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Central European Time
Central European Time
(CET), used in most parts of Europe
Europe
and a few North African
North African
countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC). The time offset from UTC
UTC
can be written as +01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time (MET, German: MEZ) and under other names like Berlin Time, Romance Standard Time (RST), Paris Time or Rome Time.[1] The 15th meridian east
15th meridian east
is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the world system of time zones. As of 2011, all member states of the European Union observe summer time; those that during the winter use CET use Central European Summer Time (CEST) (or: UTC+02:00, daylight saving time) in summer (from last Sunday of March to last Sunday of October). A number of African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it is called West Africa Time
West Africa Time
(WAT), although Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
also use the term Central European Time.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Usage

1.1 Usage in Europe

1.1.1 Current usage 1.1.2 History

1.2 Other countries

2 Discrepancies between official CET and geographical CET

2.1 Areas located within UTC+1 longitudes using other time zones

2.1.1 Areas using UTC+2

2.2 Areas located outside UTC+1 longitudes using UTC+1 time

2.2.1 Areas between 22°30′ W and 7°30′ W ("physical" UTC−1) 2.2.2 Areas between 7°30′ W and 7°30′ E ("physical" UTC) 2.2.3 Areas between 22°30′ E and 37°30' E ("physical" UTC+2)

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Usage[edit]

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Usage in Europe[edit]

The monument 'The 15th Meridian' in Stargard, Poland

Current usage[edit] Central European Time
Central European Time
is currently (updated 2017)[2] used in Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden
Sweden
and Switzerland. History[edit]

1884

Serbia
Serbia
starts using CET.

1890

The areas of current Croatia
Croatia
start using CET. The areas of current Hungary
Hungary
start using CET.

1891

The areas of current Czech Republic
Czech Republic
start using CET.

1 April 1893

The German Empire
German Empire
unified its time zones to use CET (MEZ).[3] Italy, Malta
Malta
use CET. The areas of current Austria
Austria
start using CET.

1894

Switzerland
Switzerland
switches from UTC+00:30 to CET Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
introduces CET. Denmark adopts CET.

1895

Norway
Norway
adopts CET.

1900

Sweden
Sweden
adopts CET.

1904

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
introduces CET, but leaves 1918.

1914

Albania.

1914–1918

During World War I
World War I
CET was implemented in all German-occupied territories.

1920

Lithuania
Lithuania
adopts CET, but rescinds in 1940.

1922

Poland
Poland
adopts CET.

1940

Under German occupation:

The Netherlands
Netherlands
was switched from UTC+00:20 to CET. Belgium
Belgium
was switched from UTC+00:00. Luxembourg
Luxembourg
was switched from UTC+00:00.

France, which had adopted Paris time on 14 March 1891 and Greenwich Mean Time on 9 March 1911,[4] was switched to CET.

After World War II Monaco, Andorra
Andorra
and Gibraltar
Gibraltar
implemented CET. Spain
Spain
switched to CET in 1940. Portugal used CET in the years 1966–1976 and 1992–1996.

United Kingdom

The time around the world is based on Universal Coordinated Time
Universal Coordinated Time
(UTC) which is roughly synonymous with Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT). From late March to late October, clocks in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are put forward by one hour for British Summer Time
British Summer Time
(BST). Since 1997, most of the European Union aligned with the British standards for BST. In 1968 there was a three-year experiment called British Standard Time, when the UK and Ireland experimentally employed British Summer Time (GMT+1) all year round; clocks were put forward in March 1968 and not put back until October 1971.[citation needed] Central European Time
Central European Time
is sometimes referred to as continental time in the UK. Other countries[edit] Several African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it called West Africa Time
West Africa Time
(WAT), although Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
also use the term Central European Time, despite being located in North Africa.[citation needed] Between 2005 and 2008, Tunisia
Tunisia
observed daylight saving time. Libya also used CET during the years 1951–1959, 1982–1989, 1996–1997 and 2012–2013. For other countries see UTC+01:00 and West Africa Time. Discrepancies between official CET and geographical CET[edit]

Colour Legal time vs local mean time

1 h ± 30 m behind

0 h ± 30 m

1 h ± 30 m ahead

2 h ± 30 m ahead

3 h ± 30 m ahead

European winter

European summer

Legal, political and economic, as well as physical or geographical criteria are used in the drawing of time zones so official time zones rarely adhere to meridian lines. The CET time zone, were it drawn by purely geographical terms, would consist of exactly the area between meridians 7°30′ E and 22°30′ E. As a result, there are European locales that despite lying in an area with a "physical" UTC+1 time, actually use another time zone (UTC+2 in particular – there are no "physical" UTC+1 areas that employ UTC). Conversely, there are European areas that have gone for UTC+1, even though their "physical" time zone is UTC
UTC
(typically), UTC−1 (westernmost Spain), or UTC+2 (e.g. the very easternmost parts of Norway, Sweden, Poland
Poland
and Serbia). On the other hand, the people in Spain
Spain
still have all work and meal hours one hour later than France
France
and Germany
Germany
even if they have the same time zone.[citation needed] Following is a list of such "incongruences": Historically Gibraltar
Gibraltar
maintained UTC+1 all year until the opening of the land frontier with Spain
Spain
in 1982 when it followed its neighbour and introduced CEST. Areas located within UTC+1 longitudes using other time zones[edit] These areas are located between 7°30′ E and 22°30′ E ("physical" UTC+1) Areas using UTC+2[edit]

The westernmost parts of the Bulgarian provinces of Vidin
Vidin
and Kyustendil The westernmost part of Romania, including most of the area of the counties of Caraș-Severin, Timiș (capital Timișoara), Arad, and Bihor, as well as the westernmost tips of the counties of Mehedinți and Satu Mare The westernmost tip of Ukraine, near the border with Hungary
Hungary
and Slovakia, at the Ukrainian Transcarpathian Oblast
Transcarpathian Oblast
(Zakarpattia Oblast), essentially comprising the city of Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod
and its environs. (Although CET is used as local, non-official time in Transcarpathia).[citation needed] Western Lithuania, including the cities of Klaipėda, Tauragė, and Telšiai Western Latvia, including the cities of Liepāja
Liepāja
and Ventspils The westernmost parts of the Estonian islands of Saaremaa
Saaremaa
and Hiiumaa, including the capital of the Saare County, Kuressaare The southwestern coast of Finland, including the city of Turku; also the Åland
Åland
islands (of Finnish jurisdiction) – the Åland
Åland
islands are the westernmost locale applying EET in the whole of Europe The northwesternmost part of Finland, including Kilpisjärvi
Kilpisjärvi
and Kaaresuvanto. The Russian exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast, excluding however its easternmost slice (the city of Nesterov
Nesterov
is east of 22°30′ E, but that of Krasnoznamensk is not)

Areas located outside UTC+1 longitudes using UTC+1 time[edit] These areas are located west of 7°30′ E or east of 22°30′ E (outside "physical" UTC+1) Areas between 22°30′ W and 7°30′ W ("physical" UTC−1)[edit]

The westernmost part of mainland Spain
Spain
(Galicia, e.g. the city of A Coruña); Cape Finisterre
Cape Finisterre
and nearby points in Galicia, at 9°18′ W, are the westernmost places where CET is applied. The Norwegian island of Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
lies entirely within this area and extends nearly as far west as Cape Finisterre, with its western tip at 9°5′ W and its eastern tip at 7°56′ W.

Areas between 7°30′ W and 7°30′ E ("physical" UTC)[edit]

Andorra Belgium France, except for the absolutely easternmost part, in Alsace, incl. Strasbourg
Strasbourg
and parts of Alpes-Maritimes, and except for Corsica The very westernmost part of Germany, incl. the cities of Saarbrücken, Düsseldorf, Cologne, Aachen, and Trier The absolutely westernmost part of Italy, incl. the cities of Aosta
Aosta
in Aosta
Aosta
Valley and Cuneo
Cuneo
in Piedmont Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands The westernmost part of Norway, incl. the cities of Bergen and Stavanger Mainland Spain, except for the westernmost part (see above) and Canary Islands. However, pending legislation is underway to return Spain
Spain
to Greenwich Mean Time.[5] Gibraltar The part of Switzerland
Switzerland
west of Bern
Bern
(inclusive), also incl. cities such as Geneva, Lausanne, and Fribourg

Areas between 22°30′ E and 37°30' E ("physical" UTC+2)[edit]

The easternmost part of the Republic of Macedonia, including the city of Strumica The easternmost part of Serbia, in the Pirot
Pirot
District, including the city of Pirot, and small easternmost parts of Bor District. The easternmost tips of Hungary
Hungary
and Slovakia, bordering to the north and south respectively the Ukrainian Transcarpathian Oblast (Zakarpattia Oblast), a bit to the east of Vásárosnamény, Hungary – Uzhhorod, Ukraine
Ukraine
(both at 22°18′ E) line The easternmost part of Poland, including the cities of Lublin
Lublin
and Białystok The northeast of Sweden, in the Norrbotten
Norrbotten
province, including the cities of Kalix
Kalix
and Haparanda

Map of Petsamo area in northern Finland/Soviet Union/Russia. The green area is the Finnish part of the Rybachi peninsula (Kalastajasaarento) which was ceded to the Soviet Union after the Winter War. The Red area is the Jäniskoski-Niskakoski area ceded to the USSR in 1947.

The northeast of Norway, lying north of Finland, roughly coinciding with the county of Finnmark; for instance Vadsø, the capital of Finnmark, has a longitude of 29°49′ E. Actually, the easternmost town in Norway, Vardø, lies at 30°51′ E, which is so far east, so as to be east even of the central meridian of EET (UTC+2), i.e. east of Istanbul
Istanbul
and Alexandria. The sun reaches its highest point at 10:56 (when not DST). The Norwegian–Russian and the Polish-Belarussian border are the only places where CET (UTC+1/+2) borders Moscow time (UTC+3), resulting in a two hours time change (or one hour in summer) for the passenger crossing that border. More so, there exists a "tri-zone" point (where UTC+1, UTC+2, and UTC+3 meet) at the Norway–Finland– Russia
Russia
tripoint near Muotkavaara. Mental experiment when looking at this map: Go to the westernmost point of the red area (the Jäniskoski-Niskakoski area); this belongs to Russian jurisdiction, hence the time there is UTC+3. Then, take a northeastern (NE) direction (that is an eastwards direction).

See also[edit]

Summer Time in Europe Other countries and territories in UTC+1 time zone

References[edit]

^ Romance Standard Time ^ CET – Central European Time
Central European Time
/ European Central Time (Standard Time) ^ Bartky, Ian R. (2007). One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity. Stanford University Press. pp. 126–7. ISBN 0804756422. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ Bartky, Ian R. (2007). One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity. Stanford University Press. pp. 130, 134. ISBN 0804756422. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ King, Esther. " Spain
Spain
moves to abandon Hitler's time zone". Politico. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 

External links[edit]

German Time Act Dutch Time Act List of countries using CET (Cent