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Bieszczady [bʲɛˈʂt͡ʂadɨ] is a mountain range that runs from the extreme south-east of Poland
Poland
through Ukraine
Ukraine
and Slovakia. It forms the western part of the Eastern Beskids
Eastern Beskids
(Beskidy Wschodnie), and is more generally part of the Outer Eastern Carpathians. The mountain range is situated between the Łupków Pass
Łupków Pass
(640 m) and the Vyshkovskyi Pass (933 m). Frequently Bieszczady refers only to the Western Bieszczady or even only to the part of the range lying within Poland. The highest peak of Bieszczady is Mt. Pikuy (1405 m) in Ukraine. The highest peak of the Polish part is Tarnica
Tarnica
(1346 m).

Contents

1 Term 2 Division 3 History 4 Hiking trails 5 Hillclimb 6 Literature 7 Notes 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Term[edit] The term Bieszczady in the wide sense is used only in Poland. In Slovakia
Slovakia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
"Bieszczady" usually refers only to the part situated in Poland. In Poland
Poland
"Bieszczady" also refers usually only to the Polish part of the (Western) Bieszczady. In Ukraine, the "Eastern Bieszczady" have various names (unstable terminology), they usually contain the word Beskids. In Slovakia
Slovakia
the Slovak part is called Bukovec Mountains
Bukovec Mountains
(Bukovské vrchy). Historically, the terms Bieszczad and Beskid have been used for hundreds of years to describe the mountains separating Poland
Poland
and Ruthenia
Ruthenia
from Hungary. They were known by the Latin name Poloniae Alpe Besczade. A colloquial Polish term referring to Bieszczady is Biesy, because folk etymology connects the origin of the mountains to demonic (bies) activity. The true etymology of the name "Bieszczady" is unknown. It may be related to Middle Low German
Middle Low German
beshêt, beskēt, meaning watershed.[1]

Church of the Visitation in Lesko, the oldest Roman Catholic church in Bieszczady, founded by count Piotr Kmita in 1539

Division[edit] See also: Divisions of the Carpathians Since there exist many variants of divisions of the mountain ranges and names for the Beskids
Beskids
and Ukrainian Carpathians, several divisions are given in the following: Division 1:

Bieszczady or Western Bieszczady (PL: Bieszczady Zachodnie) + Bukovec Mountains (SK: Bukovské vrchy) + what the Ukrainians call Western Beskids
Beskids
(Zachidni Beskydy) Skole Beskids
Beskids
(UA: Skolivs'ki Beskydy), partly or completely also known as High Beskids
Beskids
(Vysoki Beskydy); part of what Ukrainians call Eastern Beskids
Eastern Beskids
(Skhidni Beskydy)

Division 2:

Western Bieszczady: between the Łupków Pass
Łupków Pass
and the Użocka (Uzsok Pass - 853 m) with Mt Tarnica
Tarnica
(1,346 m) as the highest peak; the Łupków Pass
Łupków Pass
separating the Bieszczady from the Low Beskids
Beskids
and Pogórze Bukowskie Central Bieszczady, between the Użocka Pass and the Tukholskyi Pass with Mt Pikuy (1405 m) as the highest peak Eastern Bieszczady, between the Tukholskyi Pass and the Vyshkovskyi Pass with Mt Charna Repa (1228m) as the highest peak

Division 3:

Western Bieszczady (in Poland, Slovakia
Slovakia
and Ukraine) Eastern Bieszczady (in Ukraine)

Division 4: In an old Ukrainian division, what is defined here as the Bieszczady in a wider sense corresponds to the western part of the Mid-Carpathian Depression and to the westernmost part of the Polonynian Beskids.

Bieszczady. A panoramic view from Połonina
Połonina
Wetlińska in the direction of Połonina
Połonina
Caryńska and Tarnica
Tarnica
peaks, and Ustrzyki Górne (town).

History[edit] Settled in prehistoric times, the south-eastern Poland
Poland
region that is now Bieszczady was overrun in pre-Roman times by various tribes, including the Celts, Goths
Goths
and Vandals
Vandals
( Przeworsk culture
Przeworsk culture
and Puchov culture). After the fall of the Roman Empire, of which most of south-eastern Poland
Poland
was part (all parts below the San),[citation needed] Hungarians and West Slavs
West Slavs
invaded the area. The region subsequently became part of the Great Moravian state. Upon the invasion of the Hungarian tribes into the heart of the Great Moravian Empire around 899, the Lendians
Lendians
of the area declared their allegiance to the Hungarians. The region then became a site of contention between Poland, Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
and Hungary
Hungary
starting in at least the 9th century. This area was mentioned for the first time in 981, when Volodymyr the Great of Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
took the area over on the way into Poland. In 1018 it returned to Poland, 1031 back to Rus, in 1340 Casimir III of Poland recovered it. Bieszczady was one of the strategically important areas of the Carpathian mountains bitterly contested in battles on the Eastern Front of World War I during the winter of 1914/1915.[2] Up until 1947, 84% of the population of the Polish part of the Bieszczadzkie Mountains was Boyko. The killing of the Polish General Karol Świerczewski
Karol Świerczewski
in Jabłonki
Jabłonki
by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army
Ukrainian Insurgent Army
in 1947 was the direct cause of the replacement of the Boykos, the so-called Operation Vistula. The area was mostly uninhabited afterward. In 2002, then president Aleksander Kwaśniewski
Aleksander Kwaśniewski
expressed regret for this operation. In 1991, the UNESCO
UNESCO
East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
was created that encapsulates a large part of the area and continues into Slovakia
Slovakia
and Ukraine. It comprises the Bieszczady National Park
Bieszczady National Park
(Poland), Poloniny National Park (Slovakia) + Uzhansky National Nature Park (Ukraine). Animals living in this reserve include, among others, black storks, brown bears, wolves and bison. Hiking trails[edit]

European walking route E8

Somár - sedlo Baba - Dolná Rakova - Končini - Brezová pod Bradlom - Polianka
Polianka
- Myjava
Myjava
- Veľká Javorina - Nové Mesto nad Váhom - Machnáč - Trenčín
Trenčín
- Košecké Rovné - Fačkovské sedlo - Kunešov
Kunešov
- Kraľová studňa - Donovaly
Donovaly
- Chopok
Chopok
- Čertovica
Čertovica
- Telgárt
Telgárt
- Skalisko - Štós-kúpele - Skalisko - Chata Lajoška - Košice
Košice
- Malý Šariš
Malý Šariš
- Prešov
Prešov
- Miháľov - Kurimka
Kurimka
- Dukla
Dukla
- Iwonicz-Zdrój
Iwonicz-Zdrój
Rymanów-Zdrój
Rymanów-Zdrój
- Puławy – Tokarnia (778 m) – Kamień (717 m) – Komańcza
Komańcza
- Cisna
Cisna
- Ustrzyki Górne
Ustrzyki Górne
- Wołosate.

Hillclimb[edit] The mountain was used as a round in the 2014 International Hill Climb Cup. Literature[edit]

Prof. Jadwiga Warszyńska. Karpaty Polskie : przyroda, człowiek i jego działalność ; Uniwersytet Jagielloński. Kraków, 1995 ISBN 83-233-0852-7 Prof. Jerzy Kondracki. Geografia fizyczna Polski Warszawa : Państ. Wydaw. Naukowe, 1988, ISBN 83-01-02323-6

Notes[edit]

^ Zbigniew Gołąb. The Origins of the Slavs: A Linguist's View. Slavica Publishers, Inc., 1992 p. 342. "The Germanic etymology of Bieszczad // Beskid was proposed by prof. Jan Michał Rozwadowski (1914:162, etc). He derives the variant beščad from Germc. biskaid, wchich is represented by MLG besche (beskêt) Trennung and by Scandinavian bêsked, borrowed from [...]" ^ "The Pursuit and Battles at Sanok
Sanok
and Rzeszów
Rzeszów
(May 6). - After his severe defeat, Radko Dimitriev's plan was to hold the Łupków Pass with his left wing, and, supported upon this, to bring the pursuit to a stand on the line Nowotaniec–Besko-right bank of the Wisłok, where there were positions favoured by the lay of the ground, and then, between the Vistula
Vistula
and the Wisłok, on the line Wielopole-Rzeszów–Mielec. Here he proposed to reconstitute his units, which had fallen into great disorder, and to strengthen them by bringing up reserves. Troops were sent to him from other fronts, and by the 8th he could again dispose of 18 inf. divs., 5 ca y. divs. and 5 Reichswehr bdes. The orders were that the offensive was to be continued with all possible vigour. Mackensen's arm y was to push forward over the stretch of the Wisłok
Wisłok
between Besko
Besko
and Frysztak
Frysztak
on Mrzygłód and Tyczyn, and the Archduke Joseph Ferdinand on Rzeszów, while Boroevic was to roll up Brussilov's VIII. Russian Army in the direction of Sanok. Bohm's II. Austrian Army was to join up corps by corps from the left wing in proportion to the progress of the attack."Enc. Britanica Archived 2007-01-27 at the Wayback Machine.

Bibliography[edit]

Rosa Lehmann, "Social(ist) engineering. Taming the devils of the Polish Bieszczady," Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 42,3 (2009), 423-444.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bieszczady.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bieszczady.

Bieszczady National Park
Bieszczady National Park
- in English, with many links. Bieszczady Photo Gallery (2005) Bieszczady East Carpathians Biosphere Reserve The movie "Bieszczady in 38 hours," showing the beautiful landscape of Bieszczady Mountains
Bieszczady Mountains
in Poland The movie "Bieszczady in 38 hours," showing the beautiful landscape of Bieszczady Mountains
Bieszczady Mountains
in Poland Bieszczady Photostory

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 245618932 GN