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Iron Age
Iron Age
metallurgy Ancient iron production

↓ Ancient history

Mediterranean, Greater Persia, South Asia, China

Historiography

Greek, Roman, Chinese, Medieval

The British Iron Age
Iron Age
is a conventional name used in the archaeology of Great Britain, referring to the prehistoric and protohistoric phases of the Iron Age
Iron Age
culture of the main island and the smaller islands, typically excluding prehistoric Ireland, which had an independent Iron Age culture of its own.[1] The parallel phase of Irish archaeology is termed the Irish Iron
Iron
Age.[2] The Iron Age
Iron Age
is not an archaeological horizon of common artefacts, but is rather a locally diverse cultural phase. The British Iron Age
Iron Age
lasted in theory from the first significant use of iron for tools and weapons in Britain to the Romanisation of the southern half of the island. The Romanised culture is termed Roman Britain and is considered to supplant the British Iron
Iron
Age. The Irish Iron Age
Iron Age
was ended by the rise of Christianity. The tribes living in Britain during this time are often popularly considered to be part of a broadly Celtic culture, but in recent years this has been disputed. At a minimum, "Celtic" is a linguistic term without an implication of a lasting cultural unity connecting Gaul with the British Isles throughout the Iron
Iron
Age. The Brythonic languages spoken in Britain at this time, as well as others including the Goidelic and Gaulish languages of neighbouring Ireland and Gaul respectively, certainly belong to the group known as Celtic languages. However it cannot be assumed that particular cultural features found in one Celtic-speaking culture can be extrapolated to the others.[3]

Contents

1 Periodisation 2 Archaeological evidence 3 The people of Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain

3.1 Celtic movement from the continent 3.2 Demography 3.3 Ptolemy's Albion

4 Iron Age
Iron Age
beliefs in Britain 5 Economy of Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain

5.1 Trade

5.1.1 Trade in the Early and Middle Iron
Iron
Age 5.1.2 Trade in the Late Iron
Iron
Age

6 The end of Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links

Periodisation[edit] At present over 100 large-scale excavations of Iron Age
Iron Age
sites have taken place,[4] dating from the 8th century BC to the 1st century AD, and overlapping into the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in the 8th century BC.[5] Hundreds of radiocarbon dates have been acquired and have been calibrated on four different curves, the most precise being based on tree ring sequences. The following scheme summarises a comparative chart presented in a 2005 book by Barry Cunliffe,[6] but it should be noted that British artefacts were much later in adopting Continental styles such as the La Tène style
La Tène style
of Celtic art:

Earliest Iron
Iron
Age 800–600 BC Parallel to Hallstatt
Hallstatt
C on the continent

Early Iron
Iron
Age 600–400 BC Hallstat D and half of La Tène I

Middle Iron
Iron
Age 400–100 BC The rest of La Tène I, all of II and half of III

Late Iron
Iron
Age 100–50 BC The rest of La Tène III

Latest Iron
Iron
Age 50 BC – AD 100

-

The end of the Iron Age
Iron Age
extends into the very early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
under the theory that Romanisation required some time to take effect. In parts of Britain that were not Romanised, such as Scotland, the period is extended a little longer, say to the 5th century. The geographer closest to AD 100 is perhaps Ptolemy. Pliny and Strabo
Strabo
are a bit older (and therefore a bit more contemporary), but Ptolemy
Ptolemy
gives the most detail (and the least theory). Archaeological evidence[edit]

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Maiden Castle, Dorset
Maiden Castle, Dorset
is one of the largest hill forts in Europe.[7][8] Photograph taken in 1935 by Major George Allen (1891–1940).

Attempts to understand the human behaviour of the period have traditionally focused on the geographic position of the islands and their landscape, along with the channels of influence coming from continental Europe. During the later Bronze Age
Bronze Age
there are indications of new ideas influencing land use and settlement. Extensive field systems, now called Celtic fields, were being set out and settlements were becoming more permanent and focused on better exploitation of the land. The central organisation to undertake this had been present since the Neolithic
Neolithic
period but it was now targeted at economic and social goals, such as taming the landscape rather than the building of large ceremonial structures like Stonehenge. Long ditches, some many miles in length, were dug with enclosures placed at their ends. These are thought to indicate territorial borders and a desire to increase control over wide areas. By the 8th century BC, there is increasing evidence of Great Britain becoming closely tied to continental Europe, especially in Britain's South and East. New weapon types appeared with clear parallels to those on the continent such as the Carp's tongue sword, complex examples of which are found all over Atlantic Europe. Phoenician traders probably began visiting Great Britain
Great Britain
in search of minerals around this time, bringing with them goods from the Mediterranean. At the same time, Northern European artefact types reached Eastern Great Britain in large quantities from across the North Sea. Defensive structures dating from this time are often impressive, for example the brochs of Northern Scotland
Scotland
and the hill forts that dotted the rest of the islands. Some of the most well-known hill forts include Maiden Castle, Dorset, Cadbury Castle, Somerset
Cadbury Castle, Somerset
and Danebury, Hampshire. Hill forts first appeared in Wessex
Wessex
in the Late Bronze
Bronze
Age, but only become common in the period between 550 and 400 BC. The earliest were of a simple univallate form, and often connected with earlier enclosures attached to the long ditch systems. Few hill forts have been substantially excavated in the modern era, Danebury
Danebury
being a notable exception, with 49% of its total surface area studied. However, it appears that these "forts" were also used for domestic purposes, with examples of food storage, industry and occupation being found within their earthworks. On the other hand, they may have been only occupied intermittently as it is difficult to reconcile permanently occupied hill forts with the lowland farmsteads and their roundhouses found during the 20th century, such as at Little Woodbury and Rispain Camp. Many hill forts are not in fact "forts" at all, and demonstrate little or no evidence of occupation. The development of hill forts may have occurred due to greater tensions that arose between the better structured and more populous social groups. Alternatively, there are suggestions that, in the latter phases of the Iron
Iron
Age, these structures simply indicate a greater accumulation of wealth and a higher standard of living, although any such shift is invisible in the archaeological record for the Middle Iron
Iron
Age, when hill forts come into their own. In this regard, they may have served as wider centres used for markets and social contact. Either way, during the Roman occupation the evidence suggests that, as defensive structures, they proved to be of little use against concerted Roman attack. Suetonius
Suetonius
comments that Vespasian captured more than twenty "towns" during a campaign in the West Country in 43 AD, and there is some evidence of violence from the hill forts of Hod Hill and Maiden Castle in Dorset
Dorset
from this period. Some hill forts continued as settlements for the newly conquered Britons. Some were also reused by later cultures, such as the Saxons, in the early Medieval
Medieval
period. The people of Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain[edit] Further information: Insular Celts Celtic movement from the continent[edit] The Roman historian Tacitus
Tacitus
suggested that the Britons were descended from people who had arrived from the continent, comparing the Caledonians
Caledonians
(in modern-day Scotland) to their Germanic neighbours; the Silures
Silures
of Southern Wales
Wales
to Iberian settlers; and the inhabitants of Southeast Britannia
Britannia
to Gaulish tribes.[9] This migrationist view long informed later views of the origins of the British Iron Age
Iron Age
and the making of the modern nations. Linguistic evidence inferred from the surviving Celtic languages
Celtic languages
in Northern and Western Great Britain
Great Britain
at first appeared to support this idea, and the changes in material culture which archaeologists observed during later prehistory were routinely ascribed to a new wave of invaders. From the early 20th century, this "invasionist" scenario was juxtaposed to a diffusionist view. By the 1960s, this latter model seemed to have gained mainstream support,[10] but it came in turn under attack in the 1970s. There was certainly a large migration of people from Central Europe westwards during the early Iron
Iron
Age. The question whether these movements should be described as "invasions", or as "migrations", or as mostly "diffusion" is largely a semantic one. Examples of events that could be labelled "invasions" include the arrival in Southern Britain of the Belgae
Belgae
from the end of the 2nd century BC, as described in Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War. Such sudden events may be invisible in the archaeological record. In this case, it depends on the interpretation of Aylesford-Swarling pottery.[11] Regardless of the "invasionist" vs. "diffusionist" debate, it is beyond dispute that exchanges with the continent were a defining aspect of the British Iron
Iron
Age.[12] According to Julius Caesar, the Britons further inland than the Belgae
Belgae
believed that they were indigenous.[13] Demography[edit] Population estimates vary but the number of people in Iron Age
Iron Age
Great Britain could have been three or four million by the first century BC,[citation needed][dubious – discuss] with most concentrated densely in the agricultural lands of the South. Settlement density and a land shortage may have contributed to rising tensions during the period. The population pyramid for Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain would have been a classic pyramid in shape, with no significant number of people older than fifty years. The average life expectancy at birth would have been around 25, but at the age of five it would have been around 30. These figures would be slightly lower for women, and slightly higher for men throughout the Middle Iron Age
Iron Age
in most areas, on account of the high mortality rate of young women during childbirth; however, the average age for the two sexes would be roughly equal for the Late Iron Age.[citation needed] This interpretation depends on the view that warfare and social strife increased in the Late Iron
Iron
Age, which seems to be fairly well attested in the archaeological record, for Southern Britain at least. Early in the Iron
Iron
Age, the widespread Wessex
Wessex
pottery of Southern Britain, such as the type style from All Cannings Cross, may suggest a consolidated socio-economic group in the region. However, by 600 BC this appears to have broken down into differing sub-groups with their own pottery styles.[14] Between c. 400 and 100 BC there is evidence of emerging regional identities and a significant population increase.[15] Ptolemy's Albion[edit] Claudius Ptolemy
Ptolemy
described Britain at the beginning of Roman rule but incorporated material from earlier sources.[16] Although the name "Pretanic Isles" had been known since the voyage of Pytheas
Pytheas
and "Britannia" was in use by Strabo
Strabo
and Pliny, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
used the earlier "Albion", known to have been used as early as the Massaliote Periplus. Further information on Iron Age
Iron Age
peoples of Britain: Iron Age
Iron Age
tribes in Britain and List of Celtic tribes Iron Age
Iron Age
beliefs in Britain[edit] Further information: Celtic polytheism
Celtic polytheism
and Iron Age
Iron Age
religion The Romans described a variety of deities worshipped by the people of Northwestern Europe. Barry Cunliffe
Barry Cunliffe
perceives a division between one group of gods relating to masculinity, the sky and individual tribes and a second group of goddesses relating to associations with fertility, the earth and a universality that transcended tribal differences. Wells and springs had female, divine links exemplified by the goddess Sulis
Sulis
worshipped at Bath. In Tacitus' Agricola (2.21), he notes the similarity between both religious and ritual practices of the pre-Roman British and the Gauls.[17] Religious practices revolved around offerings and sacrifices, sometimes human but more often involving the ritual slaughter of animals or the deposition of metalwork, especially war booty. Weapons and horse trappings have been found in the bog at Llyn Cerrig Bach
Llyn Cerrig Bach
on Anglesey
Anglesey
and are interpreted as votive offerings cast into a lake. Numerous weapons have also been recovered from rivers, especially the Thames, but also the Trent and Tyne. Some buried hoards of jewellery are interpreted as gifts to the earth gods. Disused grain storage pits and the ends of ditches have also produced what appear to be deliberately placed deposits, including a preference for burials of horses, dogs and ravens. The bodies were often mutilated and some human finds at the bottom of pits, such as those found at Danebury, may have had a ritual aspect. Caesar's texts tell us that the priests of Britain were Druids, a religious elite with considerable holy and secular powers. Great Britain appears to have been the seat of the Druidic religion and Tacitus' account of the later raid on Anglesey
Anglesey
led by Suetonius Paulinus gives some indication of its nature. No archaeological evidence survives of Druidry, although a number of burials made with ritual trappings and found in Kent
Kent
may suggest a religious character to the subjects. Overall, the traditional view is that religion was practiced in natural settings in the open air. However, several sites interpreted as Iron Age
Iron Age
shrines seem to contradict this view which may derive from Victorian and later Celtic romanticism.[citation needed] Sites such as at Hayling Island
Hayling Island
in Hampshire
Hampshire
and that found during construction work at Heathrow airport
Heathrow airport
are interpreted as purpose-built shrines. The Hayling Island
Hayling Island
example was a circular wooden building set within a rectangular precinct and was rebuilt in stone as a Romano-British temple in the 1st century AD to the same plan. The Heathrow temple was a small cella surrounded by a ring of postholes thought to have formed an ambulatory which is very similar to Romano-Celtic temples found elsewhere in Europe. A rectangular structure at Danebury
Danebury
and a sequence of six-poster structures overlooking calf burials and culminating in a trench-founded rectangular structure at Cadbury Castle, Somerset, have been similarly interpreted. An example at Sigwells, overlooking Cadbury Castle, was associated with metalwork and whole and partial animal burials to its east.[18] However, evidence of an open-air shrine was found at Hallaton, Leicestershire. Here, a collection of objects known as the Hallaton
Hallaton
Treasure were buried in a ditch in the early 1st century AD. The only structural evidence was a wooden palisade built in the ditch.[19] Death in Iron Age
Iron Age
Great Britain
Great Britain
seems to have produced different behaviours in different regions. Cremation
Cremation
was a common method of disposing of the dead, although the chariot burials and other inhumations of the Arras culture
Arras culture
of East Yorkshire, and the cist burials of Cornwall, demonstrate that it was not ubiquitous. In fact, the general dearth of excavated Iron Age
Iron Age
burials makes drawing conclusions difficult. Excarnation has been suggested as a reason for the lack of burial evidence with the remains of the dead being dispersed either naturally or through human agency. Economy of Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain[edit] Trade links developed in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and beforehand provided Great Britain with numerous examples of continental craftsmanship. Swords especially were imported, copied and often improved upon by the natives. Early in the period, Hallstatt
Hallstatt
slashing swords and daggers were a significant import although, by the mid 6th century, the volume of goods arriving seems to have declined, possibly due to more profitable trade centres appearing in the Mediterranean. La Tène culture items (usually associated with the Celts) appeared in later centuries and, again, these were adopted and adapted with alacrity by the locals. There also appears to have been a collapse in the bronze trade during the early Iron
Iron
Age, which can be viewed in three ways:

Steady transition: the development of iron parallel to a diminishing bronze system. Rapid abandonment; iron undermines bronze and takes over its social function. Bronze
Bronze
crisis: severe reduction in the supply of bronze allows the iron to replace it.

With regard to animal husbandry, cattle represented a significant investment in pre- Roman Britain
Roman Britain
as they could be used as a source of portable wealth, as well as providing useful domestic by-products such as milk, cheese and leather. In the later Iron
Iron
Age, an apparent shift is visible, revealing a change in dominance from cattle rearing to that of sheep. Economically, sheep are significantly less labour-intensive, requiring fewer people per animal. Whilst cattle and sheep dominate the osteo-archaeological record, evidence for pig, ox, dog and, rarely, chicken is widely represented. Interestingly, there is generally an absence from environmental remains of hunted game and wild species as well as fresh and sea water species, even in coastal communities. A key commodity of the Iron Age
Iron Age
was salt, used for preservation and the supplementation of diet. Whilst difficult to find archaeologically, some evidence does exist. Salterns, in which sea water was boiled to produce salt, are prevalent in the East Anglia fenlands. Additionally, Morris notes that some salt trading networks spanned over 75 km. Representing an important political and economic medium, the vast number of Iron Age
Iron Age
coins found in Great Britain
Great Britain
are of great archaeological value.[20][21] Some, such as gold staters, were imported from mainland Europe. Others, such as the cast bronze (potin) coins of Southeast England, are clearly influenced by Roman originals. The British tribal
British tribal
kings also adopted the continental habit of putting their names on the coins they had minted, with such examples as Tasciovanus from Verulamium
Verulamium
and Cunobelinos from Camulodunum identifying regional differentiation. Hoards of Iron Age
Iron Age
coins include the Silsden Hoard
Hoard
in West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
found in 1998. A large collection of coins, known as the Hallaton
Hallaton
Treasure, was found at a Late Iron
Iron
Age shrine near Hallaton, Leicestershire
Leicestershire
in 2000 and consisted of 5294 coins, mostly attributed to the Corieltavi
Corieltavi
tribe. These were buried in 14 separate hoards over several decades in the early 1st century AD.[22] The expansion of the economy throughout the period, but especially in the later Iron
Iron
Age, is in large part a reflection of key changes in the expression of social and economic status. Trade[edit] Trade in the Early and Middle Iron
Iron
Age[edit] The Early Iron Age
Iron Age
saw a substantial number of goods belonging to the Hallstatt culture
Hallstatt culture
imported from the continent, and these came to have a major effect on Middle Iron Age
Iron Age
native art. Trade in the Late Iron
Iron
Age[edit] From the late 2nd century BC onwards South-central Britain was indirectly linked into Roman trading networks via Brittany
Brittany
and the Atlantic seaways to southwest France.[23] Hengistbury Head
Hengistbury Head
in Dorset was the most important trading site and large quantities of Italian wine amphorae have been found there.[23] These Atlantic trade networks were heavily disrupted following Julius Caesar's conquest of Brittany in the 50s BC.[24] This fact may support a supposition that the Celts of Britain had an economic interest in supporting their Gallic brethren in their resistance to Roman occupation. In Southeast Britain, meanwhile, extensive contact with the ‘Belgic’ tribes of Northern France is evidenced by large numbers of imported Gallo-Belgic gold coins between the mid-2nd century BC and Caesar's conquest of Gaul
Gaul
in the 50s BC.[25] These coins probably did not principally move through trade. In the past, the emigration of Belgic peoples to Southeast Britain has been cited as an explanation for their appearance in that region. However, recent work suggests that their presence in Southeast Britain may have occurred due to a kind of political and social patronage that was paid by the North French groups in exchange for obtaining aid from their British counterparts in their warfare with the Romans on the Continent.[26] After Caesar's conquest of Gaul, a thriving trade developed between Southeast Britain and the near Continent. This is archaeologically evidenced through imports of wine and olive oil amphorae and mass-produced Gallo-Belgic pottery.[27] Strabo, writing in the early 1st century AD, lists ivory chains and necklaces, amber gems, glass vessels, and other petty wares, as articles imported to Britain, whilst he recorded the island's exports as grain, cattle, gold, silver, iron, hides, slaves and hunting dogs.[28] This trade probably thrived as a result of political links and client kingship relationships that developed between groups in Southeast Britain and the Roman world.[29] The end of Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain[edit] Main articles: Roman Britain
Roman Britain
and Romano-British
Romano-British
culture Historically speaking, the Iron Age
Iron Age
in Southern Great Britain
Great Britain
ended with the Roman invasion. Clearly the native societies were not instantaneously changed into toga-wearing, Latin-speaking provincials, though some relatively quick change is evident archaeologically. For example, the Romano-Celtic shrine in Hayling Island, Hampshire
Hampshire
was constructed in the AD 60s–70s,[30] whilst Agricola was still campaigning in Northern Britain (mostly in what is now Scotland), and on top of an Iron Age
Iron Age
ritual site. Rectilinear stone structures, indicative of a change in housing to the Roman style are visible from the mid to late 1st century AD at Brixworth
Brixworth
and Quinton.[31] In areas where Roman rule was not strong or was non-existent, Iron
Iron
Age beliefs and practices remained, but not without at least marginal levels of Roman, or Romano-British
Romano-British
influence. The survival of place names, such as Camulodunum
Camulodunum
(Colchester), and which derive from the native language, is evidence of this. See also[edit]

Butser Ancient Farm, an archaeological open-air museum in southern England featuring many Iron Age
Iron Age
roundhouses. Iron Age
Iron Age
tribes in Britain List of hill forts in England, a widespread and well-known Iron
Iron
Age settlement type, many of which are still visible today. Celtic coinage Massaliote Periplus Pytheas Eston Nab
Eston Nab
Evidence of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and Iron Age
Iron Age
settlements. Living in the Past, a 1978 BBC TV project which attempted to re-create life in an English Iron Age
Iron Age
village. Arras culture

Notes[edit]

^ Cunliffe (2005) page 27. ^ Raftery, Barry (2005). "Iron-age Ireland". In O Croinin, Daibhi. Prehistoric
Prehistoric
and Early Ireland: Volume I. Oxford University Press. pp. 134–181. ISBN 978-0-19-821737-4.  ^ Fitzpatrick (1996) page 242: "It is clear, then, that there is no intrinsic 'Celtic' European unity and that the idea of 'Celtic' Iron Age Europe has developed in an almost ad hoc fashion. When examined critically the central idea – of being 'Celtic' – may also be seen to be weakly formulated ...." ^ Cunliffe (2005) page 20. ^ Cunliffe (2005) page 32. ^ Cunliffe (2005) page 652. The dates are the mid-points of Cunliffe's transitional lines. His earliest and latest possibilities have been used for the end points. In the text 750 BC is his summary date for the beginning. ^ "Maiden Castle". English Heritage. Retrieved 2009-05-31  ^ Historic England. "Maiden Castle (451864)". PastScape. Retrieved 2009-05-27.  ^ Tacitus, Agricola 11: "Their physical characteristics are various and this is suggestive... overall however it seems reasonable to believe that the Gauls
Gauls
occupied this island lying so near to them." (Habitus corporum varii atque ex eo argumenta. [...] In universum tamen aestimanti Gallos vicinam insulam occupasse credibile est.) ^ e.g. Grahame Clarg (1966) ^ Cunliffe (2010) page 116. ^ Cunliffe (2005): "As usual the ball has been swung too far..."[page needed] ^ Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico V.12: "The interior part of Britain is inhabited by those who claim to be indigenous on the strength of an oral tradition." (Britanniae pars interior ab eis incolitur quos natos in insula ipsi memoria proditum dicunt...) ^ Cunliffe (2010), page 120 ^ Cunliffe (2010), page 598: "Growth of population was one of the factors which led to the crystallizing out of well-defined social hierarchies accompanied, especially in the centre south, by a degree of territoriality." ^ Geography, Book II, Chapter II, on Albion. ^ Tacitus, Agricola, translated by Mattingly, H. (revised edition),1979, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, ^ Tabor, Richard (2008). Cadbury Castle: A hillfort and landscapes. Stroud: The History Press. pp. 130–142. ISBN 978-0-7524-4715-5.  ^ Score, Vicki (2006). "Rituals, hoards and helmets: a ceremonial meeting place of the Corieltavi" in Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society, Vol 80, pp. 197-207.. ^ The Oxford Celtic Coin Index Archived 2011-05-16 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The Oxford Celtic Coin Index Archived 2012-06-29 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Leins, Ian (2007). "Coins in context and votive deposition in Iron Age Southeast Leicestershire" in The British Numismatic Journal, Vol 77, pp. 22-48. ^ a b Cunliffe, B. W. 1988. Greeks, Romans and Barbarians. London; Cunliffe, B. W. 2005. Iron Age
Iron Age
Communities in Britain (fourth edition). London: Routledge; Cunliffe, B. W. 2009. ‘Looking forward: maritime contacts in the first millennium BC’, in Clark, P. (ed.), Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Connections: Cultural Contact in Prehistoric
Prehistoric
Europe. Oxford: Oxbow; Cunliffe, B. W. and de Jersey, P. 1997. Armorica and Britain: Cross-Channel Relationships in the Late First Millennium BC, Oxford. ^ Cunliffe, B. W. 1988. Greeks, Romans and Barbarians. London; Cunliffe, B. W. 2005. Iron Age
Iron Age
Communities in Britain (fourth edition). London: Routledge; Cunliffe, B. W. 2009. ‘Looking forward: maritime contacts in the first millennium BC’, in Clark, P. (ed.), Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Connections: Cultural Contact in Prehistoric
Prehistoric
Europe. Oxford: Oxbow; Cunliffe, B. W. and de Jersey, P. 1997. Armorica and Britain: Cross-Channel Relationships in the Late First Millennium BC. Oxford. ^ Sills, J. 2003. Gaulish and Early British Coinage. London: Spink; Cunliffe, B. W. 2005. Iron Age
Iron Age
Communities in Britain (fourth edition). London: Routledge; Creighton, J. 2000. Coins and Power in Late Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ^ Sills, J. 2003. Gaulish and Early British Coinage. London: Spink; Cunliffe, B. W. 2009. ‘Looking forward: maritime contacts in the first millennium BC’, in Clark, P. (ed.), Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Connections: Cultural Contact in Prehistoric
Prehistoric
Europe. Oxford: Oxbow. ^ http://gallobelgic.thehumanjourney.net/; Morris, F. M. 2010. North Sea and Channel Connectivity during the Late Iron Age
Iron Age
and Roman Period (175/150 BC – AD 409). Oxford: Archaeopress. ^ Strabo. Geography. IV.5.2-3. ^ Creighton, J. 2000. Coins and Power in Late Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Morris, F. M. 2010. North Sea and Channel Connectivity during the Late Iron Age
Iron Age
and Roman Period (175/150 BC – AD 409). Oxford: Archaeopress. ^ Smith, A., 2001, The Differential Use Of Constructed Sacred Space In Southern Britain, from the Late Iron Age
Iron Age
to the 4th Century AD BAR British Series 318, Oxford: Archaeopress ^ De la Bedoyere, G., 1991, Buildings of Roman Britain, Tempus: Stroud

Bibliography[edit]

Cunliffe, Barry W. (2005). Iron Age
Iron Age
Communities in Britain, Fourth Edition: An Account of England, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
from the Seventh Century BC Until the Roman Conquest. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-34779-3.  Fitzpatrick, Andrew P (1996). "'Celtic' Iron Age
Iron Age
Europe: the theoretical basis". In Graves-Brown, Paul; Jones, Siân; Gamble, Clive. Cultural Identity and Archaeology: The Construction of European Communities. Routledge. pp. 238–255. ISBN 978-0-415-10676-4.  Rhys, J. (1904). Celtic Britain: Third Edition Revised. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.  Downloadable Google Books.

Further reading[edit]

Collis, J.R., 2003, The Celts, origins, myths, inventions Stroud: Tempus Haselgrove, C., 2001, Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain in its European Setting, in Collis, J.R. (ed) Settlement and Society in Iron Age
Iron Age
Europe, Sheffield: Sheffield Archaeological Monograph 11, pp37–73 Haselgrove, C. and Moore, T., 2007, The later Iron Age
Iron Age
in Britain and beyond, Oxford: Oxbow Pryor, F., 2003, Britain, BC; life in Britain and Ireland before the Romans, London: Harper Collins, chapters 11-12 Hill, J.D., 1995, Ritual and Rubbish in the Iron Age
Iron Age
of Wessex
Wessex
BAR British Series 242

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Romans.

Lindsay, Euan (2008). "Place names on Ptolemy's Map of Scotland". Roman Britain. Retrieved 2008-11-22.  Ross, David (1996). "Celtic Britain (The Iron
Iron
Age) c. 600 BC – 50 AD". Celtic Britain. Retrieved