Parouse.com
 Parouse.com



Cattle—colloquially cows[note 1]—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos
Bos
taurus. Cattle
Cattle
are commonly raised as livestock for meat (beef and veal), as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products, and as draft animals (oxen or bullocks that pull carts, plows and other implements). Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel. In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. Around 10,500 years ago, cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in southeast Turkey.[1] According to an estimate from 2011, there are 1.4 billion cattle in the world.[2] In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a fully mapped genome.[3] Some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, and cattle raiding consequently one of the earliest forms of theft.

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Etymology 3 Terminology

3.1 Singular terminology issue 3.2 Other terminology

4 Characteristics

4.1 Anatomy

4.1.1 Digestive system 4.1.2 Gestation and size 4.1.3 Reproduction

4.2 Weight

5 Cognition 6 Temperament and emotions 7 Senses

7.1 Vision 7.2 Taste 7.3 Audition 7.4 Olfaction and gustation 7.5 Touch 7.6 Magnetoreception

8 Behavior

8.1 Reproductive behavior 8.2 Dominance and leadership 8.3 Grazing behavior

9 Genetics 10 Domestication
Domestication
and husbandry

10.1 Usage as money 10.2 Modern husbandry 10.3 Sleep

11 Economy

11.1 Cattle
Cattle
meat production 11.2 Dairy 11.3 Hides

12 Feral cattle 13 Environmental impact 14 Health

14.1 Effect of high stocking density

15 Oxen 16 Religion, traditions and folklore

16.1 Hindu tradition 16.2 Other traditions

17 In heraldry 18 Population 19 Gallery 20 See also 21 References 22 Notes 23 Further reading

Taxonomy See also: Bos
Bos
and Bovinae

A Holstein Friesian cow, a typical member of the Bos
Bos
taurus taurus sub-species

Żubroń, a wisent and cattle hybrid

Cattle
Cattle
were originally identified as three separate species: Bos taurus, the European or "taurine" cattle (including similar types from Africa and Asia); Bos
Bos
indicus, the zebu; and the extinct Bos primigenius, the aurochs. The aurochs is ancestral to both zebu and taurine cattle.[4] These have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies: Bos
Bos
taurus primigenius, Bos
Bos
taurus indicus, and Bos
Bos
taurus taurus.[5][6] Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other closely related species. Hybrid individuals and even breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu (such as the sanga cattle, Bos
Bos
taurus africanus), but also between one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos – yaks (the dzo or yattle[7]), banteng, and gaur. Hybrids such as the beefalo breed can even occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos, as well.[8] The hybrid origin of some types may not be obvious – for example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only taurine-type cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of taurine cattle, zebu, and yak.[9] However, cattle cannot be successfully hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo. The aurochs originally ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, and much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, and the last known individual died in Mazovia, Poland, in about 1627.[10] Breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle, creating the Heck cattle
Heck cattle
breed. Etymology Cattle
Cattle
did not originate as the term for bovine animals. It was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale 'principal sum of money, capital', itself derived in turn from Latin caput 'head'. Cattle
Cattle
originally meant movable personal property, especially livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property (the land, which also included wild or small free-roaming animals such as chickens — they were sold as part of the land).[11] The word is a variant of chattel (a unit of personal property) and closely related to capital in the economic sense.[12] The term replaced earlier Old English feoh 'cattle, property', which survives today as fee (cf. German: Vieh, Dutch: vee, Gothic: faihu). The word "cow" came via Anglo-Saxon cū (plural cȳ), from Common Indo-European gʷōus (genitive gʷowés) = "a bovine animal", compare Persian: gâv, Sanskrit: go-, Welsh: buwch.[13] The plural cȳ became ki or kie in Middle English, and an additional plural ending was often added, giving kine, kien, but also kies, kuin and others. This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, "kine". The Scots language singular is coo or cou, and the plural is "kye". In older English sources such as the King James Version
King James Version
of the Bible, "cattle" refers to livestock, as opposed to "deer" which refers to wildlife. "Wild cattle" may refer to feral cattle or to undomesticated species of the genus Bos. Today, when used without any other qualifier, the modern meaning of "cattle" is usually restricted to domesticated bovines.[14] Terminology

Look up cattle or cow in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

An Ongole bull

A Hereford bull

In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world, but with minor differences in the definitions. The terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British-influenced parts of the world such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and the United States.[15]

An "intact" (i.e., not castrated) adult male is called a bull. A wild, young, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia.[16] An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a maverick in the US and Canada. An adult female that has had a calf (or two, depending on regional usage) is a cow. A young female before she has had a calf of her own[17] and is under three years of age is called a heifer (/ˈhɛfər/ HEF-ər).[18] A young female that has had only one calf is occasionally called a first-calf heifer. Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned, then weaners until they are a year old in some areas; in other areas, particularly with male beef cattle, they may be known as feeder calves or simply feeders. After that, they are referred to as yearlings or stirks[19] if between one and two years of age.[20] A castrated male is called a steer in the United States; older steers are often called bullocks in other parts of the world,[21] but in North America this term refers to a young bull. Piker bullocks are micky bulls (uncastrated young male bulls) that were caught, castrated and then later lost.[16] In Australia, the term Japanese ox is used for grain-fed steers in the weight range of 500 to 650 kg that are destined for the Japanese meat trade.[22] In North America, draft cattle under four years old are called working steers. Improper or late castration on a bull results in it becoming a coarse steer known as a stag in Australia, Canada
Canada
and New Zealand.[23] In some countries, an incompletely castrated male is known also as a rig. A castrated male (occasionally a female or in some areas a bull) kept for draft purposes is called an ox (plural oxen); ox may also be used to refer to some carcass products from any adult cattle, such as ox-hide, ox-blood, oxtail, or ox-liver.[18] A springer is a cow or heifer close to calving.[24] In all cattle species, a female twin of a bull usually becomes an infertile partial intersex, and is called a freemartin. Neat (horned oxen, from which neatsfoot oil is derived), beef (young ox) and beefing (young animal fit for slaughtering) are obsolete terms, although poll, pollard and polled cattle are still terms in use for naturally hornless animals, or in some areas also for those that have been disbudded or dehorned. Cattle
Cattle
raised for human consumption are called beef cattle. Within the American beef cattle industry, the older term beef (plural beeves) is still used to refer to an animal of either sex. Some Australian, Canadian, New Zealand and British people use the term beast.[25] Cattle
Cattle
bred specifically for milk production are called milking or dairy cattle;[15] a cow kept to provide milk for one family may be called a house cow or milker. A fresh cow is a dairy term for a cow or first-calf heifer who has recently given birth, or "freshened." The adjective applying to cattle in general is usually bovine. The terms bull, cow and calf are also used by extension to denote the sex or age of other large animals, including whales, hippopotamuses, camels, elk and elephants.

See also: List of animal names Singular terminology issue Cattle
Cattle
can only be used in the plural and not in the singular: it is a plurale tantum.[26] Thus one may refer to "three cattle" or "some cattle", but not "one cattle". No universally used singular form in modern English of cattle exists, other than the sex- and age-specific terms such as cow, bull, steer and heifer. Historically, "ox" was not a sex-specific term for adult cattle, but generally this is now used only for draft cattle, especially adult castrated males. The term is also incorporated into the names of other species, such as the musk ox and "grunting ox" (yak), and is used in some areas to describe certain cattle products such as ox-hide and oxtail.[27]

A Brahman calf

Cow is in general use as a singular for the collective cattle, despite the objections by those who insist it to be a female-specific term. Although the phrase "that cow is a bull" is absurd from a lexicographic standpoint, the word cow is easy to use when a singular is needed and the sex is unknown or irrelevant – when "there is a cow in the road", for example. Further, any herd of fully mature cattle in or near a pasture is statistically likely to consist mostly of cows, so the term is probably accurate even in the restrictive sense. Other than the few bulls needed for breeding, the vast majority of male cattle are castrated as calves and slaughtered for meat before the age of three years. Thus, in a pastured herd, any calves or herd bulls usually are clearly distinguishable from the cows due to distinctively different sizes and clear anatomical differences. Merriam-Webster, a US dictionary, recognizes the sex-nonspecific use of cow as an alternate definition,[28] whereas Collins and the OED, UK dictionaries, do not. Colloquially, more general nonspecific terms may denote cattle when a singular form is needed. Australian, New Zealand and British farmers use the term beast or cattle beast. Bovine is also used in Britain. The term critter is common in the western United States
United States
and Canada, particularly when referring to young cattle.[29] In some areas of the American South (particularly the Appalachian region), where both dairy and beef cattle are present, an individual animal was once called a "beef critter", though that term is becoming archaic. Other terminology

A cow's moo

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Cattle
Cattle
raised for human consumption are called beef cattle. Within the beef cattle industry in parts of the United States, the term beef (plural beeves) is still used in its archaic sense to refer to an animal of either sex. Cows of certain breeds that are kept for the milk they give are called dairy cows or milking cows (formerly milch cows). Most young male offspring of dairy cows are sold for veal, and may be referred to as veal calves. The term dogies is used to describe orphaned calves in the context of ranch work in the American West, as in "Keep them dogies moving".[30] In some places, a cow kept to provide milk for one family is called a "house cow". Other obsolete terms for cattle include "neat" (this use survives in "neatsfoot oil", extracted from the feet and legs of cattle), and "beefing" (young animal fit for slaughter). An onomatopoeic term for one of the most common sounds made by cattle is moo (also called lowing). There are a number of other sounds made by cattle, including calves bawling, and bulls bellowing. Bawling is most common for cows after weaning of a calf. The bullroarer makes a sound similar to a bull's territorial call.[31] Characteristics Anatomy

Displayed skeleton of a domestic cow

Cattle
Cattle
are large quadrupedal ungulate mammals with cloven hooves. Most breeds have horns, which can be as large as the Texas Longhorn
Texas Longhorn
or small like a scur. Careful genetic selection has allowed polled (hornless) cattle to become widespread.

Anatomy model of a cow

Digestive system Cattle
Cattle
are ruminants, meaning their digestive system is highly specialized to allow the use of poorly digestible plants as food. Cattle
Cattle
have one stomach with four compartments, the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, with the rumen being the largest compartment. The reticulum, the smallest compartment, is known as the "honeycomb". Cattle
Cattle
sometimes consume metal objects which are deposited in the reticulum and irritation from the metal objects causes hardware disease. The omasum's main function is to absorb water and nutrients from the digestible feed. The omasum is known as the "many plies". The abomasum is like the human stomach; this is why it is known as the "true stomach". Cattle
Cattle
are known for regurgitating and re-chewing their food, known as cud chewing, like most ruminants. While the animal is feeding, the food is swallowed without being chewed and goes into the rumen for storage until the animal can find a quiet place to continue the digestion process. The food is regurgitated, a mouthful at a time, back up to the mouth, where the food, now called the cud, is chewed by the molars, grinding down the coarse vegetation to small particles. The cud is then swallowed again and further digested by specialized microorganisms in the rumen. These microbes are primarily responsible for decomposing cellulose and other carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids cattle use as their primary metabolic fuel. The microbes inside the rumen also synthesize amino acids from non-protein nitrogenous sources, such as urea and ammonia. As these microbes reproduce in the rumen, older generations die and their cells continue on through the digestive tract. These cells are then partially digested in the small intestines, allowing cattle to gain a high-quality protein source. These features allow cattle to thrive on grasses and other tough vegetation. Gestation and size The gestation period for a cow is about nine months long. A newborn calf's size can vary among breeds, but a typical calf weighs between 25 to 45 kg (55 to 99 lb). Adult size and weight vary significantly among breeds and sex. Steers are generally killed before reaching 750 kg (1,650 lb). Breeding stock may be allowed a longer lifespan, occasionally living as long as 25 years. The oldest recorded cow, Big Bertha, died at the age of 48 in 1993. Reproduction

Reproductive system of a bovine female.

Ox testis.

On farms it is very common to use artificial insemination (AI), a medically assisted reproduction technique consisting of the artificial deposition of semen in the female's genital tract.[32] It is used in cases where the spermatozoa can not reach the fallopian tubes or simply by choice of the owner of the animal. It consists of transferring, to the uterine cavity, spermatozoa previously collected and processed, with the selection of morphologically more normal and mobile spermatozoa. A cow's udder contains two pairs of mammary glands, (commonly referred to as teats) creating four "quarters".[33] The front ones are referred to as fore quarters and the rear ones rear quarters.[34] Further information: Bull § Reproductive anatomy Bulls become fertile at about seven months of age. Their fertility is closely related to the size of their testicles, and one simple test of fertility is to measure the circumference of the scrotum: a young bull is likely to be fertile once this reaches 28 centimetres (11 in); that of a fully adult bull may be over 40 centimetres (16 in).[35][36] Bulls have a fibro-elastic penis. Given the small amount of erectile tissue, there is little enlargement after erection. The penis is quite rigid when non-erect, and becomes even more rigid during erection. Protrusion is not affected much by erection, but more by relaxation of the retractor penis muscle and straightening of the sigmoid flexure.[37][38][39] Induced ovulation can be manipulated to produce farming benefits. For example, to synchronise ovulation of the cattle to benefit dairy farming. Weight The world record for the heaviest bull was 1,740 kg (3,840 lb), a Chianina
Chianina
named Donetto, when he was exhibited at the Arezzo
Arezzo
show in 1955.[40] The heaviest steer was eight-year-old ‘Old Ben’, a Shorthorn/Hereford cross weighing in at 2,140 kg (4,720 lb) in 1910.[41] The weight of adult cattle varies, depending on the breed. Smaller kinds, such as Dexter and Jersey adults, range between 272 to 454 kg (600 to 1,000 lb). Large Continental breeds, such as Charolais, Marchigiana, Belgian Blue and Chianina, adults range from 635 to 1,134 kg (1,400 to 2,500 lb). British breeds, such as Hereford, Angus, and Shorthorn, mature between 454 to 907 kg (1,000 to 2,000 lb), occasionally higher, particularly with Angus and Hereford.[42] Bulls will be a bit larger than cows of the same breed by a few hundred kilograms. Chianina
Chianina
bulls can weigh up to 1,500 kg (3,300 lb); British bulls, such as Angus and Hereford, can weigh as little as 907 kg (2,000 lb) to as much as 1,361 kg (3,000 lb).[citation needed] It is difficult to generalize or average out the weight of all cattle because different kinds have different averages of weights. However, according to some sources, the average weight of all cattle is 753 kg (1,660 lb). Finishing steers in the feedlot average about 640 kg (1,410 lb); cows about 725 kg (1,600 lb), and bulls about 1,090 kg (2,400 lb).[43] In the United States, the average weight of beef cattle has steadily increased, especially since the 1970s, requiring the building of new slaughterhouses able to handle larger carcasses. New packing plants in the 1980s stimulated a large increase in cattle weights.[44] Before 1790 beef cattle averaged only 160 kg (350 lb) net; and thereafter weights climbed steadily.[45][46] Cognition In laboratory studies, young cattle are able to memorize the locations of several food sources and retain this memory for at least 8 hours, although this declined after 12 hours.[47] Fifteen-month-old heifers learn more quickly than adult cows which have had either one or two calvings, but their longer-term memory is less stable.[48] Mature cattle perform well in spatial learning tasks and have a good long-term memory in these tests. Cattle
Cattle
tested in a radial arm maze are able to remember the locations of high-quality food for at least 30 days. Although they initially learn to avoid low-quality food, this memory diminishes over the same duration.[49] Under less artificial testing conditions, young cattle showed they were able to remember the location of feed for at least 48 days.[50] Cattle
Cattle
can make an association between a visual stimulus and food within 1 day – memory of this association can be retained for 1 year, despite a slight decay.[51] Calves are capable of discrimination learning[52] and adult cattle compare favourably with small mammals in their learning ability in the Closed-field Test.[53] They are also able to discriminate between familiar individuals, and among humans. Cattle
Cattle
can tell the difference between familiar and unfamiliar animals of the same species (conspecifics). Studies show they behave less aggressively toward familiar individuals when they are forming a new group.[54] Calves can also discriminate between humans based on previous experience, as shown by approaching those who handled them positively and avoiding those who handled them aversively.[55] Although cattle can discriminate between humans by their faces alone, they also use other cues such as the color of clothes when these are available.[56] In audio play-back studies, calves prefer their own mother's vocalizations compared to the vocalizations of an unfamiliar mother.[57] In laboratory studies using images, cattle can discriminate between images of the heads of cattle and other animal species.[58] They are also able to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. Furthermore, they are able to categorize images as familiar and unfamiliar individuals.[54] When mixed with other individuals, cloned calves from the same donor form subgroups, indicating that kin discrimination occurs and may be a basis of grouping behaviour. It has also been shown using images of cattle that both artificially inseminated and cloned calves have similar cognitive capacities of kin and non-kin discrimination.[59] Cattle
Cattle
can recognize familiar individuals. Visual individual recognition is a more complex mental process than visual discrimination. It requires the recollection of the learned idiosyncratic identity of an individual that has been previously encountered and the formation of a mental representation.[60] By using 2-dimensional images of the heads of one cow (face, profiles, ¾ views), all the tested heifers showed individual recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individuals from their own breed. Furthermore, almost all the heifers recognized unknown individuals from different breeds, although this was achieved with greater difficulty. Individual recognition was most difficult when the visual features of the breed being tested were quite different from the breed in the image, for example, the breed being tested had no spots whereas the image was of a spotted breed.[61] Cattle
Cattle
use visual/brain lateralisation in their visual scanning of novel and familiar stimuli.[62] Domestic cattle prefer to view novel stimuli with the left eye, i.e. using the right brain hemisphere (similar to horses, Australian magpies, chicks, toads and fish) but use the right eye, i.e. using the left hemisphere, for viewing familiar stimuli.[63] Temperament and emotions

Ear postures of cows are studied as indicators of their emotional state and overall animal welfare.[64]

In cattle, temperament can affect production traits such as carcass and meat quality or milk yield as well as affecting the animal's overall health and reproduction. Cattle
Cattle
temperament is defined as "the consistent behavioral and physiological difference observed between individuals in response to a stressor or environmental challenge and is used to describe the relatively stable difference in the behavioral predisposition of an animal, which can be related to psychobiological mechanisms".[65] Generally, cattle temperament is assumed to be multidimensional. Five underlying categories of temperament traits have been proposed:[66]

shyness-boldness exploration-avoidance activity aggressiveness sociability

In a study on Holstein–Friesian heifers learning to press a panel to open a gate for access to a food reward, the researchers also recorded the heart rate and behavior of the heifers when moving along the race towards the food. When the heifers made clear improvements in learning, they had higher heart rates and tended to move more vigorously along the race. The researchers concluded this was an indication that cattle may react emotionally to their own learning improvement.[67] Negative emotional states are associated with a bias toward negative (pessimistic) responses towards ambiguous cues in judgement tasks – as encapsulated in the question of "is the glass half empty or half full?". After separation from their mothers, Holstein calves showed such a cognitive bias indicative of low mood.[68] A similar study showed that after hot-iron disbudding (dehorning), calves had a similar negative bias indicating that post-operative pain following this routine procedure results in a negative change in emotional state.[69] In studies of visual discrimination, the position of the ears has been used as an indicator of emotional state.[54] When cattle are stressed, this can be recogn ised by other cattle as it is communicated by alarm substances in the urine.[70] Cattle
Cattle
are very gregarious and even short-term isolation is considered to cause severe psychological stress. When Aubrac and Friesian heifers are isolated, they increase their vocalizations and experience increased heart rate and plasma cortisol concentrations. These physiological changes are greater in Aubracs. When visual contact is re-instated, vocalisations rapidly decline, regardless of the familiarity of the returning cattle, however, heart rate decreases are greater if the returning cattle are familiar to the previously-isolated individual.[71] Mirrors have been used to reduce stress in isolated cattle.[72] Senses Cattle
Cattle
use all of the five widely recognized sensory modalities. These can assist in some complex behavioural patterns, for example, in grazing behaviour. Cattle
Cattle
eat mixed diets, but when given the opportunity, show a partial preference of approximately 70% clover and 30% grass. This preference has a diurnal pattern, with a stronger preference for clover in the morning, and the proportion of grass increasing towards the evening.[73] Vision Vision is the dominant sense in cattle and they obtain almost 50% of their information visually. [74] Cattle
Cattle
are a prey animal and to assist predator detection, their eyes are located on the sides of their head rather than the front. This gives them a wide field of view of 330° but limits binocular vision (and therefore stereopsis) to 30° to 50° compared to 140° in humans.[54][75] This means they have a blind spot directly behind them. Cattle
Cattle
have good visual acuity (1/20)[54] but compared to humans, the visual accommodation of cattle is poor.[74] Cattle
Cattle
have two kinds of color receptors in the cone cells of their retinas. This means that cattle are dichromatic, as are most other non-primate land mammals.[76][77] There are two to three rods per cone in the fovea centralis but five to six near the optic papilla.[75] Cattle
Cattle
can distinguish long wavelength colors (yellow, orange and red) much better than the shorter wavelengths (blue, grey and green). Calves are able to discriminate between long (red) and short (blue) or medium (green) wavelengths, but have limited ability to discriminate between the short and medium. They also approach handlers more quickly under red light.[78] Whilst having good color sensitivity, it is not as good as humans or sheep.[54] A common misconception about cattle (particularly bulls) is that they are enraged by the color red (something provocative is often said to be "like a red flag to a bull"). This is a myth. In bullfighting, it is the movement of the red flag or cape that irritates the bull and incites it to charge.[79] Taste Cattle
Cattle
have a well-developed sense of taste and can distinguish the four primary tastes (sweet, salty, bitter and sour). They possess around 20,000 taste buds. The strength of taste perception depends on the individual's current food requirements. They avoid bitter-tasting foods (potentially toxic) and have a marked preference for sweet (high calorific value) and salty foods (electrolyte balance). Their sensitivity to sour-tasting foods helps them to maintain optimal ruminal pH.[74] Plants have low levels of sodium and cattle have developed the capacity of seeking salt by taste and smell. If cattle become depleted of sodium salts, they show increased locomotion directed to searching for these. To assist in their search, the olfactory and gustatory receptors able to detect minute amounts of sodium salts increase their sensitivity as biochemical disruption develops with sodium salt depletion.[80][81] Audition Cattle
Cattle
hearing ranges from 23 Hz to 35 kHz. Their frequency of best sensitivity is 8 kHz and they have a lowest threshold of −21 db (re 20 μN/m−2), which means their hearing is more acute than horses (lowest threshold of 7 db).[82] Sound localization acuity thresholds are an average of 30°. This means that cattle are less able to localise sounds compared to goats (18°), dogs (8°) and humans (0.8°).[83] Because cattle have a broad foveal fields of view covering almost the entire horizon, they may not need very accurate locus information from their auditory systems to direct their gaze to a sound source. Vocalisations are an important mode of communication amongst cattle and can provide information on the age, sex, dominance status and reproductive status of the caller. Calves can recognize their mothers using vocal and vocal behaviour may play a role by indicating estrus and competitive display by bulls.[84] Olfaction and gustation

Several senses are used in social relationships between cattle

Cattle
Cattle
have a range of odiferous glands over their body including interdigital, infraorbital, inguinal and sebaceous glands, indicating that olfaction probably plays a large role in their social life. Both the primary olfactory system using the olfactory bulbs, and the secondary olfactory system using the vomeronasal organ are used.[85] This latter olfactory system is used in the flehmen response. There is evidence that when cattle are stressed, this can be recognised by other cattle and this is communicated by alarm substances in the urine.[70] The odour of dog faeces induces behavioural changes prior to cattle feeding, whereas the odours of urine from either stressed or non-stressed conspecifics and blood have no effect.[86] In the laboratory, cattle can be trained to recognise conspecific individuals using olfaction only.[85] In general, cattle use their sense of smell to "expand" on information detected by other sensory modalities. However, in the case of social and reproductive behaviours, olfaction is a key source of information.[74] Touch Cattle
Cattle
have tactile sensations detected mainly by mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors and nociceptors in the skin and muzzle. These are used most frequently when cattle explore their environment.[74] Magnetoreception There is conflicting evidence for magnetoreception in cattle. One study reported that resting and grazing cattle tend to align their body axes in the geomagnetic North-South (N-S) direction.[87] In a follow-up study, cattle exposed to various magnetic fields directly beneath or in the vicinity of power lines trending in various magnetic directions exhibited distinct patterns of alignment.[88] However, in 2011, a group of Czech researchers reported their failed attempt to replicate the finding using Google Earth
Google Earth
images.[89] Behavior Under natural conditions, calves stay with their mother until weaning at 8 to 11 months. Heifer and bull calves are equally attached to their mothers in the first few months of life.[90] Cattle
Cattle
are considered to be "hider" type animals, but in the artificial environment of small calving pens, close proximity between cow and calf is maintained by the mother at the first three calvings but this changes to being mediated by the calf after these. Primiparous dams show a higher incidence of abnormal maternal behavior.[91]

Play media

Video of a calf suckling

Beef-calves reared on the range suckle an average of 5.0 times every 24 hours with an average total time of 46 min spent suckling. There is a diurnal rhythm in suckling activity with peaks between 05:00–07:00, 10:00–13:00 and 17:00–21:00.[92] Studies on the natural weaning of zebu cattle ( Bos
Bos
indicus) have shown that the cow weans her calves over a 2-week period, but after that, she continues to show strong affiliatory behavior with her offspring and preferentially chooses them for grooming and as grazing partners for at least 4–5 years.[93] Reproductive behavior

A cow giving birth

Semi-wild Highland cattle
Highland cattle
heifers first give birth at 2 or 3 years of age, and the timing of birth is synchronized with increases in natural food quality. Average calving interval is 391 days, and calving mortality within the first year of life is 5%.[94] Dominance and leadership One study showed that over a 4-year period, dominance relationships within a herd of semi-wild highland cattle were very firm. There were few overt aggressive conflicts and the majority of disputes were settled by agonistic (non-aggressive, competitive) behaviors that involved no physical contact between opponents (e.g. threatening and spontaneous withdrawing). Such agonistic behavior reduces the risk of injury. Dominance status depended on age and sex, with older animals generally being dominant to young ones and males dominant to females. Young bulls gained superior dominance status over adult cows when they reached about 2 years of age.[94] As with many animal dominance hierarchies, dominance-associated aggressiveness does not correlate with rank position, but is closely related to rank distance between individuals.[94] Dominance is maintained in several ways. Cattle
Cattle
often engage in mock fights where they test each other's strength in a non-aggressive way. Licking is primarily performed by subordinates and received by dominant animals. Mounting is a playful behavior shown by calves of both sexes and by bulls and sometimes by cows in estrus,[95] however, this is not a dominance related behavior as has been found in other species.[94] The horns of cattle are "honest signals" used in mate selection. Furthermore, horned cattle attempt to keep greater distances between themselves and have fewer physical interactions than hornless cattle. This leads to more stable social relationships.[96] In calves, the frequency of agonistic behavior decreases as space allowance increases, but this does not occur for changes in group size. However, in adult cattle, the number of agonistic encounters increases as the group size increases.[97] Grazing behavior When grazing, cattle vary several aspects of their bite, i.e. tongue and jaw movements, depending on characteristics of the plant they are eating. Bite area decreases with the density of the plants but increases with their height. Bite area is determined by the sweep of the tongue; in one study observing 750-kilogram (1,650 lb) steers, bite area reached a maximum of approximately 170 cm2 (30 sq in). Bite depth increases with the height of the plants. By adjusting their behavior, cattle obtain heavier bites in swards that are tall and sparse compared with short, dense swards of equal mass/area.[98] Cattle
Cattle
adjust other aspects of their grazing behavior in relation to the available food; foraging velocity decreases and intake rate increases in areas of abundant palatable forage.[99] Cattle
Cattle
avoid grazing areas contaminated by the faeces of other cattle more strongly than they avoid areas contaminated by sheep,[100] but they do not avoid pasture contaminated by rabbit faeces.[101] Genetics Further information: Bovine genome In the 24 April 2009, edition of the journal Science, a team of researchers led by the National Institutes of Health and the US Department of Agriculture
Agriculture
reported having mapped the bovine genome.[102] The scientists found cattle have about 22,000 genes, and 80% of their genes are shared with humans, and they share about 1000 genes with dogs and rodents, but are not found in humans. Using this bovine "HapMap", researchers can track the differences between the breeds that affect the quality of meat and milk yields.[103] Behavioral traits of cattle can be as heritable as some production traits, and often, the two can be related.[104] The heritability of fear varies markedly in cattle from low (0.1) to high (0.53); such high variation is also found in pigs and sheep, probably due to differences in the methods used.[105] The heritability of temperament (response to isolation during handling) has been calculated as 0.36 and 0.46 for habituation to handling.[106] Rangeland
Rangeland
assessments show that the heritability of aggressiveness in cattle is around 0.36.[107] Quantitative trait loci
Quantitative trait loci
(QTLs) have been found for a range of production and behavioral characteristics for both dairy and beef cattle.[108] Domestication
Domestication
and husbandry

Texas Longhorns are a US breed

Cattle
Cattle
occupy a unique role in human history, having been domesticated since at least the early neolithic age. Archeozoological and genetic data indicate that cattle were first domesticated from wild aurochs ( Bos
Bos
primigenius) approximately 10,500 years ago. There were two major areas of domestication: one in the area that is now Turkey, giving rise to the taurine line, and a second in the area that is now Pakistan, resulting in the indicine line.[109] Modern mitochondrial DNA variation indicates the taurine line may have arisen from as few as 80 aurochs tamed in the upper reaches of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
near the villages of Çayönü Tepesi
Çayönü Tepesi
in southeastern Turkey and Dja'de el-Mughara in northern Iraq.[1] Although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants.[109] A study on 134 breeds showed that modern taurine cattle originated from Africa, Asia, North and South America, Australia, and Europe.[110] Some researchers have suggested that African taurine cattle are derived from a third independent domestication from North African aurochsen.[109] Usage as money As early as 9000 BC both grain and cattle were used as money or as barter (Davies) (the first grain remains found, considered to be evidence of pre-agricultural practice date to 17,000 BC).[111][112][113] Some evidence also exists to suggest that other animals, such as camels and goats, may have been used as currency in some parts of the world.[114] One of the advantages of using cattle as currency is that it allows the seller to set a fixed price. It even created the standard pricing. For example, two chickens were traded for one cow as cows were deemed to be more valuable than chickens.[112] Modern husbandry

This Hereford is being inspected for ticks; cattle are often restrained or confined in cattle crushes (squeeze chutes) when given medical attention.

This young bovine has a nose ring to prevent it from suckling, which is usually to assist in weaning.

Cattle
Cattle
are often raised by allowing herds to graze on the grasses of large tracts of rangeland. Raising cattle in this manner allows the use of land that might be unsuitable for growing crops. The most common interactions with cattle involve daily feeding, cleaning and milking. Many routine husbandry practices involve ear tagging, dehorning, loading, medical operations, vaccinations and hoof care, as well as training for agricultural shows and preparations. Also, some cultural differences occur in working with cattle; the cattle husbandry of Fulani men rests on behavioural techniques, whereas in Europe, cattle are controlled primarily by physical means, such as fences.[115] Breeders use cattle husbandry to reduce M. bovis infection susceptibility by selective breeding and maintaining herd health to avoid concurrent disease.[116] Cattle
Cattle
are farmed for beef, veal, dairy, and leather, and they are less commonly used for conservation grazing, simply to maintain grassland for wildlife – for example, in Epping Forest, England. They are often used in some of the most wild places for livestock. Depending on the breed, cattle can survive on hill grazing, heaths, marshes, moors and semidesert. Modern cattle are more commercial than older breeds and, having become more specialized, are less versatile. For this reason, many smaller farmers still favor old breeds, such as the Jersey dairy breed. In Portugal, Spain, southern France and some Latin American countries, bulls are used in the activity of bullfighting; Jallikattu
Jallikattu
in India
India
is a bull taming sport radically different from European bullfighting, humans are unarmed and bulls are not killed. In many other countries bullfighting is illegal. Other activities such as bull riding are seen as part of a rodeo, especially in North America. Bull-leaping, a central ritual in Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Minoan culture (see Sacred Bull), still exists in southwestern France. In modern times, cattle are also entered into agricultural competitions. These competitions can involve live cattle or cattle carcases in hoof and hook events. In terms of food intake by humans, consumption of cattle is less efficient than of grain or vegetables with regard to land use, and hence cattle grazing consumes more area than such other agricultural production when raised on grains.[117] Nonetheless, cattle and other forms of domesticated animals can sometimes help to use plant resources in areas not easily amenable to other forms of agriculture. Bulls are sometimes used as guard animals.[118][119] Sleep Further information: Sleep in non-human animals
Sleep in non-human animals
and Cow tipping The average sleep time of a domestic cow is about 4 hours a day.[120] Cattle
Cattle
do have a stay apparatus,[121] but do not sleep standing up,[122] they lie down to sleep deeply.[123] In spite of the urban legend, cows cannot be tipped over by people pushing on them.[124] Economy

Holstein cattle are the primary dairy breed, bred for high milk production.

The meat of adult cattle is known as beef, and that of calves is veal. Other animal parts are also used as food products, including blood, liver, kidney, heart and oxtail. Cattle
Cattle
also produce milk, and dairy cattle are specifically bred to produce the large quantities of milk processed and sold for human consumption. Cattle
Cattle
today are the basis of a multibillion-dollar industry worldwide. The international trade in beef for 2000 was over $30 billion and represented only 23% of world beef production.[125] The production of milk, which is also made into cheese, butter, yogurt, and other dairy products, is comparable in economic size to beef production, and provides an important part of the food supply for many of the world's people. Cattle
Cattle
hides, used for leather to make shoes, couches and clothing, are another widespread product. Cattle
Cattle
remain broadly used as draft animals in many developing countries, such as India. Cattle
Cattle
are also used in some sporting games, including rodeo and bullfighting. Cattle
Cattle
meat production

Cattle
Cattle
meat production (kt)

Country 2008 2009 2010 2011

Argentina 3132 3378 2630 2497

Australia 2132 2124 2630 2420

Brazil 9024 9395 9115 9030

China 5841 6060 6244 6182

Germany 1199 1190 1205 1170

Japan 520 517 515 500

USA 12163 11891 12046 11988

Source: Helgi Library,[126] World Bank, FAOSTAT About half the world's meat comes from cattle.[127] Dairy Main articles: Dairy
Dairy
cattle, Dairy
Dairy
farming, and Dairy

Dairy farming
Dairy farming
and the milking of cattle was once performed largely by hand, but is now usually replaced by machine

Certain breeds of cattle, such as the Holstein-Friesian, are used to produce milk,[128][129] which can be processed into dairy products such as milk, cheese or yogurt. Dairy cattle
Dairy cattle
are usually kept on specialized dairy farms designed for milk production. Most cows are milked twice per day, with milk processed at a dairy, which may be onsite at the farm or the milk may be shipped to a dairy plant for eventual sale of a dairy product.[130] For dairy cattle to continue producing milk, they must give birth to one calf per year. If the calf is male, it generally is slaughtered at a young age to produce veal.[131] They will continue to produce milk until three weeks before birth.[129] Over the last fifty years, dairy farming has become more intensive to increase the yield of milk produced by each cow. The Holstein-Friesian
Holstein-Friesian
is the breed of dairy cow most common in the UK, Europe and the United States. It has been bred selectively to produce the highest yields of milk of any cow. Around 22 litres per day is average in the UK.[128][129] Hides Most cattle are not kept solely for hides, which are usually a by-product of beef production. Hides are most commonly used for leather which can be made into a variety of product including shoes. In 2012 India
India
was the world's largest producer of cattle hides.[132] Feral cattle Feral cattle are defined as being 'cattle that are not domesticated or cultivated'.[133] Populations of feral cattle are known to come from and exist in: Australia, United States
United States
of America,[134] Colombia, Argentina, Spain, France and many islands, including New Guinea, Hawaii, Galapagos, Juan Fernández Islands, Hispaniola
Hispaniola
(Dominican Republic and Haiti), Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
and Île Amsterdam,[135] two islands of Kuchinoshima[136] and Kazura Island next to Naru Island
Naru Island
in Japan.[137][138] Chillingham cattle
Chillingham cattle
is sometimes regarded as a feral breed.[139] Aleutian wild cattles can be found on Aleutian Islands.[140] The "Kinmen cattle" which is dominantly found on Kinmen Island, Taiwan
Taiwan
is mostly domesticated while smaller portion of the population is believed to live in the wild due to accidental releases.[141] Other notable examples include cattles vicinity to Hong Kong (in the Shing Mun Country Park,[142] among Sai Kung District[143] and Lantau Island[144] and on Grass Island[145]), and semi-feral animals in Yangmingshan, Taiwan.[146] Environmental impact See also: Environmental effects of meat production

Cattle
Cattle
in dry landscape north of Alice Springs, Australia
Australia
(CSIRO)

Cattle
Cattle
near the Bruneau River
Bruneau River
in Elko County, Nevada

Gut flora
Gut flora
in cattle include methanogens that produce methane as a byproduct of enteric fermentation, which cattle belch out. The same volume of atmospheric methane has a higher global warming potential than atmospheric carbon dioxide.[147][148] Methane belching from cattle can be reduced with genetic selection, immunization, rumen defaunation, diet modification and grazing management, among others.[149][150][151] A report from the Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) states that the livestock sector is "responsible for 18% of greenhouse gas emissions".[152] The IPCC
IPCC
estimates that Cattle
Cattle
and other livestock emit about 80 to 93 Megatonnes of methane per year,[153] accounting for an estimated 37% of anthropogenic methane emissions,[152] and additional methane is produced by anaerobic fermentation of manure in manure lagoons and other manure storage structures.[154] The net change in atmospheric methane content was recently about 1 Megatonne per year,[155] and in some recent years there has been no increase in atmospheric methane content.[156] While cattle fed forage actually produce more methane than grain-fed cattle, the increase may be offset by the increased carbon recapture of pastures, which recapture three times the CO2 of cropland used for grain.[157] One of the cited changes suggested to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is intensification of the livestock industry, since intensification leads to less land for a given level of production. This assertion is supported by studies of the US beef production system, suggesting practices prevailing in 2007 involved 8.6% less fossil fuel use, 16.3% less greenhouse gas emissions, 12.1% less water use, and 33.0% less land use, per unit mass of beef produced, than those used in 1977.[158] The analysis took into account not only practices in feedlots, but also feed production (with less feed needed in more intensive production systems), forage-based cow-calf operations and back-grounding before cattle enter a feedlot (with more beef produced per head of cattle from those sources, in more intensive systems), and beef from animals derived from the dairy industry. The number of American cattle kept in confined feedlot conditions fluctuates. From 1 January 2002 through 1 January 2012, there was no significant overall upward or downward trend in the number of US cattle on feed for slaughter, which averaged about 14.046 million head over that period.[159][160] Previously, the number had increased; it was 12.453 million in 1985.[161] Cattle
Cattle
on feed (for slaughter) numbered about 14.121 million on 1 January 2012, i.e. about 15.5% of the estimated inventory of 90.8 million US cattle (including calves) on that date. Of the 14.121 million, US cattle on feed (for slaughter) in operations with 1000 head or more were estimated to number 11.9 million.[160] Cattle
Cattle
feedlots in this size category correspond to the regulatory definition of "large" concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for cattle other than mature dairy cows or veal calves.[162] Significant numbers of dairy, as well as beef cattle, are confined in CAFOs, defined as "new and existing operations which stable or confine and feed or maintain for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period more than the number of animals specified"[163] where "[c]rops, vegetation, forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility."[164] They may be designated as small, medium and large. Such designation of cattle CAFOs is according to cattle type (mature dairy cows, veal calves or other) and cattle numbers, but medium CAFOs are so designated only if they meet certain discharge criteria, and small CAFOs are designated only on a case-by-case basis.[165] A CAFO that discharges pollutants is required to obtain a permit, which requires a plan to manage nutrient runoff, manure, chemicals, contaminants, and other wastewater pursuant to the US Clean Water Act.[166] The regulations involving CAFO permitting have been extensively litigated.[167] Commonly, CAFO wastewater and manure nutrients are applied to land at agronomic rates for use by forages or crops, and it is often assumed that various constituents of wastewater and manure, e.g. organic contaminants and pathogens, will be retained, inactivated or degraded on the land with application at such rates; however, additional evidence is needed to test reliability of such assumptions .[168] Concerns raised by opponents of CAFOs have included risks of contaminated water due to feedlot runoff,[169] soil erosion, human and animal exposure to toxic chemicals, development of antibiotic resistant bacteria and an increase in E. coli contamination.[170] While research suggests some of these impacts can be mitigated by developing wastewater treatment systems[169] and planting cover crops in larger setback zones,[171] the Union of Concerned Scientists released a report in 2008 concluding that CAFOs are generally unsustainable and externalize costs.[157] An estimated 935,000 cattle operations were operating in the USA in 2010.[172] In 2001, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) tallied 5,990 cattle CAFOs then regulated, consisting of beef (2,200), dairy (3,150), heifer (620) and veal operations (20).[173] Since that time, the EPA has established CAFOs as an enforcement priority. EPA enforcement highlights for fiscal year 2010 indicated enforcement actions against 12 cattle CAFOs for violations that included failures to obtain a permit, failures to meet the terms of a permit, and discharges of contaminated water.[174]

Cattle
Cattle
grazing in a high-elevation environment at the Big Pasture Plateau, Slovenia

Another concern is manure, which if not well-managed, can lead to adverse environmental consequences. However, manure also is a valuable source of nutrients and organic matter when used as a fertilizer.[175] Manure
Manure
was used as a fertilizer on about 15.8 million acres of US cropland in 2006, with manure from cattle accounting for nearly 70% of manure applications to soybeans and about 80% or more of manure applications to corn, wheat, barley, oats and sorghum.[176] Substitution of manure for synthetic fertilizers in crop production can be environmentally significant, as between 43 and 88 megajoules of fossil fuel energy would be used per kg of nitrogen in manufacture of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers.[177] Grazing by cattle at low intensities can create a favourable environment for native herbs and forbs; in many world regions, though, cattle are reducing biodiversity due to overgrazing.[178] A survey of refuge managers on 123 National Wildlife Refuges in the US tallied 86 species of wildlife considered positively affected and 82 considered negatively affected by refuge cattle grazing or haying.[179] Proper management of pastures, notably managed intensive rotational grazing and grazing at low intensities can lead to less use of fossil fuel energy, increased recapture of carbon dioxide, fewer ammonia emissions into the atmosphere, reduced soil erosion, better air quality, and less water pollution.[157] Cattle
Cattle
conservation and preservation is important for maintaining ecology of the rural areas and villages which in turn is crucial for nature conservation. Govidyapeetham, a cattle conservation institute by Shree Aniruddha Upasana Foundation situated in Karjat city in the state of Maharashtra, India
India
is dedicated for research based reproduction of cows using modern technology.[180]

Govidyapeetham, Cattle
Cattle
Conservation Institute, India

Health The veterinary discipline dealing with cattle and cattle diseases (bovine veterinary) is called buiatrics.[181] Veterinarians and professionals working on cattle health issues are pooled in the World Association for Buiatrics, founded in 1960.[182] National associations and affiliates also exist.[183] Cattle
Cattle
diseases were in the center of attention in the 1980s and 1990s when the Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
(BSE), also known as mad cow disease, was of concern. Cattle
Cattle
might catch and develop various other diseases, like blackleg, bluetongue, foot rot too.[184][185][186] In most states, as cattle health is not only a veterinarian issue, but also a public health issue, public health and food safety standards and farming regulations directly affect the daily work of farmers who keep cattle.[187] However, said rules change frequently and are often debated. For instance, in the U.K., it was proposed in 2011 that milk from tuberculosis-infected cattle should be allowed to enter the food chain.[188] Internal food safety regulations might affect a country's trade policy as well. For example, the United States
United States
has just reviewed its beef import rules according to the "mad cow standards"; while Mexico
Mexico
forbids the entry of cattle who are older than 30 months.[189] Cow urine
Cow urine
is commonly used in India
India
for internal medical purposes.[190][191] It is distilled and then consumed by patients seeking treatment for a wide variety of illnesses.[192] At present, no conclusive medical evidence shows this has any effect.[193] However, an Indian medicine containing cow urine has already obtained U.S. patents.[194] Digital dermatitis is caused by the bacteria from the genus Treponema. It differs from foot rot and can appear under unsanitary conditions such as poor hygiene or inadequate hoof trimming, among other causes. It primarily affects dairy cattle and has been known to lower the quantity of milk produced, however the milk quality remains unaffected. Cattle
Cattle
are also susceptible to ringworm caused by the fungus, Trichophyton verrucosum, a contagious skin disease which may be transferred to humans exposed to infected cows.[195] Mycobacterium vaccae
Mycobacterium vaccae
is a non pathogenic, possibly even beneficial bacteria, that is seen naturally in soil;[196] that was first isolated from cow dung.[197] Effect of high stocking density Stocking density refers to the number of animals within a specified area. When stocking density reaches high levels, the behavioural needs of the animals may not be met. This can negatively influence health, welfare and production performance.[198] The effect of overstocking in cows can have a negative effect on milk production and reproduction rates which are two very important traits for dairy farmers. Overcrowding of cows in barns has been found to reduced feeding, resting and rumination.[198] Although they consume the same amount of dry matter within the span of a day, they consume the food at a much more rapid rate, and this behaviour in cows can lead to further complications.[199] The feeding behaviour of cows during their post-milking period is very important as it has been proven that the longer animals can eat after milking, the longer they will be standing up and therefore causing less contamination to the teat ends.[200] This is necessary to reduce the risk of mastitis as infection has been shown to increase the chances of embryonic loss.[201] Sufficient rest is important for dairy cows because it is during this period that their resting blood flow increases up to 50%, this is directly proportionate to milk production.[200] Each additional hour of rest can be seen to translate to 2 to 3.5 more pounds of milk per cow daily. Stocking densities of anything over 120% have been shown to decrease the amount of time cows spend lying down.[202] Cortisol
Cortisol
is an important stress hormone; its plasma concentrations increase greatly when subjected to high levels of stress.[203] Increased concentration levels of cortisol have been associated with significant increases in gonadotrophin levels and lowered progestin levels. Reduction of stress is important in the reproductive state of cows as an increase in gonadotrophin and lowered progesterone levels may impinge on the ovulatory and lutenization process and to reduce the chances of successful implantation.[204] A high cortisol level will also stimulate the degradation of fats and proteins which may make it difficult for the animal to sustain its pregnancy if implanted successfully.[203] Oxen Main article: Ox

Draft Zebus
Zebus
in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Oxen (singular ox) are cattle trained as draft animals. Often they are adult, castrated males of larger breeds, although females and bulls are also used in some areas. Usually, an ox is over four years old due to the need for training and to allow it to grow to full size. Oxen are used for plowing, transport, hauling cargo, grain-grinding by trampling or by powering machines, irrigation by powering pumps, and wagon drawing. Oxen were commonly used to skid logs in forests, and sometimes still are, in low-impact, select-cut logging. Oxen are most often used in teams of two, paired, for light work such as carting, with additional pairs added when more power is required, sometimes up to a total of 20 or more.

Oxen used in Plowing

An ox is a mature bovine which has learned to respond appropriately to a teamster's signals. These signals are given by verbal commands or by noise (whip cracks). Verbal commands vary according to dialect and local tradition. In one tradition in North America, the commands are:[citation needed]

"Back up": go backwards "Gee": turn right "Get up": walk forward "Haw": turn left "Whoa": stop

Riding an ox in Hova, Sweden

Oxen can pull harder and longer than horses. Though not as fast as horses, they are less prone to injury because they are more sure-footed. Many oxen are used worldwide, especially in developing countries. About 11.3 million draft oxen are used in sub-Saharan Africa.[205] In India, the number of draft cattle in 1998 was estimated at 65.7 million head.[206] About half the world's crop production is thought to depend on land preparation (such as plowing) made possible by animal traction.[207]

The "Ure-Ox" (Aurochs) by Edward Topsell, 1658

Religion, traditions and folklore Main article: Cattle
Cattle
in religion Hindu tradition Further information: Cattle
Cattle
slaughter in India Cattle
Cattle
are venerated within the Hindu religion of India. In the Vedic period they were a symbol of plenty [208]:130 and were frequently slaughtered. In later times they gradually acquired their present status. According to the Mahabharata, they are to be treated with the same respect 'as one's mother'.[209] In the middle of the first millennium, the consumption of beef began to be disfavoured by lawgivers.[208]:144 Although there has never been any cow-goddesses or temples dedicated to them,[208]:146 cows appear in numerous stories from the Vedas and Puranas. The deity Krishna
Krishna
was brought up in a family of cowherders, and given the name Govinda
Govinda
(protector of the cows). Also, Shiva
Shiva
is traditionally said to ride on the back of a bull named Nandi. Hinduism
Hinduism
considers cow as divine and satvik (with pure virtues) and is worshipped as goddess. Medical science stresses importance of the cow for her milk, her urine as well as her excreta in our day-to-day life. Govidyapeetham, India
India
aims to revive reproduction methodologies undertaken by Balram (brother of Lord Krishna, a deity in Hinduism) combining with modern technology.[180]

Ancient Cattle
Cattle
Reproduction
Reproduction
Methodologies Revived at Govidyapeetham, India

Milk and milk products were used in Vedic rituals.[208]:130 In the postvedic period products of the cow – milk, curd, ghee, but also cow dung and urine (gomutra), or the combination of these five (panchagavya) – began to assume an increasingly important role in ritual purification and expiation.[208]:130–1 Veneration of the cow has become a symbol of the identity of Hindus as a community,[208]:20 especially since the end of the 19th century. Slaughter of cows (including oxen, bulls and calves) is forbidden by law in several states of the Indian Union. McDonald's
McDonald's
outlets in India do not serve any beef burgers. In Maharaja Ranjit Singh's empire of the early 19th century, the killing of a cow was punishable by death.[210] Other traditions

Legend of the founding of Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral
is that monks carrying the body of Saint Cuthbert
Saint Cuthbert
were led to the location by a milk maid who had lost her dun cow, which was found resting on the spot.

An idealized depiction of girl cow herders in 19th-century Norway by Knud Bergslien.

The Evangelist St. Luke
St. Luke
is depicted as an ox in Christian art. In Judaism, as described in Numbers 19:2, the ashes of a sacrificed unblemished red heifer that has never been yoked can be used for ritual purification of people who came into contact with a corpse. The ox is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac
Chinese zodiac
related to the Chinese calendar. See: Ox (Zodiac). The constellation Taurus represents a bull. An apocryphal story has it that a cow started the Great Chicago Fire by kicking over a kerosene lamp. Michael Ahern, the reporter who created the cow story, admitted in 1893 that he had fabricated it for more colorful copy. On 18 February 1930, Elm Farm Ollie became the first cow to fly in an airplane and also the first cow to be milked in an airplane. The first known law requiring branding in North America was enacted on 5 February 1644, by Connecticut. It said that all cattle and pigs had to have a registered brand or earmark by 1 May 1644.[211] The akabeko (赤べこ, red cow) is a traditional toy from the Aizu region of Japan that is thought to ward off illness.[212] The case of Sherwood v. Walker—involving a supposedly barren heifer that was actually pregnant—-first enunciated the concept of mutual mistake as a means of destroying the meeting of the minds in contract law.[citation needed] The Fulani of West Africa are the world's largest nomadic cattle-herders. The Maasai tribe of East Africa traditionally believe their god Engai entitled them to divine rights to the ownership of all cattle on earth.[213]

In heraldry See also: Ciołek coat of arms Cattle
Cattle
are typically represented in heraldry by the bull.

Arms of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
region, Germany

Arms of Turin, Italy

Arms of Kaunas, Lithuania

Arms of Turek, Poland

Arms of Bielsk Podlaski, Poland

Arms of the Azores

Population For 2013, the FAO estimated global cattle numbers at 1.47 billion.[214] Regionally, the FAO estimate for 2013 includes: Asia 495 million; South America 348 million; Africa 305 million; Europe 122 million; North America 102 million; Central America 46 million; Oceania 42 million; and Caribbean 9 million. The following table shows the cattle population in 2009.[215] As of 2003[update], Africa had about 231 million head of cattle, raised in both traditional and non-traditional systems, but often an "integral" part of the culture and way of life.[216]

Cattle
Cattle
population

Region 2009 2013 [217]

 India 285,000,000 (By 2003)[218] 194,655,285

 Brazil 187,087,000 186,646,205

 China 139,721,000 102,668,900

 USA 96,669,000 96,956,461

 European Union 87,650,000

 Argentina 51,062,000 52,509,049

 Pakistan 38,300,000 26,007,848

 Australia 29,202,000 27,249,291

 Mexico 26,489,000 31,222,196

 Bangladesh 22,976,000 22,844,190

 Russia 18,370,000 28,685,315

 South Africa 14,187,000 13,526,296

 Canada 13,945,000 13,287,866

Others 49,756,000

Gallery

Didactic model of Bovine.

Bovine anatomical model.

Didactic model of a bovine muscular system.

See also

Agriculture
Agriculture
and Agronomy portal Animals portal

1966 anti-cow slaughter agitation Category:Individual cattle British Cattle
Cattle
Health Initiative Bull-baiting Bullocky Bulls and Cows (game) Cattle
Cattle
age determination Cattle
Cattle
judging Cow tipping Cowboy Intensive animal farming List of cattle breeds List of domesticated animals Ranch

References

^ a b Bollongino, R.; Burger, J.; Powell, A.; Mashkour, M.; Vigne, J.-D.; Thomas, M. G. (2012). "Modern taurine cattle descended from small number of Near-Eastern founders". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29 (9): 2101–2104. doi:10.1093/molbev/mss092. PMID 22422765. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012.  Op. cit. in Wilkins, Alasdair (28 March 2012). "DNA reveals that cows were almost impossible to domesticate". io9. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2012.  ^ "Counting Chickens". The Economist. 27 July 2011. Archived from the original on 15 July 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.  ^ Brown, David (23 April 2009). "Scientists Unravel Genome of the Cow". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2009.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). " Bos
Bos
taurus". Mammal Species
Species
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ " Bos
Bos
taurus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 9 May 2015.  ^ "Yattle What?" Archived 1 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine., Washington Post, 11 August 2007 ^ Groves, C. P., 1981. Systematic relationships in the Bovini (Artiodactyla, Bovidae). Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung, 4:264–278., quoted in Grubb, P. (2005). "Genus Bison". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species
Species
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 637–722. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Takeda, Kumiko; et al. (April 2004). "Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Nepalese domestic dwarf cattle Lulu". Animal
Animal
Science Journal. Blackwell Publishing. 75 (2): 103–110. doi:10.1111/j.1740-0929.2004.00163.x. Retrieved 7 November 2006. [permanent dead link] ^ Van Vuure, C.T. 2003. De Oeros – Het spoor terug (in Dutch), Cis van Vuure, Wageningen University and Research Centrum: quoted by The Extinction Website: Bos
Bos
primigenius primigenius. Archived 20 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Harper, Douglas (2001). "Cattle". Online Etymological Dictionary. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2007. ; "cattle, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2014. Web. 6 December 2014. ^ Harper, Douglas (2001). "Chattel". Online Etymological Dictionary. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2007. ; Harper, Douglas (2001). "Capital". Online Etymological Dictionary. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2007. ; "cattle, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2014. Web. 6 December 2014. ^ "cow, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2014. Web. 6 December 2014. ^ "cattle, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2014. Web. 6 December 2014 ^ a b " Cattle
Cattle
Terminology". experiencefestival.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2008.  ^ a b Coupe, Sheena (ed.), Frontier Country, Vol. 1, Weldon Russell Publishing, Willoughby, 1989, ISBN 1-875202-01-3 ^ "Definition of heifer". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 22 August 2007. Retrieved 29 November 2006.  ^ a b Delbridge, Arthur, The Macquarie Dictionary, 2nd ed., Macquarie Library, North Ryde, 1991 ^ McIntosh, E., The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Clarendon Press, 1967 ^ Warren, Andrea. "Pioneer Girl: Growing Up on the Prairie" (PDF). Lexile. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2004. Retrieved 29 November 2006.  ^ Delbridge, A, et al., Macquarie Dictionary, The Book Printer, Australia, 1991 ^ Meat & Livestock
Livestock
Australia, Feedback, June/July 2008 ^ "Sure Ways to Lose Money on Your Cattle". Spiritwoodstockyards.ca. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ FAQs: What is meant by springer cows and heifers? Archived 7 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Dr. Rick Rasby, Professor of Animal Science, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, 6 September 2005. Retrieved: 12 August 2010. ^ UK Daily Mirror article 5 Jan 2015 Archived 7 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 6 November 2016 ^ " Cattle
Cattle
(5, 6)". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "Ox (1, 2)". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "Merriam Webster Online". Merriam-webster.com. 31 August 2012. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ ""Critter," definition 2". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ Beales, Terry (1999). "Keep Those Dogies Movin!" (PDF). Texas Animal Health Commission News Release. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2008.  ^ "Bawling in Cattle". Archived from the original on 26 March 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.  ^ FERREIRA, A. B. H. Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa. 2ª edição. Rio de Janeiro. Nova Fronteira. 1986. p. 950. ^ Hasheider, Phillip. The Family Cow Handbook. ISBN 0-7603-4067-6.  ^ " Udder
Udder
Structure & Disease" (PDF). UVM. 6 May 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2015.  ^ "G Jayawardhana (2006), Testicle
Testicle
Size – A Fertility Indicator in Bulls, Australian Government Agnote K44" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012.  ^ "A P Carter, P D P Wood and Penelope A Wright (1980), Association between scrotal circumference, live weight and sperm output in cattle, Journal of Reproductive Fertility, 59, pp 447–451" (PDF). Retrieved 6 August 2012.  ^ Sarkar, A. (2003). Sexual Behaviour In Animals. Discovery Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-7141-746-9.  ^ William O. Reece (2009). Functional Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-8138-1451-3.  ^ James R. Gillespie; Frank Flanders (2009). Modern Livestock
Livestock
& Poultry
Poultry
Production. Cengage Learning. ISBN 1-4283-1808-9.  ^ Friend, John B., Cattle
Cattle
of the World, Blandford Press, Dorset, 1978 ^ McWhirter, Norris & Ross, Guinness Book of Records, Redwood Press, Trowbridge, 1968 ^ " Hereford cattle
Hereford cattle
weight". Archived from the original on 24 January 2015.  ^ "FAO Cattle
Cattle
Weights". FAO. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.  ^ Kenneth H. Mathews – 1999 – U.S. Beef
Beef
Industry: Cattle
Cattle
Cycles, Price Spreads, and Packer concentration. Page 6 ^ American Economic Growth and Standards of Living before the Civil War, Robert E. Gallman, John Joseph Wallis – 2007 p248 ^ " Cattle
Cattle
increasing in size". Beef
Beef
Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.  ^ Bailey, D.W.; Rittenhouse, L.R.; Hart, R.H.; Richards, R.W (1989). "Characteristics of spatial memory in cattle". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 23 (4): 331–340. doi:10.1016/0168-1591(89)90101-9.  ^ Kovalčik, K.; Kovalčik, M. (1986). "Learning ability and memory testing in cattle of different ages". Applied Animal
Animal
Behaviour Science. 15 (1): 27–29. doi:10.1016/0168-1591(86)90019-5.  ^ Mendl, M.; Nicol, C.J. (2009). "Chapter 5: Learning and cognition". In Jensen, P. The Ethology
Ethology
of Domestic Animals: An Introductory Text. CABI. pp. 61–63.  ^ Ksiksi, T.; Laca, E.A. (2002). " Cattle
Cattle
do remember locations of preferred food over extended periods". Asian Australasian Journal of Animal
Animal
Sciences. 15 (6): 900–904. doi:10.5713/ajas.2002.900.  ^ Hirata, M.; Takeno, N. (2014). "Do cattle ( Bos
Bos
taurus) retain an association of a visual cue with a food reward for a year?". Animal Science Journal. 85 (6): 729–734. doi:10.1111/asj.12210.  ^ Schaeffer, R.G.; Sikes, J.D. (1971). "Discrimination learning in dairy calves". Journal of Dairy
Dairy
Science. 54 (6): 893–896. doi:10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(71)85937-4.  ^ Kilgour, R. (1981). "Use of the Hebb–Williams closed-field test to study the learning ability of Jersey cows". Animal
Animal
Behaviour. 29 (3): 850–860. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(81)80020-6.  ^ a b c d e f Coulon, M.; Baudoin, C.; Heyman, Y.; Deputte, B.L. (2011). " Cattle
Cattle
discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics by using only head visual cues". Animal
Animal
Cognition. 14 (2): 279–290. doi:10.1007/s10071-010-0361-6.  ^ de Passille, A.M.; Rushen, J.; Ladewig, J.; Petherick, C. (1996). " Dairy
Dairy
calves' discrimination of people based on previous handling". Journal of Animal
Animal
Science. 74: 969–974.  ^ Mendl, M.; Nicol, C.J. (2009). "Chapter 5: Learning and cognition". In Jensen, P. The Ethology
Ethology
of Domestic Animals: An Introductory Text. CABI. p. 144.  ^ Barfield, C.H.; Tang‐Martinez, Z.; Trainer, J.M. (1994). "Domestic calves ( Bos
Bos
taurus) recognize their own mothers by auditory cues". Ethology. 97 (4): 257–264. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1994.tb01045.x.  ^ Coulon, M.; Deputte, B.L.; Heyman, Y.; Delatouche, L.; Richard, C.; Baudoin, C. (2007). 14 èmes Recontres autour des recherches sur les ruminants, Paris, les 5 et 6 Décembre 2007. Social cognition and welfare in cattle: capacities of visual species discrimination (in French). Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA). pp. 297–300.  ^ Coulon, M.; Baudoin, C.; Abdi, H.; Heyman, Y.; Deputte, B.L. (2010). "Social behavior and kin discrimination in a mixed group of cloned and non cloned heifers ( Bos
Bos
taurus)". Theriogenology. 74 (9): 1596–1603. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.06.031.  ^ Hagen, K.; Broom, D.M. (2003). " Cattle
Cattle
discriminate between individual familiar herd members in a learning experiment". Applied Animal
Animal
Behaviour Science. 82 (1): 13–28. doi:10.1016/s0168-1591(03)00053-4.  ^ Coulon, M.; Deputte, B.L.; Heyman, Y.; Baudoin, C. (2009). "Individual recognition in domestic cattle ( Bos
Bos
taurus): evidence from 2D-images of heads from different breeds". PLOS One. 4 (2): 4441. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004441. PMC 2636880 . PMID 19212439. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015.  ^ Phillips, C.J.C.; Oevermans, H.; Syrett, K.L.; Jespersen, A.Y.; Pearce, G.P. (2015). "Lateralization of behavior in dairy cows in response to conspecifics and novel persons". Journal of Dairy
Dairy
Science. 98 (4): 2389–2400. doi:10.3168/jds.2014-8648.  ^ Robins, A.; Phillips, C. (2010). "Lateralised visual processing in domestic cattle herds responding to novel and familiar stimuli". Laterality. 15 (5): 514–534. doi:10.1080/13576500903049324.  ^ Proctor, Helen S.; Carder, Gemma (October 9, 2014). "Can ear postures reliably measure the positive emotional state of cows?". International Society for Applied Ethology. London, UK: Elsevier, Inc.  ^ Brand, B.; Hadlich, F.; Brandt, B.; Schauer, N.; Graunke, K.L.; Langbein, J.; ... and Schwerin, M. (2015). "Temperament type specific metabolite profiles of the prefrontal cortex and serum in cattle". PLOS One. 10 (4): e0125044. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125044. PMC 4416037 . PMID 25927228.  ^ Réale, D.; Reader, S.M.; Sol, D.; McDougall, P.T.; Dingemanse, N.J. (2007). "Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution". Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 82 (2): 291–318. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185x.2007.00010.x. PMID 17437562.  ^ Hagen, K.; Broom, D. (2004). "Emotional reactions to learning in cattle". Applied Animal
Animal
Behaviour Science. 85 (3–4): 203–213. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2003.11.007.  ^ Daros, R.R.; Costa, J.H.; von Keyserlingk, M.A.; Hötzel, M.J.; Weary, D.M. (2014). "Separation from the dam causes negative judgement bias in dairy calves". PLOS One. 9 (5): e98429. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098429. PMC 4029834 . PMID 24848635.  ^ Neave, H.W.; Daros, R.R.; Costa, J.H.C.; von Keyserlingk, M.A.G.; Weary, D.M. (2013). "Pain and pessimism: Dairy
Dairy
calves exhibit negative judgement bias following hot-iron disbudding". PLOS One. 8 (12): e80556. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080556. PMC 3851165 . PMID 24324609.  ^ a b Boissy, A.; Terlouw, C.; Le Neindre, P. (1998). "Presence of cues from stressed conspecifics increases reactivity to aversive events in cattle: evidence for the existence of alarm substances in urine". Physiology and Behavior. 63 (4): 489–495. doi:10.1016/s0031-9384(97)00466-6.  ^ Boissy, A.; Le Neindre, P. (1997). "Behavioral, cardiac and cortisol responses to brief peer separation and reunion in cattle". Physiology & Behavior. 61 (5): 693–699. doi:10.1016/s0031-9384(96)00521-5.  ^ Kay, R.; Hall, C. (2009). "The use of a mirror reduces isolation stress in horses being transported by trailer". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 116 (2): 237–243. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2008.08.013.  ^ Rutter, S.M. (2006). "Diet preference for grass and legumes in free-ranging domestic sheep and cattle: current theory and future application". Applied Animal
Animal
Behaviour Science. 97 (1): 17–35. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2005.11.016.  ^ a b c d e Adamczyk, K.; Górecka-Bruzda, A.; Nowicki, J.; Gumułka, M.; Molik, E.; Schwarz, T.; Klocek, C. (2015). "Perception of environment in farm animals – A review". Annals of Animal
Animal
Science. doi:10.1515/aoas-2015-0031.  ^ a b Phillips, C. (2008). Cattle
Cattle
Behaviour and Welfare. John Wiley and Sons.  ^ Jacobs, G.H.; Deegan, J.F.; Neitz, J. (1998). "Photopigment basis for dichromatic color vision in cows, goats and sheep". Vis. Neurosci. 15 (3): 581–584. doi:10.1017/s0952523898153154.  ^ Phillips, C.J.C.; Lomas, C.A. (2001). "Perception of color by cattle and its influence on behavior". Journal of Dairy
Dairy
Science. 84 (4): 807–813. doi:10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(01)74537-7.  ^ Phillips, C.J.C.; Lomas, C.A. (2001). "The perception of color by cattle and its influence on behavior". Journal of Dairy
Dairy
Science. 84 (4): 807–813. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74537-7.  ^ "Why Do Bulls Charge When they See Red?". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.  ^ Bell, F.R.; Sly, J. (1983). "The olfactory detection of sodium and lithium salts by sodium deficient cattle". Physiology and Behavior. 31 (3): 307–312. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(83)90193-2.  ^ Bell, F. R. (1984). "Aspects of ingestive behavior in cattle". Journal of Animal
Animal
Science. 59 (5): 1369–1372.  ^ Heffner, R.S.; Heffner, H.E. (1983). "Hearing in large mammals: Horses (Equus caballus) and cattle ( Bos
Bos
taurus)". Behavioral Neuroscience. 97 (2): 299–309. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.97.2.299.  ^ Heffner, R.S.; Heffner, H.E. (1992). "Hearing in large mammals: sound-localization acuity in cattle ( Bos
Bos
taurus) and goats (Capra hircus)". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 106 (2): 107–113. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.106.2.107.  ^ Watts, J.M.; Stookey, J.M. (2000). "Vocal behaviour in cattle: the animal's commentary on its biological processes and welfare". Applied Animal
Animal
Behaviour Science. 67 (1): 15–33. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(99)00108-2.  ^ a b Bouissou, M.F.; Boissy, A.; Le Niendre, P.; Vessier, I. (2001). "The Social Behaviour of Cattle
Cattle
5.". In Keeling, L.; Gonyou, H. Social Behavior in Farm Animals. CABI Publishing. pp. 113–133.  ^ Terlouw, E.C.; Boissy, A.; Blinet, P. (1998). "Behavioural responses of cattle to the odours of blood and urine from conspecifics and to the odour of faeces from carnivores". Applied Animal
Animal
Behaviour Science. 57 (1): 9–21. doi:10.1016/s0168-1591(97)00122-6.  ^ Begall, S.; Cerveny, J.; Neef, J.; Vojtech, O.; Burda, H. (2008). "Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (36): 13451–13455. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10513451B. doi:10.1073/pnas.0803650105.  ^ Burda, H.; Begalla, S.; Červený, J.; Neefa, J.; Němecd, P. (2009). "Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields disrupt magnetic alignment of ruminants". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 106 (14): 5708–5713. doi:10.1073/pnas.0811194106. PMC 2667019 . PMID 19299504.  ^ Hert, J; Jelinek, L; Pekarek, L; Pavlicek, A (2011). "No alignment of cattle along geomagnetic field lines found". Journal of Comparative Physiology. 197 (6): 677–682. doi:10.1007/s00359-011-0628-7.  ^ Johnsen, J.F.; Ellingsen, K.; Grøndahl, A.M.; Bøe, K.E.; Lidfors, L.; Mejdell, C.M. (2015). "The effect of physical contact between dairy cows and calves during separation on their post-separation behavioural" (PDF). Applied Animal
Animal
Behaviour Science. 166: 11–19. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2015.03.002. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2017.  ^ Edwards, S.A.; Broom, D.M. (1982). "Behavioural interactions of dairy cows with their newborn calves and the effects of parity". Animal
Animal
Behaviour. 30 (2): 525–535. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(82)80065-1.  ^ Odde, K. G.; Kiracofe, G.H.; Schalles, R.R. (1985). "Suckling behavior in range beef calves". Journal of Animal
Animal
Science. 61 (2): 307–309. doi:10.2527/jas1985.612307x.  ^ Reinhardt, V.; Reinhardt, A. (1981). Cohesive relationships in a cattle herd ( Bos
Bos
indicus). Behaviour. 77. pp. 121–150. doi:10.1163/156853981X00194.  ^ a b c d Reinhardt, C.; Reinhardt, A.; Reinhardt, V. (1986). "Social behaviour and reproductive performance in semi-wild Scottish Highland cattle". Applied Animal
Animal
Behaviour Science. 15 (2): 125–136. doi:10.1016/0168-1591(86)90058-4.  ^ "Signs of Heat (Heat Detection and Timing of Insemination for Cattle)". Heat Detection and Timing of Insemination for Cattle
Cattle
(Penn State Extension). Archived from the original on 5 November 2016.  ^ Knierim, U.; Irrgang, N.; Roth, B.A. (2015). "To be or not to be horned–consequences in cattle". Livestock
Livestock
Science. 179: 29–37. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2015.05.014.  ^ Kondo, S.; Sekine, J.; Okubo, M.; Asahida, Y. (1989). "The effect of group size and space allowance on the agonistic and spacing behavior of cattle". Applied Animal
Animal
Behaviour Science. 24 (2): 127–135. doi:10.1016/0168-1591(89)90040-3.  ^ Laca, E.A.; Ungar, E.D.; Seligman, N.; Demment, M.W. (1992). "Effects of sward height and bulk density on bite dimensions of cattle grazing homogeneous swards". Grass and Forage Science. 47 (1): 91–102. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2494.1992.tb02251.x.  ^ Bailey, D.W.; Gross, J.E.; Laca, E.A.; Rittenhouse, L.R.; Coughenour, M.B.; Swift, D.M.; Sims, P.L. (1996). "Mechanisms that result in large herbivore grazing distribution patterns". Journal of Range Management. 49 (5): 386–400. doi:10.2307/4002919.  ^ Forbes, T.D.A.; Hodgson, J. (1985). "The reaction of grazing sheep and cattle to the presence of dung from the same or the other species". Grass and Forage Science. 40 (2): 177–182. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2494.1985.tb01735.x.  ^ Daniels, M.J.; Ball, N.; Hutchings, M.R.; Greig, A. (2001). "The grazing response of cattle to pasture contaminated with rabbit faeces and the implications for the transmission of paratuberculosis". The Veterinary Journal. 161 (3): 306–313. doi:10.1053/tvjl.2000.0550.  ^ "Cow genome unraveled in bid to improve meat, milk". Associated Press. 23 April 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-04-27. Retrieved 23 April 2009.  ^ Gill, Victoria (23 April 2009). "BBC: Cow genome 'to transform farming'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ Canario, L.; Mignon-Grasteau, S.; Dupont-Nivet, M.; Phocas, F. (2013). "Genetics of behavioural adaptation of livestock to farming conditions". Animal. 7 (3): 357–377. doi:10.1017/S1751731112001978.  ^ Jensen, P., ed. (2009). The Ethology
Ethology
of Domestic Animals: An Introductory Text. CABI. p. 111.  ^ Schmutz, S. M.; Stookey, J. M.; Winkelman-Sim, D. C.; Waltz, C. S.; Plante, Y.; Buchanan, F. C. (2001). "A QTL study of cattle behavioral traits in embryo transfer families". Journal of Heredity. 92 (3): 290–292. doi:10.1093/jhered/92.3.290.  ^ Canario, L.; Mignon-Grasteau, S.; Dupont-Nivet, M.; Phocas, F. (2013). "Genetics of behavioural adaptation of livestock to farming conditions". Animal. 7 (3): 357–377. doi:10.1017/S1751731112001978.  ^ Friedrich, J.; Brand, B.; Schwerin, M. (2015). "Genetics of cattle temperament and its impact on livestock production and breeding–a review" (PDF). Archives Animal
Animal
Breeding. 58: 13–21. doi:10.5194/aab-58-13-2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015.  ^ a b c McTavish, E.J.; Decker, J.E.; Schnabel, R.D.; Taylor, J.F.; Hillis, D.M.year=2013 (2013). "New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110 (15): E1398–406. doi:10.1073/pnas.1303367110. PMC 3625352 . PMID 23530234.  ^ Decker, J.E.; McKay, S.D.; Rolf, M.M.; Kim, J.; Molina Alcalá, A.; Sonstegard, T.S.; et al. (2014). "Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle". PLoS Genet. 10 (3): e1004254. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004254. PMC 3967955 . PMID 24675901. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014.  ^ Gustavo A Slafer; Jose Luis Molina-Cano; Roxana Savin; Jose Luis Araus; Ignacio Romagosa (2002). Barley Science: Recent Advances from Molecular Biology to Agronomy of Yield and Quality. CRC Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-56022-910-0.  ^ a b Glyn Davies; Julian Hodge Bank (2002). A history of money: from ancient times to the present day. University of Wales Press. ISBN 978-0-7083-1717-4.  ^ Jesús Huerta de Soto (2006). Money, Bank Credit, and Economic Cycles. Ludwig von Mises Institute. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-61016-388-0.  ^ "A History of Money". Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ Lott, Dale F.; Hart, Benjamin L. (October 1979). "Applied ethology in a nomadic cattle culture". Applied Animal
Animal
Ethology. Elsevier B.V. 5 (4): 309–319. doi:10.1016/0304-3762(79)90102-0.  ^ Krebs JR, Anderson T, Clutton-Brock WT, et al. (1997). "Bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers: an independent scientific review" (PDF). Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-07-22. Retrieved 4 September 2006.  ^ Edward O. Wilson, The Future of Life, 2003, Vintage Books, 256 pages ISBN 0-679-76811-4 ^ https://www.thelocal.es/20161026/bulls-replace-guard-dogs-at-scrap-yard-in-valencia ^ http://www.travelandleisure.com/animals/junkyard-bulls-spain ^ "40 Winks?" Jennifer S. Holland, National Geographic Vol. 220, No. 1. July 2011. ^ Asprea, Lori; Sturtz, Robin (2012). Anatomy and physiology for veterinary technicians and nurses a clinical approach. Chichester: Iowa State University Pre. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-118-40584-0.  ^ " Animal
Animal
MythBusters – Manitoba Veterinary Medical Association". www.mvma.ca. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016.  ^ Collins, Nick (6 September 2013). " Cow tipping
Cow tipping
myth dispelled". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.  ^ Haines, Lester (9 November 2005). "Boffins debunk cow-tipping myth". The Register UK. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.  ^ (Clay 2004). ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014.  Cattle
Cattle
Meat Production 12 February 2014 ^ Rickard, G., & Book, I. (1999). Bovids:useful ruminants. In Investigating God's world (3rd ed.). Pensacola, Fla.: A Beka Book. ^ a b "UK Dairy
Dairy
Cows". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.  ^ a b c "Compassion in World Farming: Dairy
Dairy
Cattle". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.  ^ " Milking
Milking
3 Times per day".  ^ " Veal
Veal
and the Dairy
Dairy
Industry". Compassion in World Farming. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.  ^ "FAO – Cattle
Cattle
Hides" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2015.  ^ "Definition of Feral cattle". Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.  ^ http://www.latimes.com/local/california/la-me-feral-bulls-20180302-story.html ^ Grubb, P. (2005). " Bos
Bos
taurus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species
Species
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 637–722. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ "NGRC Bos
Bos
taurus". www.nodai-genome.org. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.  ^ "葛島(野生化した和牛のいる島) – 奈留島港レンタカー". www.narusima.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016.  ^ "Science – Chillingham Wild Cattle". chillinghamwildcattle.com. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016.  ^ "Alaska Isle a Corral For Feral Cattle
Cattle
Herd; U.S. Wants to Trade Cows for Birds". The Washington Post. 23 October 2005. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016.  ^ "牛ばかりいる台湾の孤島・金門島 / 牛による牛のためのモーモーパラダイスだったことが判明". 世界を旅するガイドブック Photrip フォトリップ. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016.  ^ 城門水塘融和歷史 Archived 1 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on May 08, 2017 ^ 2015. 郊野香港,野牛與人和諧共處. The New York Times. Retrieved on May 08, 2017 ^ 2014. 西貢流浪牛被逼遷大嶼山 漁護署:牛隻健康年中再檢討 Archived 22 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on May 08, 2017 ^ 陳漢榮. 陳盛臣. 2003. 短線遊:跟住牛屎遊塔門 Archived 22 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on May 08, 2017 ^ 太厲害!擎天崗的牛 乖乖跟「他」走! Archived 22 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. The Liberty Times. Retrieved on May 08, 2017 ^ Myhre, Gunnar (2013), "Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing" (PDF), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, archived (PDF) from the original on 6 February 2017, retrieved 22 December 2016.  See Table 8.7. ^ IPCC. 2007. Fourth Assessment Report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ^ Boadi, D.; Benchaar, C.; Chiquette, J.; Massé, D. (2004). "Mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emissions from dairy cows: Update review". Can. J. Anim. Sci. 84 (3): 319–335. doi:10.4141/a03-109.  ^ Martin, C.; Morgavi, D.P.; Doreau, M. (2010). "Methane mitigation in ruminants: from microbe to the farm scale". Animal. 4 (3): 351–365. doi:10.1017/s1751731109990620.  ^ Eckard, R. J.; Grainger, C.; de Klein, C.A.M. (2010). "Options for the abatement of methane and nitrous oxide from ruminant production: A review". Livestock
Livestock
Science. 130: 47–56. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2010.02.010.  ^ a b Steinfeld, H. et al. 2006, Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Livestock, Environment and Development, FAO. ^ IPCC. 2001. Third Assessment Report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Working Group I: The Scientific Basis. Table 4.2 ^ US EPA. 2012. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gase emissions and sinks: 1990–2010. US. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 430-R-12-001. Section 6.2. ^ IPCC. 2007. Fourth Assessment Report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ^ Dlugokencky, E. J.; Nisbet, E.G.; Fisher, R.; Lowry, D. (2011). "Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 369 (1943): 2058–2072. doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0341.  ^ a b c "Gurian-Sherman, Doug. CAFOs Uncovered: The Untold Costs of Confined Animal
Animal
Feeding Operations" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ Capper, J. L. (2011). "The environmental impact of beef production in the United States: 1977 compared with 2007". J. Anim. Sci. 89 (12): 4249–4261. doi:10.2527/jas.2010-3784.  ^ USDA. 2011. Agricultural Statistics 2011. US Government Printing Office, Washington. 509 pp. Table 7.6. ^ a b USDA. 2012. Cattle. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-18.  ^ USDA 1994. Agricultural Statistics 1994. US Government Printing Office, Washington. 485 pp. Table 377. ^ US Code of Federal Regulations 40 CFR 122.23 ^ ""What is a Factory Farm?" Sustainable Table". Sustainabletable.org. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ US Code of Federal Regulations 40 CFR 122 ^ ""Regulatory Definitions of Large CAFOs, Medium CAFO, and Small CAFOs." Environmental Protection Agency Fact Sheet" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ US Code of Federal Regulations 40 CFR 122.23, 40 CFR 122.42 ^ See, e.g., Waterkeeper Alliance et al. v. EPA, 399 F.3d 486 (2nd cir. 2005); National Pork Producers Council, et al. v. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 635 F. 3d 738 (5th Cir. 2011). ^ Bradford, S. A., E. Segal, W. Zheng, Q. Wang, and S. R. Hutchins. 2008. Reuse of concentrated animal feeding operation wastewater on agricultural lands. J. Env. Qual. 37 (supplement): S97-S115. ^ a b "APPLYING ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO CAFOS: A CASE STUDY Richard Koelsch, Carol Balvanz, John George, Dan Meyer, John Nienaber, Gene Tinker" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ "Ikerd, John. The Economics of CAFOs & Sustainable Alternatives". Web.missouri.edu. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ "Hansen, Dave, Nelson, Jennifer and Volk, Jennifer. Setback Standards and Alternative Compliance Practices to Satisfy CAFO Requirements: An assessment for the DEF-AG group" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ USDA. 2011. Agricultural Statistics 2011. US Government Printing Office, Washington. 509 pp. Table 7.1. ^ EPA. 2001. Environmental and economic benefit analysis of proposed revisions to the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Regulation and the effluent guidelines for concentrated animal feeding operations. US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA-821-R-01-002. 157 pp. ^ " Clean Water Act
Clean Water Act
(CWA) Concentrated Animal
Animal
Feeding Operations National Enforcement Initiative". Epa.gov. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ " Manure
Manure
management". Fao.org. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ McDonald, J. M. et al. 2009. Manure
Manure
use for fertilizer and for energy. Report to Congress. USDA, AP-037. 53pp. ^ Shapouri, H. et al. 2002. The energy balance of corn ethanol: an update. USDA Agricultural Economic Report 814. ^ E.O. Wilson, The Future of Life, 2003, Vintage Books, 256 pages ISBN 0-679-76811-4 ^ Strassman, B. I. 1987. Effects of cattle grazing and haying on wildlife conservation at National Wildlife Refuges in the United States. Environmental Mgt. 11: 35–44 . ^ a b "Govidyapitham – SHREE ANIRUDDHA UPASANA FOUNDATION". Retrieved 28 January 2018.  ^ "Buatrics". Retrieved 19 November 2013.  ^ "World Association for Buiatrics". Retrieved 4 December 2013. [permanent dead link] ^ "List of Countries 2012". Retrieved 4 December 2013. [permanent dead link] ^ "Common and important diseases of cattle". Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.  ^ "Identification of new cattle virus will help rule out mad cow disease". Retrieved 17 November 2013.  ^ " Cattle
Cattle
Diseases". Archived from the original on 25 November 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ " Cattle
Cattle
Disease Guide". Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ Harvey, Fiona (17 May 2011). "Easing of farming regulations could allow milk from TB-infected cattle into food chain". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ Abbott, Charles (2 November 2013). "U.S. aligns beef rules with global mad cow standards". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 December 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ West, Julian (2 September 2001). "A gift from the gods: bottled cow's urine". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ "Cow Urine as Medicine". WSJ. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ Esterbrook, John. "Cow Urine As Panacea?". CBS News. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ "(video) Indian Doctors Use Cow Urine As Medicine". The Wall Street Journal. 29 July 2010. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2010.  ^ " Cow urine
Cow urine
drug developed by RSS body gets US patent". The Indian Express. 17 June 2010. Archived from the original on 21 November 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ Beneke, E.; Rogers, A. (1996). Medical Mycology and Human Mycoses. California: Star. pp. 85–90. ISBN 0-89863-175-0.  ^ Lowry, C.A.; Hollis, J.H.; De Vries, A.; Pan, B.; Brunet, L.R.; Hunt, J.R.F.; Paton, J.F.R.; Van Kampen, E.; et al. (2007). "Identification of an immune-responsive mesolimbocortical serotonergic system: Potential role in regulation of emotional behavior". Neuroscience. 146 (2): 756–72. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.01.067. PMC 1868963 . PMID 17367941.  ^ "Extremely drug resistant tuberculosis – is there hope for a cure?" (PDF). TB Alert – the UK's National Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Charity. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 2 April 2007.  ^ a b Grant, R. (2011). "Taking advantage of natural behavior improves dairy cow performance". Archived from the original on 2 December 2016.  ^ Huzzey, J.; Keyserlingk, M.; Overton, T. (2012). "The behaviour and physiological consequences of overstocking dairy cattle". American Association of Bovine Practitioners: 92.  ^ a b Tyler, J.W,; Fox, L.K.; Parish, S.M.; Swain, J.; Johnson, D.J.; Grassechi, H.A. (1997). "Effect of feed availability on post-milking standing time in dairy cows". Journal of Dairy
Dairy
Research. 64 (4): 617–620. doi:10.1017/s0022029997002501.  ^ Schefers, J.M.; Weigel, K.A.; Rawson, C.L.; Zwald, N.R.; Cook, N.B. (2010). "Management practices associated with conception rate and service rate of lactating Holstein cows in large, commercial dairy herds". J. Dairy
Dairy
Sci. 93 (4): 1459–1467. doi:10.3168/jds.2009-2015. PMID 20338423.  ^ Krawczel, P. 2012. Improving animal well-being through facilities management. Southern Dairy
Dairy
Conference, Jan. 24, 2012. Slides available at "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2016. . Accessed 16 Nov 2016 ^ a b Sjaasted O.V., Howe K., Sand O., (2010) Physiology of Domestic Animals. 3rd edition. Sunderland: Sinaver Association. Inc ^ Nepomnaschy, B. England; Welch, P.; McConnell, K.; Strassman, D. (2004). "Stress and female reproductive function: a study of daily variations in cortisol, gonadotrophins, and gonadal steroids in a rural Mayan population". American Journal of Human Biology. 16 (5): 523–532. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20057.  ^ Muruvimi, F. and J. Ellis-Jones. 1999. A farming systems approach to improving draft animal power in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Starkey, P. and P. Kaumbutho. 1999. Meeting the challenges of animal traction. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. pp. 10–19. ^ Phaniraja, K. L. and H. H. Panchasara. 2009. Indian draught animals power. Veterinary World 2:404–407. ^ Nicholson, C. F, R. W. Blake, R. S. Reid and J. Schelhas. 2001. Environmental impacts of livestock in the developing world. Environment 43(2): 7–17. ^ a b c d e f Jha, D. N. (2002). The myth of the holy cow. London: Verso. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-85984-676-6.  ^ "Mahabharata, Book 13-Anusasana Parva, Section LXXVI". Sacred-texts.com. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ Swamy, Subramanian (19 January 2016). "Save the cow, save earth". Express Buzz. Archived from the original on 10 September 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ Kane, J.; Anzovin, S.; Podell, J. (1997). Famous First Facts. New York, NY: H. W. Wilson Company. p. 5. ISBN 0-8242-0930-3.  ^ Madden, Thomas (May 1992). " Akabeko
Akabeko
Archived 21 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.". OUTLOOK. Online copy accessed 18 January 2007. ^ Patrick Mendis 2007. Glocalization: The Human Side of Globalization.. p160 ^ FAOSTAT. [Agricultural statistics database] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.  ^ [1] Archived 19 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-15.  ^ <"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015. ?> ^ Murad Ali Baig (2011). 80 Questions to Understand India. Jaico Publishing House. p. 172. ISBN 978-81-8495-285-8. 

Notes

^ The noun cattle (which is treated as a plural and has no singular) encompasses both sexes. The singular, cow, unambiguously means the female, the male being bull. The plural feminine form cows is sometimes used colloquially to refer to both sexes collectively, as e.g. in a herd, but that usage can be misleading as the speaker's intent may indeed be just the females. The bovine species per se is clearly dimorphic.

Further reading

Find more aboutCattleat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bos
Bos
taurus.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bull (cattle).

Bhattacharya, S. 2003. Cattle
Cattle
ownership makes it a man's world. Newscientist.com. Retrieved 26 December 2006. Cattle
Cattle
Today (CT). 2006. Website. Breeds of cattle. Cattle
Cattle
Today. Retrieved 26 December 2006 Clay, J. 2004. World Agriculture
Agriculture
and the Environment: A Commodity-by-Commodity Guide to Impacts and Practices. Washington, D.C., USA: Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-370-0. Clutton-Brock, J. 1999. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. Cambridge UK : Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63495-4. Purdy, Herman R.; R. John Dawes; Dr. Robert Hough (2008). Breeds Of Cattle
Cattle
(2nd ed.).  – A visual textbook containing History/Origin, Phenotype & Statistics of 45 breeds. Huffman, B. 2006. The ultimate ungulate page. UltimateUngulate.com. Retrieved 26 December 2006. Invasive Species
Species
Specialist Group (ISSG). 2005. Bos
Bos
taurus. Global Invasive Species
Species
Database. Johns, Catherine. 2011 Cattle: History, Myth, Art. London, England: The British Museum Press. 978-0-7141-5084-0 Nowak, R.M. and Paradiso, J.L. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-2525-3 Oklahoma State University (OSU). 2006. Breeds of Cattle. Retrieved 5 January 2007. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). 2004. Holy cow. PBS Nature. Retrieved 5 January 2007. Rath, S. 1998. The Complete Cow. Stillwater, Minnesota, USA: Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-89658-375-9. Raudiansky, S. 1992. The Covenant of the Wild. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. ISBN 0-688-09610-7. Spectrum Commodities (SC). 2006. Live cattle. Spectrumcommodities.com. Retrieved 5 January 2007. Voelker, W. 1986. The Natural History of Living Mammals. Medford, New Jersey, USA: Plexus Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-937548-08-1. Yogananda, P. 1946. The Autobiography of a Yogi. Los Angeles: Self Realization Fellowship. ISBN 0-87612-083-4.

v t e

Extant Artiodactyla species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Ruminantia

Antilocapridae

Antilocapra

Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

Giraffidae

Okapia

Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

Giraffa

Northern giraffe
Northern giraffe
(G. camelopardalis) Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) Reticulated giraffe
Reticulated giraffe
(G. reticulata) Masai giraffe
Masai giraffe
(G. tippelskirchi)

Moschidae

Moschus

Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer
(M. anhuiensis) Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer
(M. berezovskii) Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer
(M. cupreus) Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

Tragulidae

Hyemoschus

Water chevrotain
Water chevrotain
(H. aquaticus)

Moschiola

Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain
(M. indica) Yellow-striped chevrotain
Yellow-striped chevrotain
(M. kathygre) Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
(M. meminna)

Tragulus

Java mouse-deer
Java mouse-deer
(T. javanicus) Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) Vietnam mouse-deer
Vietnam mouse-deer
(T. versicolor) Williamson's mouse-deer
Williamson's mouse-deer
(T. williamsoni)

Cervidae

Large family listed below

Bovidae

Large family listed below

Family Cervidae

Cervinae

Muntiacus

Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. muntjak) Reeves's muntjac
Reeves's muntjac
(M. reevesi) Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) Fea's muntjac
Fea's muntjac
(M. feae) Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac
(M. atherodes) Roosevelt's muntjac
Roosevelt's muntjac
(M. rooseveltorum) Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac
(M. truongsonensis) Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) Sumatran muntjac
Sumatran muntjac
(M. montanus) Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis)

Elaphodus

Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

Dama

Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer
(D. mesopotamica)

Axis

Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

Rucervus

Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

Panolia

Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. eldii)

Elaphurus

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
(E. davidianus)

Hyelaphus

Hog deer (H. porcinus) Calamian deer
Calamian deer
(H. calamianensis) Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii)

Rusa

Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) Rusa deer (R. timorensis) Philippine sambar (R. mariannus) Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

Cervus

Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) Thorold's deer
Thorold's deer
(C. albirostris) Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

Capreolinae

Alces

Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

Hydropotes

Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

Capreolus

Roe deer
Roe deer
(C. capreolus) Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

Rangifer

Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

Hippocamelus

Taruca
Taruca
(H. antisensis) South Andean deer
South Andean deer
(H. bisulcus)

Mazama

Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) Small red brocket
Small red brocket
(M. bororo) Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) Dwarf brocket
Dwarf brocket
(M. chunyi) Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana) Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket
(M. nemorivaga) Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora) Little red brocket
Little red brocket
(M. rufina) Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket
(M. temama)

Ozotoceros

Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

Blastocerus

Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

Pudu

Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles) Southern pudú (P. pudu)

Odocoileus

White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

Family Bovidae

Cephalophinae

Cephalophus

Abbott's duiker
Abbott's duiker
(C. spadix) Aders's duiker
Aders's duiker
(C. adersi) Bay duiker
Bay duiker
(C. dorsalis) Black duiker
Black duiker
(C. niger) Black-fronted duiker
Black-fronted duiker
(C. nigrifrons) Brooke's duiker (C. brookei) Harvey's duiker
Harvey's duiker
(C. harveyi) Jentink's duiker
Jentink's duiker
(C. jentinki) Ogilby's duiker
Ogilby's duiker
(C. ogilbyi) Peters's duiker (C. callipygus) Red-flanked duiker
Red-flanked duiker
(C. rufilatus) Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker
(C. natalensis) Ruwenzori duiker
Ruwenzori duiker
(C. rubidis) Weyns's duiker
Weyns's duiker
(C. weynsi) White-bellied duiker
White-bellied duiker
(C. leucogaster) White-legged duiker
White-legged duiker
(C. crusalbum) Yellow-backed duiker
Yellow-backed duiker
(C. Sylvicultor) Zebra duiker
Zebra duiker
(C. zebra)

Philantomba

Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) Maxwell's duiker
Maxwell's duiker
(P. maxwellii) Walter's duiker
Walter's duiker
(P. walteri)

Sylvicapra

Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

Hippotraginae

Hippotragus

Roan antelope
Roan antelope
(H. equinus) Sable antelope
Sable antelope
(H. niger)

Oryx

East African oryx
East African oryx
(O. beisa) Scimitar oryx
Scimitar oryx
(O. dammah) Gemsbok
Gemsbok
(O. gazella) Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

Addax

Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

Reduncinae

Kobus

Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) Waterbuck
Waterbuck
(K. ellipsiprymnus) Kob
Kob
(K. kob) Lechwe
Lechwe
(K. leche) Nile lechwe
Nile lechwe
(K. megaceros) Puku
Puku
(K. vardonii)

Redunca

Southern reedbuck
Southern reedbuck
(R. arundinum) Mountain reedbuck
Mountain reedbuck
(R. fulvorufula) Bohor reedbuck
Bohor reedbuck
(R. redunca)

Aepycerotinae

Aepyceros

Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

Peleinae

Pelea

Grey rhebok
Grey rhebok
(P. capreolus)

Alcelaphinae

Beatragus

Hirola
Hirola
(B. hunteri)

Damaliscus

Topi
Topi
(D. korrigum) Common tsessebe
Common tsessebe
(D. lunatus) Bontebok
Bontebok
(D. pygargus) Bangweulu tsessebe
Bangweulu tsessebe
(D. superstes)

Alcelaphus

Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) Red hartebeest
Red hartebeest
(A. caama) Lichtenstein's hartebeest
Lichtenstein's hartebeest
(A. lichtensteinii)

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
(C. taurinus)

Pantholopinae

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Caprinae

Large subfamily listed below

Bovinae

Large subfamily listed below

Antilopinae

Large subfamily listed below

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Caprinae)

Ammotragus

Barbary sheep
Barbary sheep
(A. lervia)

Budorcas

Takin
Takin
(B. taxicolor)

Capra

Wild goat
Wild goat
(C. aegagrus) Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur
(C. caucasia) East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur
(C. cylindricornis) Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(C. ibex) Nubian ibex
Nubian ibex
(C. nubiana) Spanish ibex
Spanish ibex
(C. pyrenaica) Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) Walia ibex
Walia ibex
(C. walie)

Capricornis

Japanese serow
Japanese serow
(C. crispus) Taiwan
Taiwan
serow (C. swinhoei) Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
(C. sumatraensis) Mainland serow
Mainland serow
(C. milneedwardsii) Red serow
Red serow
(C. rubidusi) Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(C. thar)

Hemitragus

Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) Arabian tahr
Arabian tahr
(H. jayakari) Himalayan tahr
Himalayan tahr
(H. jemlahicus)

Naemorhedus

Red goral
Red goral
(N. baileyi) Long-tailed goral
Long-tailed goral
(N. caudatus) Himalayan goral
Himalayan goral
(N. goral) Chinese goral
Chinese goral
(N. griseus)

Oreamnos

Mountain goat
Mountain goat
(O. americanus)

Ovibos

Muskox
Muskox
(O. moschatus)

Ovis

Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) Domestic sheep (O. aries) Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) Mouflon
Mouflon
(O. musimon) Snow sheep
Snow sheep
(O. nivicola) Urial
Urial
(O. orientalis)

Pseudois

Bharal
Bharal
(P. nayaur) Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

Rupicapra

Pyrenean chamois
Pyrenean chamois
(R. pyrenaica) Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Bovinae)

Boselaphini

Tetracerus

Four-horned antelope
Four-horned antelope
(T. quadricornis)

Boselaphus

Nilgai
Nilgai
(B. tragocamelus)

Bovini

Bubalus

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee) Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) Tamaraw
Tamaraw
(B. mindorensis)

Bos

Banteng
Banteng
(B. javanicus) Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) Gayal
Gayal
(B. frontalis) Domestic yak
Domestic yak
(B. grunniens) Wild yak
Wild yak
(B. mutus) Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) Kouprey
Kouprey
(B. sauveli)

Pseudonovibos

Kting voar (P. spiralis)

Pseudoryx

Saola
Saola
(P. nghetinhensis)

Syncerus

African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

Bison

American bison
American bison
(B. bison) European bison
European bison
(B. bonasus)

Tragelaphini

Tragelaphus (including kudus)

Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) Nyala
Nyala
(T. angasii) Kéwel
Kéwel
(T. scriptus) Cape bushbuck
Cape bushbuck
(T. sylvaticus) Mountain nyala
Mountain nyala
(T. buxtoni) Lesser kudu
Lesser kudu
(T. imberbis) Greater kudu
Greater kudu
(T. strepsiceros) Bongo (T. eurycerus)

Taurotragus

Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) Giant eland
Giant eland
(T. derbianus)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Antilopinae)

Antilopini

Ammodorcas

Dibatag
Dibatag
(A. clarkei)

Antidorcas

Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

Antilope

Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

Eudorcas

Mongalla gazelle
Mongalla gazelle
(E. albonotata) Red-fronted gazelle
Red-fronted gazelle
(E. rufifrons) Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
(E. thomsonii) Heuglin's gazelle
Heuglin's gazelle
(E. tilonura)

Gazella

Mountain gazelle
Mountain gazelle
(G. gazella) Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri) Speke's gazelle
Speke's gazelle
(G. spekei) Dorcas gazelle
Dorcas gazelle
(G. dorcas) Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) Cuvier's gazelle
Cuvier's gazelle
(G. cuvieri) Rhim gazelle
Rhim gazelle
(G. leptoceros) Goitered gazelle
Goitered gazelle
(G. subgutturosa)

Litocranius

Gerenuk
Gerenuk
(L. walleri)

Nanger

Dama gazelle
Dama gazelle
(N. dama) Grant's gazelle
Grant's gazelle
(N. granti) Soemmerring's gazelle
Soemmerring's gazelle
(N. soemmerringii)

Procapra

Mongolian gazelle
Mongolian gazelle
(P. gutturosa) Goa (P. picticaudata) Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle
(P. przewalskii)

Saigini

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Saiga

Saiga antelope
Saiga antelope
(S. tatarica)

Neotragini

Dorcatragus

Beira (D. megalotis)

Madoqua

Günther's dik-dik
Günther's dik-dik
(M. guentheri) Kirk's dik-dik
Kirk's dik-dik
(M. kirkii) Silver dik-dik
Silver dik-dik
(M. piacentinii) Salt's dik-dik
Salt's dik-dik
(M. saltiana)

Neotragus

Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope
(N. batesi) Suni
Suni
(N. moschatus) Royal antelope
Royal antelope
(N. pygmaeus)

Oreotragus

Klipspringer
Klipspringer
(O. oreotragus)

Ourebia

Oribi
Oribi
(O. ourebi)

Raphicerus

Steenbok
Steenbok
(R. campestris) Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) Sharpe's grysbok
Sharpe's grysbok
(R. sharpei)

Suborder Suina

Suidae

Babyrousa

Buru babirusa
Buru babirusa
(B. babyrussa) North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa
(B. celebensis) Togian babirusa
Togian babirusa
(B. togeanensis)

Hylochoerus

Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog
(H. meinertzhageni)

Phacochoerus

Desert warthog
Desert warthog
(P. aethiopicus) Common warthog
Common warthog
(P. africanus)

Porcula

Pygmy hog
Pygmy hog
(P. salvania)

Potamochoerus

Bushpig
Bushpig
(P. larvatus) Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs)

Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig
(S. cebifrons) Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
(S. celebensis) Flores warty pig (S. heureni) Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig
(S. oliveri) Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig
(S. philippensis) Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis) Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
(S. verrucosus)

Tayassuidae

Tayassu

White-lipped peccary
White-lipped peccary
(T. pecari)

Catagonus

Chacoan peccary
Chacoan peccary
(C. wagneri)

Pecari

Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) Giant peccary (P. maximus)

Suborder Tylopoda

Camelidae

Lama

Llama
Llama
(L. glama) Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

Vicugna

Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

Camelus

Dromedary
Dromedary
(C. dromedarius) Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

Whippomorpha
Whippomorpha
(unranked clade)

Hippopotamidae

Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

Choeropsis

Pygmy hippopotamus
Pygmy hippopotamus
(C. liberiensis)

v t e

Heraldry

Armiger Law of heraldic arms Grant of arms Blazon

Officers and officials

Authorities Officers of arms

King of Arms, Herald, Pursuivant

Private Officer of Arms

Conventional elements of coats of arms

Escutcheon Chief Field (Tincture) Division Supporter Supporter Slogan (battle cry) Crest Torse Mantling Helmet/Galero Crown/Coronet Compartment Order Ordinaries Charges Motto Dexter Sinister (right) (left)

Types of coats of arms

National coat of arms Ecclesiastical heraldry Burgher arms Civic heraldry Canting arms Attributed arms

Heraldic achievement

Escutcheon (shield)

Field

Divisions Variations

Charge Chief Lines Ordinary Augmentation of honour Cadency Marshalling

Quartering Impalement

Pale Bar Bend Bordure Canton Chevron Cross Fess Flaunch Gyron Label Lozenge Orle Pall Roundel Saltire

Creatures

Beasts

Bear Boar Bull/Ox Dog/Hound Camelopard (giraffe) Hind/Stag (deer) Kangaroo Leopard Lion Wolf

Birds

Cock Dove Eagle Martlet Pelican Rook

Sea creatures

Dolphin Ged Seahorse Lucy (esox) Scallop

Legendary creatures

Allocamelus Alphyn Basilisk Biscione Chollima Cockatrice Dragon Enfield Garuda Griffin/Keythong Harpy Konrul Lampago Lindworm Manticore Mermaid Pantheon Panther Pegasus Phoenix Salamander Hippocampus Hippogriff Sea-lion Turul Tyger Unicorn Wyvern Yale

Others

Bat Bee Crapaudy (toad) Emmet (ant) Serpent

Knots

Bourchier knot Bowen knot Cavendish knot Dacre knot Harrington knot Hastings knot Heneage knot Hinckaert knot Hungerford knot Lacy knot Medici knot Morvillier knot Ormonde knot Savoy knot Shakespeare knot Stafford knot Trafford knot Tristram knot Wake knot

Tinctures Rules Tricking Hatching

Metals

     Argent
Argent
(white)      Or (gold)

Colours

     Gules (red)      Sable (black)      Azure (blue)      Vert (green)      Purpure (purple)

Furs

Ermines

Erminois Erminites Pean

Vair

Potent

Stains

     Murrey
Murrey
(mulberry)      Sanguine (blood red)      Tenné

Non-traditional1

Metals

     Copper

Colours

     Bleu-celeste      Carnation      Cendrée      Orange      Rose

External

Crowns and coronets Crest Compartment Helmet Mantling Motto Supporter Torse Mantle and pavilion

See also

List of oldest heraldry Heraldic flag
Heraldic flag
(Banner of arms) Heraldic badge Women in heraldry Socialist heraldry Vexillology

1 Non-traditional, rarely used traditions in italic (typically regional or modern, considered unheraldic by some) Heraldry
Heraldry
portal Portal:Heraldry/Web resources

v t e

Living things in culture

Academic disciplines

Anthrozoology Ethnobiology

Ethnobotany Ethnoecology Ethnoentomology Ethnoherpetology Ethnoichthyology Ethnolichenology Ethnomycology Ethnoornithology Ethnoprimatology Ethnozoology

Groups

Animals

Arthropods

Insects

Topics

Beekeeping Entomophagy Flea
Flea
circus Insects in art Insects in literature Insects in medicine Insects in music Insects in mythology Insects in religion Sericulture

Types

Ant Bee

Mythology

Beetle

Beetlewing

Butterfly Cicada Cricket Dragonfly Flea

Flea
Flea
circus

Fly Grasshopper Ladybird Louse Praying mantis Scarab Termite Wasp Woodworm

Other

Arthropods in film Crab Lobster Scorpion Spider

Arachnophobia Tarantella

Tick

Molluscs

Cephalopods in popular culture Conch (instrument) Conchology Edible molluscs Octopus Pearl Scallop Seashell Sea silk Shell money Shipworm Tyrian purple Venus shell

Vertebrates

Amphibians

Frog Salamander Toad

Toadstone

Birds

Aviculture Birdwatching Bird conservation Birds in culture Cockfighting Falconry Game bird Pigeon racing Poultry Archaeopteryx Barnacle goose Eagle

Fish

Fishing

History

Fish farming Fishkeeping Recreational fishing Shark

Attacks Jaws

Mammals

Topics

Animal
Animal
husbandry Fur farming Hunting In sport In professional wrestling Laboratory animal Livestock Pack animal Working animal

Types

Bat Bear

Baiting Hunting Teddy bear

Cattle Deer Elephant Dolphin Fox Horse

Riding Worship

Leopard Lion Primate

Gorilla Gorilla suit Monkey Orangutan

Seal

hunting

Sheep Whale

Tay Whale Whaling Whale
Whale
watching

Wolf

Werewolf

Reptiles

Crocodile

Attacks Farming Crocodile
Crocodile
tears

Dinosaur

Crystal Palace Dinosaurs Jurassic Park Stegosaurus Triceratops Tyrannosaurus rex

Dragon Lizard Snake

Caduceus In the Bible Rod of Asclepius Snakebite Snake
Snake
charming Symbolism Worship

Turtle

Bixi World Turtle

Other phyla

Coral Jellyfish Starfish

Other

Aesop's Fables Animal
Animal
epithet Animal
Animal
husbandry In heraldry Lists of legendary creatures Man-eater Zodiac

Plants

Agriculture

History

Botanical illustration Floral design

Ikebana

Gardening Herbalism Fictional plants Magical plants

Mandrake

Medicinal plants Pharmacognosy Plant epithet Sacred grove

In India

Sacred plants

Bodhi Tree Lime tree Sacred lotus Sacred herb

In mythology

Barnacle tree Fig Trees Yggdrasil

Fungi

Medicinal fungi Amanita muscaria Edible mushroom

Agaricus bisporus

Psilocybin mushroom

Microbes

Biological warfare Fermentation

In food processing List of microbes

Microbial art Microbes and Man Pathogen Protein production Bacteria

Economic importance Tuberculosis

Protist Virus Yeast

Bread Beer Wine

Related

Anthropomorphism Fossil Legendary creature Lists of fictional species Parasitoid Template:Insects in culture

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q830 ADW: Bos_taurus BHL: 34357823

Authority control

GND: 4050061-