negroponte

Preceded by Frank Carlucci National Security Advisor 1987–1989 Succeeded by Brent Scowcroft

Preceded by Madeleine Albright United States Secretary of State 2001–2005 Succeeded by Condoleezza Rice

Military offices

Preceded by William Crowe Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1989–1993 Succeeded by David Jeremiah Acting

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Mikhail Gorbachev Recipient of the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Freedom Award 1993 Succeeded by Yitzhak Rabin

Party political offices

Preceded by Susan Molinari Keynote Speaker of the Republican National Convention 2000 Served alongside: John McCain Succeeded by Zell Miller

v t e

United States Secretaries of State

Secretary of Foreign Affairs 1781–89

R. Livingston Jay

Secretary of State 1789–present

Jefferson Randolph Pickering J. Marshall Madison Smith Monroe Adams Clay Van Buren E. Livingston McLane Forsyth Webster Upshur Calhoun Buchanan Clayton Webster Everett Marcy Cass Black Seward Washburne Fish Evarts Blaine Frelinghuysen Bayard Blaine Foster Gresham Olney Sherman Day Hay Root Bacon Knox Bryan Lansing Colby Hughes Kellogg Stimson Hull Stettinius Byrnes G. Marshall Acheson Dulles Herter Rusk Rogers Kissinger Vance Muskie Haig Shultz Baker Eagleburger Christopher Albright Powell Rice (tenure) Clinton (tenure) Kerry (tenure) Tillerson

v t e

Cabinet of President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2001–09)

Cabinet

Secretary of State

Colin Powell
Colin Powell
(2001–05) Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
(2005–09)

Secretary of the Treasury

Paul H. O'Neill
Paul H. O'Neill
(2001–02) John W. Snow
John W. Snow
(2003–06) Henry Paulson
Henry Paulson
(2006–09)

Secretary of Defense

Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
(2001–06) Robert Gates
Robert Gates
(2006–09)

Attorney General

John Ashcroft
John Ashcroft
(2001–05) Alberto Gonzales
Alberto Gonzales
(2005–07) Michael Mukasey
Michael Mukasey
(2007–09)

Secretary of the Interior

Gale Norton
Gale Norton
(2001–06) Dirk Kempthorne
Dirk Kempthorne
(2006–09)

Secretary of Agriculture

Ann Veneman
Ann Veneman
(2001–05) Mike Johanns
Mike Johanns
(2005–07) Ed Schafer
Ed Schafer
(2008–09)

Secretary of Commerce

Donald Evans
Donald Evans
(2001–05) Carlos Gutierrez
Carlos Gutierrez
(2005–09)

Secretary of Labor

Elaine Chao
Elaine Chao
(2001–09)

Secretary of Health and Human Services

Tommy Thompson
Tommy Thompson
(2001–05) Mike Leavitt
Mike Leavitt
(2005–09)

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Mel Martinez
Mel Martinez
(2001–03) Alphonso Jackson
Alphonso Jackson
(2003–08) Steve Preston
Steve Preston
(2008–09)

Secretary of Transportation

Norman Mineta
Norman Mineta
(2001–06) Mary E. Peters
Mary E. Peters
(2006–09)

Secretary of Energy

Spencer Abraham
Spencer Abraham
(2001–05) Samuel Bodman
Samuel Bodman
(2005–09)

Secretary of Education

Rod Paige
Rod Paige
(2001–05) Margaret Spellings
Margaret Spellings
(2005–09)

Secretary of Veterans Affairs

Anthony Principi
Anthony Principi
(2001–05) Jim Nicholson (2005–07) James Peake
James Peake
(2007–09)

Secretary of Homeland Security

Tom Ridge
Tom Ridge
(2003–05) Michael Chertoff
Michael Chertoff
(2005–09)

Cabinet-level

Vice President

Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
(2001–09)

White House
White House
Chief of Staff

Andrew Card
Andrew Card
(2001–06) Joshua Bolten
Joshua Bolten
(2006–09)

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

Christine Todd Whitman
Christine Todd Whitman
(2001–03) Mike Leavitt
Mike Leavitt
(2003–05) Stephen L. Johnson
Stephen L. Johnson
(2005–09)

Director of the Office of Management and Budget

Mitch Daniels
Mitch Daniels
(2001–03) Joshua Bolten
Joshua Bolten
(2003–06) Rob Portman
Rob Portman
(2006–07) Jim Nussle
Jim Nussle
(2007–09)

Director of National Drug Control Policy

John P. Walters
John P. Walters
(2001–09)

Trade Representative

Robert Zoellick
Robert Zoellick
(2001–05) Rob Portman
Rob Portman
(2005–06) Susan Schwab
Susan Schwab
(2006–09)

v t e

Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Bradley Radford Twining Lemnitzer Taylor Wheeler Moorer Brown Jones Vessey Crowe Powell Jeremiah (acting) Shalikashvili Shelton Myers Pace Mullen Dempsey Dunford

v t e

Assistants to the President for National Security Affairs

Cutler Anderson Jackson Cutler Gray Bundy Rostow Kissinger Scowcroft Brzezinski Allen Clark McFarlane Poindexter Carlucci Powell Scowcroft Lake Berger C. Rice Hadley Jones Donilon S. Rice Flynn Kellogg (Acting) McMaster Bolton

v t e

Recipients of the Soldier's Medal

Marty Allen Glenn Andreotta Clift Andrus Aaron Bank James Leroy Bondsteel Leonard Boswell Allison Brooks William Francis Buckley Max Cleland Lawrence Colburn John Thomas Corley Wayne A. Downing Theodore Leslie Futch John Galvin Elmer Gedeon Carl Genian Hershel W. Gober John F. Goodman David E. Grange Jr. Ed Grady Edith Ellen Greenwood Francis Grevemberg Bo Gritz William W. Hartzog Mike Hayden Anthony Herbert Patrick J. Hessian Don Holleder Bob Hoover Eli D. Hoyle Otto Kerner Jr. Darwin K. Kyle Richard L. Lawson Reis Leming Charles Andrew MacGillivary William A. Matheny Charles J. McDonnell Jack N. Merritt Leo J. Meyer Henry Mucci José Antonio Muñiz Thomas Alexander Parrott Frank D. Peregory Colin Powell Edwin W. Rawlings Richard Scholtes Preston Schoyer Stephen Silvasy Jr. John K. Singlaub Alek Skarlatos Christopher Speer Donn A. Starry Joseph Warren Stilwell Jr. Thomas Tackaberry Hugh Thompson Jr. Clarence L. Tinker Jack L. Treadwell Alfred Valenzuela Leon L. Van Autreve David Wade Ron Welch Samuel Tankersley Williams Walter K. Wilson Jr.

Names are in alphabetical order

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 79113153 LCCN: n87926095 ISNI: 0000 0001 0858 8433 GND: 119077817 SUDOC: 073950408 BNF: cb12496187m (data) NDL: 00515602 NKC: jo2003163