1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

(French pronunciation: [bulɔɲ syʁ mɛʁ] ( listen)), often called Boulogne (UK: /bəˈlɔɪn/, Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Picard: Boulonne-su-Mér, Dutch: Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais. Boulogne lies on the Côte d'Opale, a touristic stretch of French coast on the English Channel
English Channel
between Calais
and Normandy, and the most visited location in the region after Lille
conurbation.[1] Boulogne is its department's second-largest city after Calais,[2] and the 60th-largest in France.[3] It is also the country's largest fishing port, specialising in herring.[4] Boulogne is an ancient town, and was the major Roman port for trade and communication with its Province of Britain. After a period of Germanic presence following the collapse of the Empire, Boulogne was at the centre of the County of Boulogne of the Kingdom of France during the Middle Ages, and was occupied by the Kingdom of England numerous times due to conflict between the two nations. In 1805 it was a staging area for Napoleon's troops for several months during his planned invasion of the United Kingdom. The city's 12th-century belfry is recognised by UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site,[5] while another popular attraction is the marine conservation centre Nausicaa.


1 Name 2 Geography

2.1 Location 2.2 Transport 2.3 Urbanization 2.4 Climate

3 History

3.1 Origin of the city 3.2 Middle Ages 3.3 Napoleonic period 3.4 World wars

4 Sights 5 Economy 6 Media 7 Events 8 Administration 9 Population 10 Education

10.1 University 10.2 Public primary and secondary 10.3 Private primary and secondary

11 Health 12 Sports 13 Culture

13.1 Food

14 Notable people

14.1 Born in Boulogne 14.2 Others associated with Boulogne

15 International relations

15.1 Twin towns
Twin towns
— Sister cities

16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links

Name[edit] The French name Boulogne derives from the Latin
Bononia, which was also the Roman name for Bologna
in Italy. Both places—and Vindobona (Vienna)—are thought to have derived from native Celtic placenames, with bona possibly meaning "foundation", "citadel", or "granary".[citation needed] The French epithet sur-Mer ("on-the-sea") distinguishes the city from Boulogne-Billancourt
on the edge of Paris. In turn, the Boulogne in Boulogne-Billancourt
originates from a church there dedicated to Notre-Dame de Boulogne, "Our Lady of Boulogne[-sur-Mer]". Geography[edit]

Pedestrian street in the city centre.

Location[edit] Boulogne-sur-Mer
is in Northern France, at the edge of the Channel and in the mouth of the river "Liane". As the crow flies, Boulogne is approximately at 30 kilometres (19 miles) from Calais, 50 kilometres (31 miles) from Folkestone, 100 kilometres (62 miles) from Lille
and Amiens, 150 kilometres (93 miles) from Rouen
and 215 kilometres (134 miles) from Paris. Boulogne is a relatively important city of the North, exercising an influence on the "Boulonnais" territory (74 towns and villages which surround Boulogne). The coast consists of important tourist natural sites, like the capes Gris Nez and Blanc Nez (which are the closest points of France
to England), and attractive seaside resorts like Wimereux, Wissant, Hardelot and Le Touquet. The hinterland is mainly rural and agricultural. Transport[edit] Boulogne is close to the A16 motorway (Paris-Amiens-Calais-Dunkerque). Metropolitan bus services are operated by "Marinéo". The company Flixbus
propose a bus line connecting Paris
to Boulogne. There are coach services to Calais
and Dunkerque. The city has railway stations, which the most important is Boulogne-Ville station, located in the south of the city. Boulogne-Tintelleries station is used by regional trains. It is located near the university and the city centre. The former Boulogne-Maritime and Boulogne-Aéroglisseurs stations served as a boat connection (to England) for the railway. Boulogne has no cross channel ferry services since the closure of the route to Dover
by LD Lines
LD Lines
in 2010. The regional trains are TER Nord- Pas-de-Calais
run by SNCF. The principal service runs from Gare de Boulogne-Ville
Gare de Boulogne-Ville
via Gare de Calais-Fréthun, Gare de Calais-Ville
Gare de Calais-Ville
to Gare de Lille-Flandres. Urbanization[edit]

Walk along the beach.

The city is divided into several parts :

City centre : groups historic and administrative buildings, and also accommodations, stores, banks, churches, pedestrian streets and places. Fortified town : old-town where are a lot of historic monuments (the castle-museum, the basilica, the belfry, the imperial palace) and also the city hall and the courthouse. it is surrounded by 13th-century ramparts very appreciated today by walkers. Gambetta-Sainte-Beuve : tourist area situated in the northwest of the city, on the edge of the beach and the recreational harbour. Capécure : economic and industrial area, situated in the west of the city, around the harbour. Saint-Pierre (Saint Peter) : former neighborhood of the fishermen, destroyed during World War II
World War II
and reconstructed after. Chemin Vert (Green path) : zone created in the 1950s, knowing today poverty and unemployment. it is the neighborhood of Franck Ribéry. Dernier Sou (Last penny) : residential area situated in the east of the city. Beaurepaire (Beautiful hideout) : residential area situated in the north of the city. Bréquerecque : residential area situated in the south of the city.


Gare de Boulogne-Tintelleries

has an oceanic climate that has chilly winters not far above freezing and cool summers tempered by its exposure to the sea. Considering its position, the climate is quite cold in relation to south and east coast locations in England year round. Precipitation is also higher than in said southern English locations.

Climate data for Boulogne-sur-Mer
(1981–2010 averages)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.0 (59) 17.4 (63.3) 22.6 (72.7) 26.0 (78.8) 31.2 (88.2) 32.6 (90.7) 35.4 (95.7) 34.8 (94.6) 30.8 (87.4) 27.2 (81) 19.1 (66.4) 17.2 (63) 35.4 (95.7)

Average high °C (°F) 6.8 (44.2) 6.9 (44.4) 9.3 (48.7) 12.0 (53.6) 15.4 (59.7) 17.7 (63.9) 20.1 (68.2) 20.5 (68.9) 18.3 (64.9) 14.8 (58.6) 10.5 (50.9) 7.5 (45.5) 13.4 (56.1)

Average low °C (°F) 2.9 (37.2) 2.7 (36.9) 4.6 (40.3) 6.3 (43.3) 9.5 (49.1) 12.1 (53.8) 14.4 (57.9) 14.9 (58.8) 13.0 (55.4) 10.0 (50) 6.3 (43.3) 3.5 (38.3) 8.4 (47.1)

Record low °C (°F) −13.4 (7.9) −13.6 (7.5) −7.8 (18) −2.0 (28.4) 1.6 (34.9) 4.0 (39.2) 8.0 (46.4) 9.0 (48.2) 5.8 (42.4) −1.0 (30.2) −5.6 (21.9) −9.6 (14.7) −13.6 (7.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 67.9 (2.673) 46.7 (1.839) 53.3 (2.098) 51.4 (2.024) 55.8 (2.197) 50.7 (1.996) 53.5 (2.106) 50.9 (2.004) 68.8 (2.709) 94.5 (3.72) 97.0 (3.819) 87.4 (3.441) 777.9 (30.626)

Average precipitation days 13.0 9.5 10.3 9.4 9.3 8.5 8.3 7.9 10.2 12.7 13.3 12.9 125.3

Average snowy days 3.4 3.3 2.4 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.8 12.7

Average relative humidity (%) 87 85 84 81 81 81 82 81 82 83 85 87 83.3

Source #1: Météo France[6][7]

Source #2: (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)[8]

History[edit] Origin of the city[edit]

German ships waiting at Boulogne Harbour (next door France) during the Battle of Britain

The foundation of the city known to the Romans as Gesoriacum is credited to the Celtic Boii.[citation needed] In the past,[when?]it was sometimes conflated[by whom?] with Caesar's Portus Itius, but that is now[when?] thought[by whom?] to have been a site near Calais
which has since silted up. From the time of Claudius's invasion in AD 43, Gesoriacum formed the major port connecting the rest of the empire to Britain. It was the chief base of the Roman navy's Britannic fleet until the rebellion of its admiral Carausius
in 286. As part of the imperial response, the junior emperor Constantius Chlorus successfully besieged it by land and sea in 293.[9] The name of the settlement was changed to Bononia at some point between the sack of Gesoriacum and 310, possibly as a consequence of its refounding or possibly by the replacement of the sacked and lower-lying city by another nearby community.[10] The city was an important town of the Morini,[citation needed] and Zosimus called it Germanorum ("Germanic-speaking") at the end of the 4th century.[11] Middle Ages[edit]

Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, as shown on the Bayeux Tapestry.

Main article: County of Boulogne In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
Boulogne was the capital of an eponymous county, founded in the mid-9th century. An important Count, Eustace II, assisted William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
in his conquest of England. His wife founded the city's Notre Dame cathedral, which became a site of pilgrimage from the 12th century onwards, attended by fourteen French kings and five of England. It was an important whaling center prior to 1121.[12] The city survived on herring fishing and received its municipal charter from Count Renaud of Dammartin
Renaud of Dammartin
in 1203.[9] The area was fought over by the French and the English, including several English occupations during the course of the Hundred Years War. Boulogne was again occupied by the English from 1544 to 1550. In 1550, The Peace of Boulogne ended the war of England with Scotland
and France. France
bought back Boulogne for 400,000 crowns. A culture of smuggling was present in the city until 1659, when French gains in Flanders from the Treaty of the Pyrenees
Treaty of the Pyrenees
moved the border northwards. Napoleonic period[edit]

The Column of the Grande Armée
Column of the Grande Armée
commemorates Napoleon's gathering of 200,000 soldiers near Boulogne for a proposed invasion of the United Kingdom

Boulogne received its current status as a subprefecture of the Pas-de-Calais
department in 1800 due to the territorial re-organisation in Revolutionary France. Three years later, it was given the title of an Imperial City (Ville Impériale).[9] The 19th century was a prosperous one for Boulogne, which became a bathing resort for wealthy Parisians after the completion of a railway line to the French capital.[9] In the 19th century, the Basilica
of Notre-Dame de Boulogne
Notre-Dame de Boulogne
was reconstructed by the priest Benoit Haffreingue, who claimed to have received a call from God to reconstruct the town's ruined basilica. During the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon
amassed La Grande Armée
La Grande Armée
in Boulogne to invade the United Kingdom in 1805. However, his plans were halted by other European matters and the supremacy of the Royal Navy. A nephew of Bonaparte, Louis- Napoleon
Bonaparte, later Napoleon
III, returned to France
in secret from his exile in Britain, passing through Boulogne in August 1840. He was later jailed for trying to lead a revolt in Strasbourg. World wars[edit] See also: Battle of Boulogne (1940)
Battle of Boulogne (1940)
and Operation Wellhit During the First World War, this was the debarkation port for the first unit of the British Expeditionary Force to land in France, and for many others thereafter.

A "special pass" issued for travel within Boulogne by the British Red Cross in May 1917, during World War I

Boulogne, was one of the three base ports most extensively used by the Commonwealth armies on the Western Front throughout the First World War. It was closed and cleared on 27 August 1914 when the Allies were forced to fall back ahead of the German advance, but was opened again in October and from that month to the end of the war, Boulogne and Wimereux
formed one of the chief hospital areas. Until June 1918, the dead from the hospitals at Boulogne itself were buried in the Cimetiere de L'Est, one of the town's cemeteries, the Commonwealth graves forming a long, narrow strip along the right hand edge of the cemetery. In the spring of 1918, it was found that space was running short in the Eastern Cemetery in spite of repeated extensions to the south, and the site of the new cemetery at Terlincthun was chosen.[13] It also was the site of an Allied (French and British) armaments production conference. On 22 May 1940 during the Battle of France, two British Guards battalions and some pioneers attempted to defend Boulogne against an attack by the German 2nd Panzer Division. Despite fierce fighting, the British were overwhelmed and the survivors were evacuated by Royal Navy destroyers while under direct German gunfire.[14] On 15 June 1944, 297 planes (155 Avro Lancasters, 130 Handley Page Halifaxes, and 12 De Havilland Mosquitos) of the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
bombed Boulogne harbour to suppress German naval activity following D-Day. Some of the Lancasters carried Tallboy bombs, and as a result, the harbour and the surrounding area were completely destroyed. In August 1944 the town was declared a "fortress" by Adolf Hitler, but it succumbed to assault and liberation by the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division
3rd Canadian Infantry Division
in September. In one incident, a French civilian guided the Canadians to a "secret passage" leading into the walled old town and by-passing the German defenders.[15] To replace the destroyed urban infrastructure, affordable housing and public facility projects in functional, brutalist building styles were carried out in the 1950s and 60s. Sights[edit]

The Belfry is a UNESCO
World Heritage Site.

Our Lady's Basilica
towers over the city.

Boulogne's Castle Museum

Boulogne's 12th-century belfry is one of 56 in northeastern France
and Belgium
with shared World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
status. It is the oldest building in the upper city, and currently serves as the home to a museum of Celtic remains from the Roman occupation. Founded as the Count's dungeon, the top floor was added in the 13th century. Damage by a fire in 1712 was built over by 1734.[5] Other than the belfry there are also the following sights:

Medieval walls 1,500 metres long, with 4 gates and 17 towers from the 13th century Medieval castle, whose foundations date to Roman times. It houses an Egyptian art collection Gothic church of St Nicholas, housing several 15th-century statues Cathedral basilica of Notre-Dame, with a dome standing at over 100 m. The crypt is one of the largest in France, and has Roman, Romanesque and Gothic elements. Opened in 1991, Nausicaä - The French National Sea Centre is a science centre entirely dedicated to the relationship between mankind and the sea. It houses Aquaria, exhibitions on marine fauna, and the exploitation and management of marine resources (fisheries, aquaculture, coastal planning, maritime transport, exploitation of energies and mineral, tourism). The Boulogne Eastern Cemetery, created during the Great War Colonne de la Grande Armée - Statue of Napoleon

Official website: Tourism in Boulogne sur Mer Official website: Tourism in Boulogne sur Mer and the Boulonnais region Economy[edit] Boulogne-sur-Mer
is an important fishing port, with 7,000 inhabitants deriving part, or all, of their livelihoods from fishing.[citation needed] IFREMER (the French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea) and the Pasteur Institute are located in Boulogne Port. Certain brands, including Crown and Findus, are based in Boulogne Media[edit]

Radio : France
Bleu Nord, Virgin Radio Côte d'Opale Television : France
3 Côte d'Opale Print : La Voix du Nord (édition de Boulogne sur Mer), La Semaine dans le Boulonnais, Touzazimut

Events[edit] In 1905, the first World Esperanto Congress
World Esperanto Congress
was held in Boulogne-sur-Mer, where the historic Declaration of Boulogne
Declaration of Boulogne
was ratified. L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto, was among the attendees. In 2005, there was an anniversary celebration to mark the centenary with more than 500 attendees. Administration[edit]

Boulogne is the seat of the Communauté d'agglomération du Boulonnais

List of Mayors

Duration Name Party Particularities

2014–2020 Frédéric Cuvillier PS Deputy, Minister

2012-2014 Mireille Hingrez-Céréda PS  

2004–2012 Frédéric Cuvillier PS Deputy, Minister

1996–2004 Guy Lengagne PS Deputy, Minister

1989–1996 Jean Muselet Conservative  

1977–1989 Guy Lengagne PS Deputy, Minister

1945–1977 Henri Henneguelle PS  

Past mayors are unknown.


Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1936 52,371 —    

1954 34,885 −33.4%

1962 49,283 +41.3%

1968 49,288 +0.0%

1975 48,440 −1.7%

1982 47,653 −1.6%

1990 43,678 −8.3%

1999 44,859 +2.7%

2006 43,700 −2.6%

2009 43,310 −0.9%

2012 42,785 −1.2%

Education[edit] Boulogne-sur-Mer
hosts one of the oldest Universités de l'été - summer courses in French language
French language
and culture. It is known as the Université d'été de Boulogne-sur-Mer. The Saint-Louis building of the University of the Côte d'Opale's Boulogne campus opened its doors in 1991, on the site of the former St. Louis Hospital, the front entrance to which remains a predominant architectural feature. Its 6 major specialisms are Modern Languages, French Literature, Sport, Law, History and Economics. The university is situated in the town centre, about 5 minutes[clarification needed] from the Boulogne Tintelleries railway station. University[edit]

Campus University of the Littoral Opal Coast
University of the Littoral Opal Coast
(Saint-Louis, Grand-Rue and Capérure site), member of Université Lille
Nord de France.

Public primary and secondary[edit]

High schools : Lycée Auguste Mariette, Edouard Branly, Cazin (professional). College : College Langevin, Angelier, Daunou.

Private primary and secondary[edit]

High schools: Lycée Nazareth, Haffreingue, Saint-Joseph College: College Godefroy de Bouillon, Haffreingue, Nazareth, Saint-Joseph

Health[edit] Two health centres are located in Boulogne, the public Hospital Duchenne and the private Clinique de la côte d'opale. Sports[edit]

US Boulogne
US Boulogne
play their home football matches at the 14,500-seat Stade de la Libération.

Boulogne's football club, US Boulogne
US Boulogne
Côte d'Opale
Côte d'Opale
(US refers to Union Sportive), is one of the oldest in France
due to the city's proximity to England, founded in 1898. The club currently play in the third tier, the Championnat National, and host home matches at the 14,500-capacity Stade de la Libération.[16] Boulogne native and FIFA World Cup finalist Franck Ribéry
Franck Ribéry
began his career at the club.[17] Basketball teams in Boulogne include Stade Olympique Maritime Boulonnais and ESSM Le Portel
ESSM Le Portel
of Pro A (first-tier men's professional basketball league in France). Culture[edit]

The Château de Boulogne-sur-Mer
Château de Boulogne-sur-Mer
(now a castle museum) of Boulogne, in the fortified town, houses the most important exhibition of masks from Alaska in the world, the second largest collection of Greek ceramics in France
(after the Louvre), collections of Roman and medieval sculptures, paintings (15th–20th century), an Egyptian collection, African Arts etc. As these collections are exhibited in a medieval castle, one can also discover the Roman walls (in the underground) as well as rooms built in the 13th century (La Barbière, banqueting hall, chapel, covered parapet walk…) La Casa San Martin is currently a museum where José de San Martín the leader of independence struggle in Argentina
(also Chile
and Peru) died in 1850, from 1930 to 1967 this house was the consulate of Argentina
in France. There is a statue dedicated to his colleague Simón Bolívar, other liberator of South America in the revolutions against Spanish colonial rule in the 1810s. Bolivar planned to head in exile to this very part of France
before his death in 1830. Historic emigration in the 19th century from the Nord-Pas de Calais
region to Argentina
and Chile
can explain some cultural ties with South America of the Boulognais and Latino/Ibero-American culture.[citation needed] Nausicaä, the French national sealife centre.

Food[edit] As an international maritime port on the English Channel
English Channel
(La Manche), the town of Boulogne-sur-Mer
has European and American influences in local cuisine. They include:

Welsh rarebit
Welsh rarebit
(from Wales, United Kingdom) Sandwich américain (an American sandwich introduced from the USA) Kipper (Flemish: smoked herring)

Notable people[edit] Born in Boulogne[edit]

Boulogne-born footballer Franck Ribéry.

Matilda of Boulogne
Matilda of Boulogne
(1105–1152), Countess of Boulogne and queen consort of England Michel Le Quien
Michel Le Quien
(1661–1733), monk and historian. Pierre Claude François Daunou
Pierre Claude François Daunou
(1761–1840), politician and historian Frédéric Sauvage
Frédéric Sauvage
(1786–1857), engineer and inventor of the propeller Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve
Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve
(1804–1869), literary critic and one of the major figures of French literary history Guillaume Duchenne
Guillaume Duchenne
(1806–1875), neurologist Auguste Mariette
Auguste Mariette
(1821–1881), scholar and archaeologist, one of the foremost Egyptologists of his generation, and the founder of the Egyptian Museum
Egyptian Museum
in Cairo Joseph O'Kelly (1828–1885), composer and pianist Auguste O'Kelly (1829–1900), music publisher Charles Frédéric O'Kelly (1830–1897), managing director of Blanzy-Poure George O'Kelly (1831–1914), pianist and composer Alexandre Guilmant
Alexandre Guilmant
(1837–1911), organist/composer Étienne-Prosper Berne-Bellecour
Étienne-Prosper Berne-Bellecour
(1838–1910), painter Benoît-Constant Coquelin
Benoît-Constant Coquelin
(1841–1909), actor Ernest Hamy
Ernest Hamy
(1842–1908), anthropologist/ethnologist; created (in 1880) the museum of ethnography of Trocadéro (today known as the Musée de l'Homme, Trocadéro) Ernest Alexandre Honoré Coquelin
Ernest Alexandre Honoré Coquelin
(1848–1909), actor Olivier Latry (1962), Titular Organist
of the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, and professor at the Paris
Conservatory Henri Malo
Henri Malo
(1868–1948), writer and historian Léo Marjane (1912–2016), singer Georges Mathieu
Georges Mathieu
(1921–2012), famous painter, initiator of "lyrical abstraction" and informal art Michel Caffier (born 1930), writer and literary critic Sophie Daumier (1934–2004), film actress Estha Essombe (born 1963), judoka Jean-Pierre Papin
Jean-Pierre Papin
(born 1963), footballer Mickaël Bourgain
Mickaël Bourgain
(born 1980), track cyclist Franck Ribéry
Franck Ribéry
(born 1983), footballer Terence Makengo (born 1992), footballer

Others associated with Boulogne[edit]

Baldwin I of Jerusalem, son and brother of Counts of Boulogne, ruled the Holy Land in the 11th century.

Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon
(c.1060–1100), Count of Boulogne, prominent figure in the First Crusade Baldwin I of Jerusalem
Baldwin I of Jerusalem
(c.1058–1118), Count of Boulogne, prominent figure in the First Crusade Blaise de Monluc (1502–1577), Marshal of France Smithson Tennant
Smithson Tennant
(1761–1815), chemist, discoverer of osmium and iridium, died falling from a bridge in Boulogne Romeo Coates
Romeo Coates
(1772–1848), amateur actor, fled from London to Boulogne to escape debtor's prison. He lived there for several years, and met his wife during this period. Adam Liszt
Adam Liszt
(1776–1827), father of Franz Liszt, died from Typhoid fever while on a vacation José de San Martín
José de San Martín
(1778–1850), Argentine general who liberated Argentina, Chile
and Peru; lived for two years in Boulogne and died there Benoît-Agathon Haffreingue
Benoît-Agathon Haffreingue
(1785–1871), priest and builder of Boulogne's cathedral Félix Godefroid
Félix Godefroid
(1818–1897), Belgium-born composer, grew up in Boulogne Constant Coquelin
Constant Coquelin
(1841–1909), actor John McCrae
John McCrae
(1872–1918), Canadian doctor, poet; author of In Flanders Field Alfred-Georges Regner (1902–1987), painter-engraver Maurice Boitel
Maurice Boitel
(1919–2007), painter Olivier Latry (born 1962), musician, educator

International relations[edit]

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Twin towns
Twin towns
— Sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Boulogne-sur-Mer
is twinned with:

Folkestone, Kent, United Kingdom[18] La Plata, Argentina Safi, Morocco
– since 2007 Deux-Ponts (Zweibrücken), Germany
– since 1959

See also[edit]

Boulonnais (land area) First Siege of Boulogne Itius Portus Vieux-Boulogne


^ "C'est l'Actu juillet 2010". Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ France. "Ville de Boulogne-sur-Mer
- La Commune, la Mairie de Boulogne-sur-Mer
et sa ville - Pas-de-Calais
en France". Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ Graeme Villeret. "France". Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ " Boulogne-sur-Mer
Tourist Guide". Information France. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ a b "Les Beffrois au patrimoine de l'Humanité". Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Boulogne-sur-Mer" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ "Climat Nord-Pas-de-Calais" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Boulogne (62) - altitude 73m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ a b c d " Boulogne-sur-Mer
(Municipality, Pas-de-Calais, France)". Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ Nixon, C.E.V. In Praise of Later Roman Emperors: The Panegyrici Latini: Introduction, Translation, and Historical Commentary with the Latin
Text of R.A.B. Mynors, "VI. Panegyric of Constantine, by an Anonymous Orator (310)", p. 223–224, n. 19. University of California Press (Los Angeles), 1994. ISBN 0-520-08326-1. ^ Historia Nova, Book VI.5.2-3 ^ DeSmet, W.M.A. (1981). "Mammals in the Seas: General papers and large cetaceans. Whaling During the Middle Ages".  ^ ^ "2nd Battalion Irish Guards. - World War 2 Talk". Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2012.  ^ Stacey, C P (1966). "Clearing the Coastal Belt and the Ports September 1944 - Operation "WELLHIT"; The Capture of Boulogne". Official History of the Canadian Army. Department of National Defence. Retrieved 24 June 2009.  ^ "Football Boulogne : Union Sportive Boulogne Côte d Opale (USBCO)". Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ Franck Ribéry
Franck Ribéry
- ^ "British towns twinned with French towns [via]". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

"Boulogne", A Handbook for Travellers in France
(8th ed.), London: John Murray, 1861  "Boulogne-sur-Mer", Northern France
(3rd ed.), Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1899, OCLC 2229516   "Boulogne sur Mer". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (9th ed.). 1878. pp. 171–172.   "Boulogne-sur-Mer". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 323–324. 

External links[edit]

Wikinews has related news: French fishermen blockade Channel ports

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Boulogne-sur-Mer.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Boulogne-sur-Mer.

Website about Boulogne-sur-Mer
(English only) INSEE (in English) IGN (in English) Official website: Tourism in Boulogne sur Mer and the Boulonnais area (in English) Boulogne-sur-Mer
city council website (in French) Visiting Boulogne-sur-Mer
(English guide and tourist map) NAUSICAÄ's official website (in French and English) Boulogne 2005 Esperanto Universite d'ete de Boulogne-sur-Mer The university library of ULCO The Boulogne Eastern Cemetery on the website "Remembrance Trails of the Great War in Northern France"

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Communes of the Pas-de-Calais

Ablain-Saint-Nazaire Ablainzevelle Acheville Achicourt Achiet-le-Grand Achiet-le-Petit Acq Acquin-Westbécourt Adinfer Affringues Agnez-lès-Duisans Agnières Agny Aire-sur-la-Lys Airon-Notre-Dame Airon-Saint-Vaast Aix-en-Ergny Aix-en-Issart Aix-Noulette Alembon Alette Alincthun Allouagne Alquines Ambleteuse Ambricourt Ambrines Ames Amettes Amplier Andres Angres Annay Annequin Annezin Anvin Anzin-Saint-Aubin Ardres Arleux-en-Gohelle Arques Arras Athies Les Attaques Attin Aubigny-en-Artois Aubin-Saint-Vaast Aubrometz Auchel Auchy-au-Bois Auchy-lès-Hesdin Auchy-les-Mines Audembert Audincthun Audinghen Audrehem Audresselles Audruicq Aumerval Autingues Auxi-le-Château Averdoingt Avesnes Avesnes-le-Comte Avesnes-lès-Bapaume Avion Avondance Avroult Ayette Azincourt Bailleul-aux-Cornailles Bailleul-lès-Pernes Bailleulmont Bailleul-Sir-Berthoult Bailleulval Baincthun Bainghen Bajus Balinghem Bancourt Bapaume Baralle Barastre Barlin Barly Basseux Bavincourt Bayenghem-lès-Éperlecques Bayenghem-lès-Seninghem Bazinghen Béalencourt Beaudricourt Beaufort-Blavincourt Beaulencourt Beaumerie-Saint-Martin Beaumetz-lès-Aire Beaumetz-lès-Cambrai Beaumetz-lès-Loges Beaurains Beaurainville Beauvoir-Wavans Beauvois Bécourt Béhagnies Bellebrune Belle-et-Houllefort Bellinghem Bellonne Bénifontaine Berck Bergueneuse Berlencourt-le-Cauroy Berles-au-Bois Berles-Monchel Bermicourt Berneville Bernieulles Bertincourt Béthonsart Béthune Beugin Beugnâtre Beugny Beussent Beutin Beuvrequen Beuvry Bezinghem Biache-Saint-Vaast Biefvillers-lès-Bapaume Bienvillers-au-Bois Bihucourt Billy-Berclau Billy-Montigny Bimont Blairville Blangerval-Blangermont Blangy-sur-Ternoise Blendecques Bléquin Blessy Blingel Boffles Boiry-Becquerelle Boiry-Notre-Dame Boiry-Sainte-Rictrude Boiry-Saint-Martin Bois-Bernard Boisdinghem Boisjean Boisleux-au-Mont Boisleux-Saint-Marc Bomy Bonnières Bonningues-lès-Ardres Bonningues-lès-Calais Boubers-lès-Hesmond Boubers-sur-Canche Bouin-Plumoison Boulogne-sur-Mer Bouquehault Bourecq Bouret-sur-Canche Bourlon Bournonville Bours Boursin Bourthes Bouvelinghem Bouvigny-Boyeffles Boyaval Boyelles Brebières Brêmes Brévillers Bréxent-Énocq Brias Brimeux Bruay-la-Buissière Brunembert Bucquoy Buire-au-Bois Buire-le-Sec Buissy Bullecourt Bully-les-Mines Buneville Burbure Bus Busnes Caffiers Cagnicourt Calais Calonne-Ricouart Calonne-sur-la-Lys La Calotterie Camblain-Châtelain Camblain-l'Abbé Cambligneul Cambrin Camiers Campagne-lès-Boulonnais Campagne-lès-Guines Campagne-lès-Hesdin Campagne-lès-Wardrecques Campigneulles-les-Grandes Campigneulles-les-Petites Canettemont Canlers Canteleux Capelle-Fermont La Capelle-lès-Boulogne Capelle-lès-Hesdin Carency Carly Carvin La Cauchie Cauchy-à-la-Tour Caucourt Caumont Cavron-Saint-Martin Chelers Chériennes Chérisy Chocques Clairmarais Clenleu Clerques Cléty Colembert Colline-Beaumont La Comté Conchil-le-Temple Conchy-sur-Canche Condette Contes Conteville-en-Ternois Conteville-lès-Boulogne Coquelles Corbehem Cormont Couin Coullemont Coulogne Coulomby Coupelle-Neuve Coupelle-Vieille Courcelles-le-Comte Courcelles-lès-Lens Courrières Courset La Couture Couturelle Coyecques Crémarest Crépy Créquy Croisette Croisilles Croix-en-Ternois Cucq Cuinchy Dainville Dannes Delettes Denier Dennebrœucq Desvres Diéval Divion Dohem Douchy-lès-Ayette Doudeauville Dourges Douriez Douvrin Drocourt Drouvin-le-Marais Duisans Dury Echinghen Éclimeux Écoivres Écourt-Saint-Quentin Écoust-Saint-Mein Ecquedecques Ecques Écuires Écurie Éleu-dit-Leauwette Elnes Embry Enquin-lez-Guinegatte Enquin-sur-Baillons Éperlecques Épinoy Eps Équihen-Plage Équirre Ergny Érin Erny-Saint-Julien Ervillers Escalles Escœuilles Esquerdes Essars Estevelles Estrée Estrée-Blanche Estrée-Cauchy Estrée-Wamin Estréelles Étaing Étaples Éterpigny Étrun Évin-Malmaison Famechon Fampoux Farbus Fauquembergues Favreuil Febvin-Palfart Ferfay Ferques Festubert Feuchy Ficheux Fiefs Fiennes Fillièvres Fléchin Flers Fleurbaix Fleury Floringhem Foncquevillers Fontaine-lès-Boulans Fontaine-lès-Croisilles Fontaine-lès-Hermans Fontaine-l'Étalon Fortel-en-Artois Fosseux Foufflin-Ricametz Fouquereuil Fouquières-lès-Béthune Fouquières-lès-Lens Framecourt Frémicourt Frencq Fresnes-lès-Montauban Fresnicourt-le-Dolmen Fresnoy Fresnoy-en-Gohelle Fressin Fréthun Frévent Frévillers Frévin-Capelle Fruges Galametz Gauchin-Légal Gauchin-Verloingt Gaudiempré Gavrelle Gennes-Ivergny Givenchy-en-Gohelle Givenchy-le-Noble Givenchy-lès-la-Bassée Gomiécourt Gommecourt Gonnehem Gosnay Gouves Gouy-en-Artois Gouy-en-Ternois Gouy-Saint-André Gouy-Servins Gouy-sous-Bellonne Graincourt-lès-Havrincourt Grand-Rullecourt Grenay Grévillers Grigny Grincourt-lès-Pas Groffliers Guarbecque Guémappe Guemps Guigny Guinecourt Guînes Guisy Habarcq Haillicourt Haisnes Halinghen Hallines Halloy Ham-en-Artois Hamblain-les-Prés Hamelincourt Hames-Boucres Hannescamps Haplincourt Haravesnes Hardinghen Harnes Haucourt Haute-Avesnes Hautecloque Hauteville Haut-Loquin Havrincourt Hébuterne Helfaut Hendecourt-lès-Cagnicourt Hendecourt-lès-Ransart Hénin-Beaumont Hénin-sur-Cojeul Héninel Henneveux Hénu Herbinghen Héricourt La Herlière Herlincourt Herlin-le-Sec Herly Hermaville Hermelinghen Hermies Hermin Hernicourt Hersin-Coupigny Hervelinghen Hesdigneul-lès-Béthune Hesdigneul-lès-Boulogne Hesdin Hesdin-l'Abbé Hesmond Hestrus Heuchin Heuringhem Hézecques Hinges Hocquinghen Houchin Houdain Houlle Houvin-Houvigneul Hubersent Huby-Saint-Leu Huclier Hucqueliers Hulluch Humbercamps Humbert Humerœuille Humières Inchy-en-Artois Incourt Inxent Isbergues Isques Ivergny Izel-lès-Équerchin Izel-lès-Hameau Journy Labeuvrière Labourse Labroye Lacres Lagnicourt-Marcel Laires Lambres Landrethun-le-Nord Landrethun-lès-Ardres Lapugnoy Lattre-Saint-Quentin Laventie Lebiez Lebucquière Léchelle Ledinghem Lefaux Leforest Lens Lépine Lespesses Lespinoy Lestrem Leubringhen Leulinghem Leulinghen-Bernes Libercourt Licques Liencourt Lières Liettres Liévin Lignereuil Ligny-lès-Aire Ligny-Saint-Flochel Ligny-sur-Canche Ligny-Thilloy Lillers Linghem Linzeux Lisbourg Locon La Loge Loison-sous-Lens Loison-sur-Créquoise Longfossé Longuenesse Longueville Longvilliers Loos-en-Gohelle Lorgies Lottinghen Louches Lozinghem Lugy Lumbres La Madelaine-sous-Montreuil Magnicourt-en-Comte Magnicourt-sur-Canche Maintenay Maisnil Maisnil-lès-Ruitz Maisoncelle Maizières Mametz Manin Maninghem Maninghen-Henne Marant Marck Marconne Marconnelle Marenla Maresquel-Ecquemicourt Marest Maresville Marles-les-Mines Marles-sur-Canche Marœuil Marquay Marquion Marquise Martinpuich Matringhem Mazingarbe Mazinghem Mencas Menneville Mentque-Nortbécourt Mercatel Merck-Saint-Liévin Méricourt Merlimont Metz-en-Couture Meurchin Mingoval Moncheaux-lès-Frévent Monchel-sur-Canche Monchiet Monchy-au-Bois Monchy-Breton Monchy-Cayeux Monchy-le-Preux Mondicourt Mont-Bernanchon Montcavrel Montenescourt Montigny-en-Gohelle Montreuil Mont-Saint-Éloi Monts-en-Ternois Morchies Moringhem Morval Mory Moulle Mouriez Moyenneville Muncq-Nieurlet Nabringhen Nédon Nédonchel Nempont-Saint-Firmin Nesles Neufchâtel-Hardelot Neulette Neuve-Chapelle Neuville-au-Cornet Neuville-Bourjonval Neuville-Saint-Vaast Neuville-sous-Montreuil Neuville-Vitasse Neuvireuil Nielles-lès-Ardres Nielles-lès-Bléquin Nielles-lès-Calais Nœux-lès-Auxi Nœux-les-Mines Nordausques Noreuil Norrent-Fontes Nortkerque Nort-Leulinghem Nouvelle-Église Noyelles-Godault Noyelles-lès-Humières Noyelles-lès-Vermelles Noyelles-sous-Bellonne Noyelles-sous-Lens Noyellette Noyelle-Vion Nuncq-Hautecôte Oblinghem Œuf-en-Ternois Offekerque Offin Offrethun Oignies Oisy-le-Verger Oppy Orville Ostreville Ourton Outreau Ouve-Wirquin Oye-Plage Palluel Le Parcq Parenty Pas-en-Artois Pelves Penin Pernes Pernes-lès-Boulogne Peuplingues Pierremont Pihem Pihen-lès-Guînes Pittefaux Planques Plouvain Polincove Pommera Pommier Le Ponchel Pont-à-Vendin Le Portel Prédefin Pressy Preures Pronville-en-Artois Puisieux Quéant Quelmes Quercamps Quernes Le Quesnoy-en-Artois Quesques Questrecques Quiéry-la-Motte Quiestède Quilen Quœux-Haut-Maînil Racquinghem Radinghem Ramecourt Rang-du-Fliers Ransart Raye-sur-Authie Rebergues Rebreuve-Ranchicourt Rebreuve-sur-Canche Rebreuviette Reclinghem Récourt Recques-sur-Course Recques-sur-Hem Regnauville Rely Remilly-Wirquin Rémy Renty Rety Richebourg Riencourt-lès-Bapaume Riencourt-lès-Cagnicourt Rimboval Rinxent Rivière Robecq Roclincourt Rocquigny Rodelinghem Roëllecourt Rœux Rollancourt Rombly Roquetoire Rougefay Roussent Rouvroy Royon Ruisseauville Ruitz Rumaucourt Rumilly Ruminghem Ruyaulcourt Sachin Sailly-au-Bois Sailly-en-Ostrevent Sailly-Labourse Sailly-sur-la-Lys Sains-en-Gohelle Sains-lès-Fressin Sains-lès-Marquion Sains-lès-Pernes Saint-Amand Saint-Aubin Saint-Augustin Saint-Denœux Sainte-Austreberthe Sainte-Catherine Sainte-Marie-Kerque Saint-Étienne-au-Mont Saint-Floris Saint-Folquin Saint-Georges Saint-Hilaire-Cottes Saint-Inglevert Saint-Josse Saint-Laurent-Blangy Saint-Léger Saint-Léonard Saint-Martin-Boulogne Saint-Martin-Choquel Saint-Martin-d'Hardinghem Saint-Martin-lez-Tatinghem Saint-Martin-sur-Cojeul Saint-Michel-sous-Bois Saint-Michel-sur-Ternoise Saint-Nicolas Saint-Omer Saint-Omer-Capelle Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise Saint-Rémy-au-Bois Saint-Tricat Saint-Venant Sallaumines Salperwick Samer Sangatte Sanghen Sapignies Le Sars Sars-le-Bois Sarton Sauchy-Cauchy Sauchy-Lestrée Saudemont Saulchoy Saulty Savy-Berlette Selles Sempy Seninghem Senlecques Senlis Séricourt Serques Servins Setques Sibiville Simencourt Siracourt Sombrin Sorrus Souastre Souchez Le Souich Surques Sus-Saint-Léger Tangry Tardinghen Teneur Ternas Thélus Thérouanne Thiembronne La Thieuloye Thièvres Tigny-Noyelle Tilloy-lès-Hermaville Tilloy-lès-Mofflaines Tilly-Capelle Tilques Tincques Tingry Tollent Torcy Tortefontaine Tortequesne Le Touquet-Paris-Plage Tournehem-sur-la-Hem Tramecourt Le Transloy Trescault Troisvaux Tubersent Vacquerie-le-Boucq Vacqueriette-Erquières Valhuon Vaudricourt Vaudringhem Vaulx Vaulx-Vraucourt Vélu Vendin-lès-Béthune Vendin-le-Vieil Verchin Verchocq Verlincthun Vermelles Verquigneul Verquin Verton Vieil-Hesdin Vieille-Chapelle Vieille-Église Vieil-Moutier Villers-au-Bois Villers-au-Flos Villers-Brûlin Villers-Châtel Villers-lès-Cagnicourt Villers-l'Hôpital Villers-Sir-Simon Vimy Vincly Violaines Vis-en-Artois Vitry-en-Artois Waben Wacquinghen Wail Wailly Wailly-Beaucamp Wambercourt Wamin Wancourt Wanquetin Wardrecques Warlencourt-Eaucourt Warlincourt-lès-Pas Warlus Warluzel Le Wast Wavrans-sur-l'Aa Wavrans-sur-Ternoise Westrehem Wicquinghem Widehem Wierre-au-Bois Wierre-Effroy Willeman Willencourt Willerval Wimereux Wimille Wingles Wirwignes Wismes Wisques Wissant Witternesse Wittes Wizernes Ytres Zoteux Zouafques Zudausques Zutkerque

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126683557 LCCN: n81132249 GND: 4080492-6 SUDOC: 03032792X BNF: cb1526