Anthem: Bayernhymne  (German) "Hymn of Bavaria"

Coordinates: 48°46′39″N 11°25′52″E / 48.77750°N 11.43111°E / 48.77750; 11.43111

Country Germany

Capital Munich


 • Body Landtag of Bavaria

 • Minister-President Markus Söder
Markus Söder
(CSU – Christian Social Union of Bavaria)

 • Governing party CSU

 • Bundesrat votes 6 (of 69)


 • Total 70,550.19 km2 (27,239.58 sq mi)

Population (2016-12-31)[1]

 • Total 12,930,751

 • Density 180/km2 (470/sq mi)

Demonym(s) Bavarian

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

ISO 3166 code DE-BY

GDP/ Nominal €568/ $668 billion (2016) [2]

GDP per capita €43,000/ $50,500 (2015)

NUTS Region DE2


(/bəˈvɛəriə/ Bavarian and German: Bayern [ˈbaɪɐn]; Czech: Bavorsko), officially the Free State of Bavaria
(German: Freistaat Bayern [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈbaɪɐn]), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres (27,200 sq mi), Bavaria
is the largest German state by land area. Its territory comprises roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 12.9 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state (after North Rhine-Westphalia). Bavaria's capital and largest city, Munich, is the third largest city in Germany.[4] The history of Bavaria
stretches from its earliest settlement and formation as a duchy in the 6th century CE (AD) through the Holy Roman Empire to becoming an independent kingdom and finally a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.[5] The Duchy of Bavaria
Duchy of Bavaria
dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century CE (AD), the Duke of Bavaria
Duke of Bavaria
became a Prince-elector
of the Holy Roman Empire. The Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Bavaria
existed from 1806 to 1918, when Bavaria became a republic. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria
re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria
has a unique culture, largely because of the state's Catholic majority (52%) and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes festivals such as Oktoberfest
and elements of Alpine symbolism.[6] The state also has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region.[7] Modern Bavaria
also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia
and Swabia.


1 History

1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Middle Ages 1.3 Electorate of Bavaria 1.4 Kingdom of Bavaria 1.5 Part of the German Empire 1.6 Free State of Bavaria 1.7 Bavarian identity

2 Coat of arms 3 Geography 4 Administrative divisions

4.1 Administrative districts

4.1.1 Population and area

4.2 Districts 4.3 Cities 4.4 Municipalities

4.4.1 Major cities

5 Politics

5.1 Government

5.1.1 Minister-presidents of Bavaria
since 1945

5.2 Designation as a "free state" 5.3 Arbitrary arrest and human rights

6 Economy

6.1 Company names

7 Demographics

7.1 Vital statistics

8 Culture

8.1 Religion 8.2 Traditions 8.3 Food and drink 8.4 Language and dialects 8.5 Ethnography

9 Sports

9.1 Football

10 Historical buildings 11 Bavarians 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Bavaria

Prehistoric Heunischenburg, in the vicinity of Kronach

Antiquity[edit] The Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps, previously inhabited by Celts, which had been part of the Roman provinces of Raetia
and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German
Old High German
but, unlike other Germanic groups, probably did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century. These peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Marcomanni, Allemanni, Quadi, Thuringians, Goths, Scirians, Rugians, Heruli. The name "Bavarian" ("Baiuvarii") means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii
and later of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BCE.[8] Middle Ages[edit] Further information: Duchy of Bavaria From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing
ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III
Tassilo III
who was deposed by Charlemagne.[9] Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian
kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I
Chlothar I
in 555. Their daughter, Theodelinde, became Queen of the Lombards
in northern Italy
and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.[10] After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy (it is unclear what Bavarian religious life consisted of before this time). His son, Theudebert, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was divided among his sons, but reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death (735) the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo, from neighbouring Alemannia (modern southwest Germany
and northern Switzerland). Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organisation in partnership with St. Boniface (739), and tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo. He was defeated near Augsburg
in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748.[11][12] Saint Boniface
Saint Boniface
completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Bavaria
was in many ways affected by the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the 16th century.

in the 10th century

"Beschreibvng des hochloblichen Fvrsten t.h v.b Obern vnd Nidern Bayrn" – (National Library of Sweden)

Tassilo III
Tassilo III
(b. 741 – d. after 796) succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria. He initially ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was particularly noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps
and along the River Danube
River Danube
and colonising these lands. After 781, however, his cousin Charlemagne
began to pressure Tassilo to submit and finally deposed him in 788. The deposition was not entirely legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg
in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback. The king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, and he probably died a monk. As all of his family were also forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing

Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Bavaria

Bavarian duchies after the partition of 1392

For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy, rarely for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria
lost large territories in the south and south east. The territory of Ostarrichi was elevated to a duchy in its own right and given to the Babenberger family. This event marks the founding of Austria. The last, and one of the most important, of the dukes of Bavaria
was Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
of the house of Welf, founder of Munich, and de facto the second most powerful man in the empire as the ruler of two duchies. When in 1180, Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
was deposed as Duke of Saxony and Bavaria
by his cousin, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
(a.k.a. "Barbarossa" for his red beard), Bavaria
was awarded as fief to the Wittelsbach
family, counts palatinate of Schyren ("Scheyern" in modern German). They ruled for 738 years, from 1180 to 1918. The Electorate of the Palatinate by Rhine
(Kurpfalz in German) was also acquired by the House of Wittelsbach
in 1214, which they would subsequently hold for six centuries.[13] The first of several divisions of the duchy of Bavaria
occurred in 1255. With the extinction of the Hohenstaufen in 1268, Swabian territories were acquired by the Wittelsbach
dukes. Emperor Louis the Bavarian acquired Brandenburg, Tyrol, Holland and Hainaut for his House but released the Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach
in 1329. In the 14th and 15th centuries, upper and lower Bavaria
were repeatedly subdivided. Four Duchies existed after the division of 1392: Bavaria-Straubing, Bavaria-Landshut, Bavaria-Ingolstadt
and Bavaria-Munich. In 1506 with the Landshut
War of Succession, the other parts of Bavaria
were reunited, and Munich became the sole capital. Electorate of Bavaria[edit] Further information: Electorate of Bavaria In 1623 the Bavarian duke replaced his relative of the Palatinate branch, the Electorate of the Palatinate
Electorate of the Palatinate
in the early days of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
and acquired the powerful prince-electoral dignity in the Holy Roman Empire, determining its Emperor thence forward, as well as special legal status under the empire's laws. The country became one of the Jesuit supported counter-reformation centers. During the early and mid-18th century the ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria
as well as occupations by Austria
(War of the Spanish Succession, election of a Wittelsbach emperor instead of a Habsburger). From 1777 onwards and after the younger Bavarian branch of the family had died out with elector Max III Joseph, Bavaria
and the Electorate of the Palatinate
Electorate of the Palatinate
were governed once again in personal union, now by the Palatinian lines. The new state also comprised the Duchies of Jülich and Berg as these on their part were in personal union with the Palatinate. Kingdom of Bavaria[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Bavaria

in the 19th century and beyond

When Napoleon
abolished the Holy Roman Empire, Bavaria
became a kingdom in 1806 due, in part, to the Confederation of the Rhine.[14] Its area doubled after the Duchy of Jülich
Duchy of Jülich
was ceded to France, as the Electoral Palatinate
Electoral Palatinate
was divided between France
and the Grand Duchy of Baden. The Duchy of Berg was given to Jerome Bonaparte. The Tyrol and Salzburg were temporarily reunited with Bavaria
but finally ceded to Austria
by the Congress of Vienna. In return Bavaria
was allowed to annex the modern-day region of Palatinate to the left of the Rhine
and Franconia
in 1815. Between 1799 and 1817, the leading minister, Count Montgelas, followed a strict policy of modernisation; he laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived the monarchy and retain core validity in the 21st century. In May 1808 a first constitution was passed by Maximilian I,[15] being modernized in 1818. This second version established a bicameral Parliament with a House of Lords (Kammer der Reichsräte) and a House of Commons (Kammer der Abgeordneten). That constitution was followed until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I.

Bavarian stamps during the German empire period

After the rise of Prussia
to power, Bavaria
preserved its independence by playing off the rivalries of Prussia
and Austria. Allied to Austria, it was defeated in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
and did not belong to the North German Federation
North German Federation
of 1867, but the question of German unity was still alive. When France
declared war on Prussia
in 1870, the south German states Baden, Württemberg, Hessen-Darmstadt and Bavaria
joined the Prussian forces (whereas Austria
did not) and ultimately joined the Federation, which was renamed Deutsches Reich (German Empire) in 1871. Bavaria
continued as a monarchy, and it had some special rights within the federation (such as an army, railways and a postal service of its own). Part of the German Empire[edit] When Bavaria
became part of the newly formed German Empire, this action was considered controversial by Bavarian nationalists who had wanted to retain independence, as Austria
had. As Bavaria
had a majority-Catholic population, many people resented being ruled by the mostly Protestant
northerners of Prussia. As a direct result of the Bavarian-Prussian feud, political parties formed to encourage Bavaria to break away and regain its independence.[16] Although the idea of Bavarian separatism was popular in the late 19th and early 20th century, apart from a small minority such as the Bavaria
Party, most Bavarians have accepted that Bavaria
is part of Germany.[citation needed] In the early 20th century, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Henrik Ibsen, and other artists were drawn to Bavaria, especially to the Schwabing district of Munich, a center of international artistic activity. This area was devastated by bombing and invasion during World War II. Free State of Bavaria[edit]

A memorial to soldiers who died in the two world wars. Dietelskirchen, Bavaria.

Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp
memorial sculpture erected in 1968

Free State has been an adopted designation after the abolition of monarchy in the aftermath of World War I
World War I
in several German states. On 12 November 1918, Ludwig III signed a document, the Anif declaration, releasing both civil and military officers from their oaths; the newly formed republican government, or "People's State" of Socialist premier Kurt Eisner,[17] interpreted this as an abdication. To date, however, no member of the House of Wittelsbach
has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne.[18] On the other hand, none has ever since officially called upon their Bavarian or Stuart claims. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, Franz, Duke of Bavaria. They step back from any announcements on public affairs, showing approval or disapproval solely by Franz's presence or absence. Eisner was assassinated in February 1919, ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic
Bavarian Soviet Republic
being proclaimed 6 April 1919. After violent suppression by elements of the German Army and notably the Freikorps, the Bavarian Soviet Republic fell in May 1919. The Bamberg
Constitution (Bamberger Verfassung) was enacted on 12 or 14 August 1919 and came into force on 15 September 1919 creating the Free State of Bavaria
within the Weimar Republic. Extremist activity further increased, notably the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch led by the National Socialists, and Munich
and Nuremberg
became seen as Nazi strongholds under the Third Reich
Third Reich
of Adolf Hitler. However, in the crucial German federal election, March 1933, the Nazis received less than 50% of the votes cast in Bavaria. As a manufacturing centre, Munich
was heavily bombed during World War II and was occupied by U.S. troops, becoming a major part of the American Zone of Allied-occupied Germany
(1945–47) and then of "Bizonia". The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria
in 1946 and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate. During the Cold War, Bavaria was part of West Germany. In 1949, the Free State of Bavaria
chose not to sign the Founding Treaty (Gründungsvertrag) for the formation of the Federal Republic of Germany, opposing the division of Germany
into two states, after World War II. The Bavarian Parliament did not sign the Basic Law of Germany, mainly because it was seen as not granting sufficient powers to the individual Länder, but at the same time decided that it would still come into force in Bavaria
if two-thirds of the other Länder ratified it. All of the other Länder ratified it, and so it became law. Bavarian identity[edit] Bavarians have often emphasized a separate national identity and considered themselves as "Bavarians" first, "Germans" second.[19] This feeling started to come about more strongly among Bavarians when the Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Bavaria
joined the Protestant
Prussian-dominated German Empire while the Bavarian nationalists wanted to keep Bavaria
as Catholic and an independent state. Nowadays, aside from the minority Bavaria
Party, most Bavarians accept that Bavaria
is part of Germany.[20] Another consideration is that Bavarians foster different cultural identities: Franconia
in the north, speaking East Franconian German; Bavarian Swabia
in the south west, speaking Swabian German; and Altbayern
(so-called "Old Bavaria", the regions forming the "historic", pentagon-shaped Bavaria
before the acquisitions through the Vienna Congress, at present the districts of the Upper Palatinate, Lower and Upper Bavaria) speaking Austro-Bavarian. In Munich, the Old Bavarian dialect was widely spread, but nowadays High German is predominantly spoken there. Coat of arms[edit] Main article: Coat of arms of Bavaria

Bavarian herald Joerg Rugenn wearing a tabard of the arms around 1510

The modern coat of arms of Bavaria
was designed by Eduard Ege in 1946, following heraldic traditions.

The Golden Lion: At the dexter chief, sable, a lion rampant Or, armed and langued gules. This represents the administrative region of Upper Palatinate. The "Franconian Rake": At the sinister chief, per fess dancetty, gules and argent. This represents the administrative regions of Upper, Middle and Lower Franconia. The Blue "Pantier" (mythical creature from French heraldry, sporting a flame instead of a tongue): At the dexter base, argent, a Pantier rampant azure, armed Or and langued gules. This represents the regions of Lower and Upper Bavaria. The Three Lions: At the sinister base, Or, three lions passant guardant sable, armed and langued gules. This represents Swabia. The White-And-Blue inescutcheon: The inescutcheon of white and blue fusils askance was originally the coat of arms of the Counts of Bogen, adopted in 1247 by the House of Wittelsbach. The white-and-blue fusils are indisputably the emblem of Bavaria
and these arms today symbolize Bavaria
as a whole. Along with the People's Crown, it is officially used as the Minor Coat of Arms. The People's Crown (Volkskrone): The coat of arms is surmounted by a crown with a golden band inset with precious stones and decorated with five ornamental leaves. This crown first appeared in the coat of arms to symbolize sovereignty of the people after the royal crown was eschewed in 1923.


Bavarian Alps

shares international borders with Austria
(Salzburg, Tyrol, Upper Austria
and Vorarlberg) and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(Karlovy Vary, Plzeň and South Bohemian Regions), as well as with Switzerland (across Lake Constance
Lake Constance
to the Canton of St. Gallen). Because all of these countries are part of the Schengen Area, the border is completely open. Neighbouring states within Germany
are Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, Thuringia, and Saxony. Two major rivers flow through the state: the Danube
(Donau) and the Main. The Bavarian Alps
define the border with Austria
(including the Austrian federal-states of Vorarlberg, Tyrol and Salzburg), and within the range is the highest peak in Germany: the Zugspitze. The Bavarian Forest and the Bohemian Forest
Bohemian Forest
form the vast majority of the frontier with the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Bohemia. The major cities in Bavaria
are Munich
(München), Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Augsburg, Regensburg, Würzburg, Ingolstadt, Fürth, and Erlangen. The geographic centre of the European Union is located in the north-western corner of Bavaria. Administrative divisions[edit]

Administrative districts (Regierungsbezirke and Bezirke) of Bavaria

is divided into 7 administrative districts called Regierungsbezirke (singular Regierungsbezirk). Administrative districts[edit]


Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
(German: Oberpfalz) Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria
(Oberbayern) Lower Bavaria
Lower Bavaria


Upper Franconia
(Oberfranken) Middle Franconia
(Mittelfranken) Lower Franconia



Population and area[edit]

Administrative region Capital Population (2011) Area (km2) No. municipalities

Lower Bavaria Landshut 1,192,641 9.48% 10,330 14.6% 258 12.5%

Lower Franconia Würzburg 1,315,882 10.46% 8,531 12.1% 308 15.0%

Upper Franconia Bayreuth 1,067,988 8.49% 7,231 10.2% 214 10.4%

Middle Franconia Ansbach 1,717,670 13.65% 7,245 10.3% 210 10.2%

Upper Palatinate Regensburg 1,081,800 8.60% 9,691 13.7% 226 11.0%

Swabia Augsburg 1,788,729 14.21% 9,992 14.2% 340 16.5%

Upper Bavaria Munich 4,418,828 35.12% 17,530 24.8% 500 24.3%


12,583,538 100.0% 70,549 100.0% 2,056 100.0%

Districts[edit] Bezirke (districts) are the third communal layer in Bavaria; the others are the Landkreise and the Gemeinden or Städte. The Bezirke in Bavaria
are territorially identical with the Regierungsbezirke, but are a different form of administration, having their own parliaments. In the other larger states of Germany, there are Regierungsbezirke which are only administrative divisions and not self-governing entities as the Bezirke in Bavaria. Cities[edit]

Map of the Landkreise of Bavaria

A fourth communal layer exists out of 71 administrative districts (called Landkreise, singular Landkreis; English: rural districts) and 25 independent cities (Kreisfreie Städte, singular Kreisfreie Stadt; English: urban districts) that are comparable to counties (only that there is no distinction between "Ceremonial" and "Administrative" and all have the same administrative responsibilities). Rural districts:

Aichach-Friedberg Altötting Amberg-Sulzbach Ansbach Aschaffenburg Augsburg Bad Kissingen Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen Bamberg Bayreuth Berchtesgadener Land Cham Coburg Dachau Deggendorf Dillingen Dingolfing-Landau Donau-Ries Ebersberg Eichstätt Erding Erlangen-Höchstadt Forchheim Freising Freyung-Grafenau Fürstenfeldbruck Fürth Garmisch-Partenkirchen Günzburg Hassberge Hof Kelheim Kitzingen Kronach Kulmbach

Landsberg Landshut Lichtenfels Lindau Main-Spessart Miesbach Miltenberg Mühldorf München (Landkreis München) Neuburg-Schrobenhausen Neumarkt Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim Neustadt (Waldnaab) Neu-Ulm Nürnberger Land Oberallgäu Ostallgäu Passau Pfaffenhofen Regen Regensburg Rhön-Grabfeld Rosenheim Roth Rottal-Inn Schwandorf Schweinfurt Starnberg Straubing-Bogen Tirschenreuth Traunstein Unterallgäu Weilheim-Schongau Weissenburg-Gunzenhausen Wunsiedel Würzburg

Urban districts:

Amberg Ansbach Aschaffenburg Augsburg Bamberg Bayreuth Coburg Erlangen Fürth Hof Ingolstadt Kaufbeuren Kempten

Landshut Memmingen Munich
(München) Nuremberg
(Nürnberg) Passau Regensburg Rosenheim Schwabach Schweinfurt Straubing Weiden Würzburg

Municipalities[edit] The 71 administrative districts are on the lowest level divided into 2,031 regular municipalities (called Gemeinden, singular Gemeinde). Together with the 25 independent cities (kreisfreie Städte, which are in effect municipalities independent of Landkreis administrations), there are a total of 2,056 municipalities in Bavaria. In 44 of the 71 administrative districts, there are a total of 215 unincorporated areas (as of 1 January 2005, called gemeindefreie Gebiete, singular gemeindefreies Gebiet), not belonging to any municipality, all uninhabited, mostly forested areas, but also four lakes (Chiemsee-without islands, Starnberger See-without island Roseninsel, Ammersee, which are the three largest lakes of Bavaria, and Waginger See). Major cities[edit]

City Region Inhabitants (2000) Inhabitants (2005) Inhabitants (2010) Inhabitants (2015) Change (%)

Munich Upper Bavaria 1,210,223 1,259,677 1,353,186 1,450,381 +11.81

Nuremberg Middle Franconia 488,400 499,237 505,664 509,975 +3.53

Augsburg Swabia 254,982 262,676 264,708 286,374 +3.81

Regensburg Upper Palatinate 125,676 129,859 135,520 145,465 +7.83

Ingolstadt Upper Bavaria 115,722 121,314 125,088 132,438 +8.09

Würzburg Lower Franconia 127,966 133,906 133,799 124,873 +4.56

Fürth Middle Franconia 110,477 113,422 114,628 124,171 +3.76

Erlangen Middle Franconia 100,778 103,197 105,629 108,336 +4.81

Bayreuth Upper Franconia 74,153 73,997 72,683 72,148 −1.98

Bamberg Upper Franconia 69,036 70,081 70,004 73,331 +1.40

Aschaffenburg Lower Franconia 67,592 68,642 68,678 68,986 +1.61

Landshut Lower Bavaria 58,746 61,368 63,258 69,211 +7.68

(Allgäu) Swabia 61,389 61,360 62,060 66,947 +1.09

Rosenheim Upper Bavaria 58,908 60,226 61,299 61,844 +4.06

Neu-Ulm Swabia 50,188 51,410 53,504 57,237 +6.61

Schweinfurt Lower Franconia 54,325 54,273 53,415 51,969 −1.68

Passau Lower Bavaria 50,536 50,651 50,594 50,566 +0.11

Freising Upper Bavaria 40,890 42,854 45,223 46,963 +10.60

Straubing Lower Bavaria 44,014 44,633 44,450 46,806 +0.99

Dachau Upper Bavaria 38,398 39,922 42,954 46,705 +11.87

Source: Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung[21][22] See also: List of places in Bavaria Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Bavaria Bavaria
has a multi-party system dominated by the conservative Christian Social Union (CSU), which has won every election since 1945, and the center-left Social Democrats (SPD) . Thus far Wilhelm Hoegner has been the only SPD candidate to ever become Minister-President; notable successors in office include multi-term Federal Minister Franz Josef Strauss, a key figure among West German
West German
conservatives during the Cold War
Cold War
years, and Edmund Stoiber, who both failed with their bids for Chancellorship. The German Greens and the center-right Free Voters have been represented in the state parliament since 1986 and 2008 respectively. In the 2003 elections the CSU won a ⅔ supermajority – something no party had ever achieved in post-war Germany. However, in the subsequent 2008 elections the CSU lost the absolute majority for the first time in 46 years.[23] The losses were partly attributed to the CSU's stance against an anti-smoking bill. (First anti-smoking referendum was passed but subverted, so a second referendum enforced it with a larger majority). The last state elections were held on 15 September 2013; the CSU won an absolute majority in the state parliament[24] in spite of bad press surrounding a cronyism affair.[25] The CSU's former coalition partner Free Democrats (FDP) failed to gain caucus recognition amidst a downward trend for the party in all of Germany. The 17th parliamentary term comprises 180 mandates of which the CSU won 101, the SPD 42, the Free Voters 19 and the Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens
18.[26] Government[edit] The Constitution of Bavaria
Constitution of Bavaria
of the Free State of Bavaria
was enacted on 8 December 1946. The new Bavarian Constitution became the basis for the Bavarian State after the Second World War. Bavaria
has a unicameral Landtag (English: State Parliament), elected by universal suffrage. Until December 1999, there was also a Senat, or Senate, whose members were chosen by social and economic groups in Bavaria, but following a referendum in 1998, this institution was abolished. The Bavarian State Government consists of the Minister-President of Bavaria, 11 Ministers and 6 Secretaries of State. The Minister-President is elected for a period of five years by the State Parliament and is head of state. With the approval of the State Parliament he appoints the members of the State Government. The State Government is composed of the:

Ministry of the Interior, Building and Transport (Staatsministerium des Innern, für Bau und Verkehr) Ministry of Education and Culture, Science and Art (Staatsministerium für Bildung und Kultus, Wissenschaft und Kunst) Ministry of Finance, for Rural Development and Homeland (Staatsministerium der Finanzen, für Landesentwicklung und Heimat) Ministry of Economic Affairs and Media, Energy and Technology (Staatsministerium für Wirtschaft und Medien, Energie und Technologie) Ministry of Environment and Consumer Protection (Staatsministerium für Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz) Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Family and Integration (Staatsministerium für Arbeit und Soziales, Familie und Integration) Ministry of Justice (Staatsministerium der Justiz) Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry (Staatsministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten) Ministry of Public Health and Care Services (Staatsministerium für Gesundheit und Pflege)

Political processes also take place in the 7 regions (Regierungsbezirke or Bezirke) in Bavaria, in the 71 administrative districts (Landkreise) and the 25 towns and cities forming their own districts (kreisfreie Städte), and in the 2,031 local authorities (Gemeinden). In 1995 Bavaria
introduced direct democracy on the local level in a referendum. This was initiated bottom-up by an association called Mehr Demokratie (English: More Democracy). This is a grass-roots organization which campaigns for the right to citizen-initiated referendums. In 1997 the Bavarian Supreme Court aggravated the regulations considerably (including by introducing a turn-out quorum). Nevertheless, Bavaria
has the most advanced regulations on local direct democracy in Germany. This has led to a spirited citizens' participation in communal and municipal affairs—835 referenda took place from 1995 through 2005. Minister-presidents of Bavaria
since 1945[edit]

See also: List of Ministers-President of Bavaria.

Current Minister-President of Bavaria
Minister-President of Bavaria
Markus Söder

Ministers-President of Bavaria

No. Name Born and died Party affiliation Begin of tenure End of tenure

1 Fritz Schäffer 1888–1967 CSU 1945 1945

2 Wilhelm Hoegner 1887–1980 SPD 1945 1946

3 Hans Ehard 1887–1980 CSU 1946 1954

4 Wilhelm Hoegner 1887–1980 SPD 1954 1957

5 Hanns Seidel 1901–1961 CSU 1957 1960

6 Hans Ehard 1887–1980 CSU 1960 1962

7 Alfons Goppel 1905–1991 CSU 1962 1978

8 Franz Josef Strauß 1915–1988 CSU 1978 1988

9 Max Streibl 1932–1998 CSU 1988 1993

10 Edmund Stoiber *1941 CSU 1993 2007

11 Günther Beckstein *1943 CSU 2007 2008

12 Horst Seehofer *1949 CSU 2008 2018

13 Markus Söder *1967 CSU 2018 Incumbent

Designation as a "free state"[edit] Unlike most German states (Länder), which simply designate themselves as "State of" (Land [...]), Bavaria
uses the style of "Free State of Bavaria" (Freistaat Bayern). The difference from other states is purely terminological, as German constitutional law does not draw a distinction between "States" and "Free States". The situation is thus analogous to the United States, where some states use the style "Commonwealth" rather than "State". The choice of "Free State", a creation of the early 20th century and intended to be a German alternative to (or translation of) the Latin-derived "republic", has historical reasons, Bavaria
having been styled that way even before the current 1946 Constitution was enacted (in 1918 after the de facto abdication of Ludwig III). Two other states, Saxony
and Thuringia, also use the style "Free State"; unlike Bavaria, however, these were not part of the original states when the Grundgesetz
was enacted but joined the federation later on, in 1990, as a result of German reunification. Saxony
had used the designation as "Free State" from 1918 to 1952. Arbitrary arrest and human rights[edit] In July 2017, Bavaria's parliament enacted a new revision of the "Gefährdergesetz", allowing the authorities to imprison a person for a three months term, renewable indefinitely, when he or she has not committed a crime but it is assumed that he or she might commit a crime "in the near future".[27] Critics like the prominent journalist Heribert Prantl
Heribert Prantl
have called the law "shameful" and compared it to Guantanamo Bay detention camp,[28] assessed it to be in violation of the European Convention on Human Rights,[29] and also compared it to the legal situation in Russia, where a similar law allows for imprisonment for a maximum term of two years (i.e., not indefinitely)[30] Economy[edit]

BMW Welt
BMW Welt
and BMW Headquarters
BMW Headquarters
in Munich

has long had one of the largest economies of any region in Germany, or Europe for that matter.[31] Its GDP in 2007 exceeded €434 billion (about U.S. $600 billion).[32] This makes Bavaria itself one of the largest economies in Europe and only 20 countries in the world have a higher GDP.[33] Some large companies headquartered in Bavaria
include BMW, Siemens, Rohde & Schwarz, Audi, Munich
Re, Allianz, Infineon, MAN, Wacker Chemie, Puma, Adidas, and Ruf. Bavaria has a GDP per capita of over U.S. $48,000. Meaning that if it were its own independent country it would rank 7th or 8th in the world. Bavaria has strong economical ties with Austria, the Czech Republic, Switzerland, and Northern Italy
[34]. Company names[edit] The motorcycle and automobile makers BMW
Bayerische Motoren-Werke, or Bavarian Motor Works in English, Audi, Allianz, Grundig
(consumer electronics), Siemens
(electricity, telephones, informatics, medical instruments), Amazon, Weltbild (trade) Patrizia Immobilien
Patrizia Immobilien
(real estate management) Continental (Automotive Tire and Electronics), Nintendo, Adidas, Puma, HypoVereinsbank (UniCredit Group), Infineon, Krauss-Maffei
Wegmann, MAN Diesel & Turbo, KUKA, OSRAM
and Ruf have (or had) a Bavarian industrial base. Demographics[edit] The population of Bavaria
is 12,930,751 (2016). Foreign population:

Rank Nationality Population (2016)[35]

1 former Yugoslavia 246,165

2  Turkey 197,025

3  Romania 134,910

4  Poland 109,425

5  Italy 99,875

6  Greece 98,500

7  Austria 85,805

Vital statistics[edit] [36]

Births 2015 = 118,257 Births 2016 = 125,704

Deaths 2015 = 133,539 Deaths 2016 = 129,581

Natural growth 2015 = -15,282 Natural growth 2016 = -3,877

Culture[edit] Some features of the Bavarian culture and mentality are remarkably distinct from the rest of Germany. Noteworthy differences (especially in rural areas, less significant in the major cities) can be found with respect to religion, traditions and language. Religion[edit]

Religion in Bavaria
– 2014





EKD Protestants




Other or none


A Catholic church near Füssen
with the Alps
in the background

Bavarian culture (Altbayern) has a long and predominant tradition of Catholic faith. Pope emeritus Benedict XVI (Joseph Alois Ratzinger) was born in Marktl am Inn
Marktl am Inn
in Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria
and was Cardinal-Archbishop of Munich
and Freising. Otherwise, the culturally Franconian and Swabian regions of the modern State of Bavaria
are historically more diverse in religiosity, with both Catholic and Protestant
traditions. In 1925, 70.0% of the Bavarian population was Catholic, 28.8% was Protestant, 0.7% was Jewish, and 0.5% was placed in other religious categories.[37] As of 2014[update] 52.1% of Bavarians adhered to Catholicism but the number is on the decline (they were 70.4% in 1970, 56.3% in 2007).[38][39] 19.5% of the population adheres to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria, and their number is declining too.[38][39] Muslims make up 4.0% of the population of Bavaria. 24% of Bavarians are irreligious or adhere to other religions, and this number is increasing. Traditions[edit]

Second official flag of Bavaria

Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht
are worn on special occasions and include in Altbayern
for males and Dirndl
for females. Centuries-old folk music is performed. The Maibaum, or Maypole (which in the Middle Ages served as the community's yellow pages, as figurettes on the pole represent the trades of the village), and the bagpipes in the Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
region bear witness to the ancient Celtic and Germanic remnants of cultural heritage of the region. There are a lot of traditional Bavarian sports disciplines, e.g. the Aperschnalzen
is an old tradition of competitive whipcracking. Whether actually in Bavaria, overseas or full of citizens from other nations they continue to cultivate their traditions. They hold festivals and dances to keep their traditions alive. In New York City the German American Cultural Society is a larger umbrella group for others such as the Bavarian organizations, which represent a specific part of Germany. They proudly put forth a German Parade called Steuben Parade each year. Various affiliated events take place amongst its groups, one of which is the Bavarian Dancers. Food and drink[edit] Bavarians tend to place a great value on food and drink. In addition to their renowned dishes, Bavarians also consume many items of food and drink which are unusual elsewhere in Germany; for example Weißwurst
("white sausage") or in some instances a variety of entrails. At folk festivals and in many beer gardens, beer is traditionally served by the litre (in a Maß). Bavarians are particularly proud of the traditional Reinheitsgebot, or purity law, initially established by the Duke of Bavaria
Duke of Bavaria
for the City of Munich (e.g. the court) in 1487 and the duchy in 1516. According to this law, only three ingredients were allowed in beer: water, barley, and hops. In 1906 the Reinheitsgebot
made its way to all-German law, and remained a law in Germany
until the EU partly struck it down recently as incompatible with the European common market. German breweries, however, cling to the principle, and Bavarian breweries still comply with it in order to distinguish their beer blend.[40] Bavarians are also known as some of the world's most beer-loving people with an average annual consumption of 170 litres per person, although figures have been declining in recent years. Bavaria
is also home to the Franconia
wine region, which is situated along the Main River
Main River
in Franconia. The region has produced wine (Frankenwein) for over 1,000 years and is famous for its use of the Bocksbeutel
wine bottle. The production of wine forms an integral part of the regional culture, and many of its villages and cities hold their own wine festivals (Weinfeste) throughout the year. Language and dialects[edit]

Upper German, southern counterpart to Central German, both forming the High German Languages. Blue are the Austro-Bavarian

Mainly three German dialects are spoken in Bavaria: Austro-Bavarian
in Old Bavaria
(South-East and East), Swabian German
Swabian German
(an Alemannic German dialect) in the Bavarian part of Swabia
(South West) and East Franconian German in Franconia
(North). In the small town Ludwigsstadt in the north, district Kronach
in Upper Franconia, Thuringian dialect is spoken. In the 20th century an increasing part of the population began to speak Standard German, mainly in the cities. Ethnography[edit] Bavarians consider themselves to be egalitarian and informal.[citation needed] Their sociability can be experienced at the annual Oktoberfest, the world's largest beer festival, which welcomes around six million visitors every year, or in the famous beer gardens. In traditional Bavarian beer gardens, patrons may bring their own food but buy beer only from the brewery that runs the beer garden.[41] In the United States, particularly among German Americans, Bavarian culture is viewed somewhat nostalgically, and several "Bavarian villages" have been founded, most notably Frankenmuth, Michigan; Helen, Georgia; and Leavenworth, Washington. Since 1962, the latter has been styled with a Bavarian theme and is home to an Oktoberfest celebration it claims is among the most attended in the world outside of Munich.[42] Sports[edit] Football[edit]

The Allianz
Arena, one of the world's most famous football stadiums

is home to several football clubs including FC Bayern Munich, 1. FC Nürnberg, FC Augsburg, TSV 1860 Munich, FC Ingolstadt
04 and SpVgg Greuther Fürth. Bayern Munich
is the most popular and successful football team in Germany
having won a record 27 German titles. They are followed by 1. FC Nürnberg
1. FC Nürnberg
who have won 9 titles. SpVgg Greuther Fürth
have won 3 championships while TSV 1860 Munich have been champions once. FC Bayern won the German championship 27 times (record) and the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
5 times. Historical buildings[edit]

Johannisburg Castle in Aschaffenburg


Fortress Marienberg
Fortress Marienberg
and the Alte Mainbrücke in Würzburg

Castle in Kulmbach

Cathedral in Bamberg

Basilica of the Vierzehnheiligen

Veste Coburg
Veste Coburg
in Coburg

Festspielhaus of Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
in Bayreuth

Imperial Castle in Nuremberg

Kastell Biriciana, Weissenburg close to the Limes

Kreuztor in Ingolstadt

Castle of Neuburg an der Donau

Old Stone Bridge and Cathedral of Regensburg

Walhalla temple
Walhalla temple
in Donaustauf near Regensburg

in Kelheim

Cathedral and Oberhaus fortification in Passau

Trausnitz Castle, Landshut

Burghausen Castle

Townhall in Augsburg

Frauenkirche in Munich

Residenz in Munich

Nymphenburg Palace
Nymphenburg Palace
in Munich

Cathedral in Freising



Hohenschwangau Castle


Wieskirche, Steingaden

Church of St. Bartholomew at the Königssee

Bavarians[edit] Many famous people have been born or lived in present-day Bavaria:

Kings: Arnulf of Carinthia, Carloman of Bavaria, Charles the FatLothair I, Louis the Child, Louis the German, Louis the Younger, Ludwig I of Bavaria, Ludwig II of Bavaria, Ludwig III of Bavaria, Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, Maximilian II of Bavaria, Otto of Bavaria Religious leaders: Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
(Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger); Pope Damasus II, Pope Victor II. Painters: Hans Holbein the Elder, Albrecht Dürer, Albrecht Altdorfer, Lucas Cranach, Carl Spitzweg, Franz von Lenbach, Franz von Stuck, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, Erwin Eisch, Gabriele Münter. Classical musicians Orlando di Lasso, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Leopold Mozart, Max Reger, Richard Wagner, Richard Strauss, Carl Orff, Johann Pachelbel, Theobald Boehm, Klaus Nomi. Other musicians Hans-Jürgen Buchner, Barbara Dennerlein, Klaus Doldinger, Bands: Spider Murphy Gang, Sportfreunde Stiller, Obscura, Michael Bredl Opera singers Jonas Kaufmann, Diana Damrau. Writers, poets and playwrights Hans Sachs, Jean Paul, Friedrich Rückert, August von Platen-Hallermünde, Frank Wedekind, Christian Morgenstern, Oskar Maria Graf, Bertolt Brecht, Lion Feuchtwanger, Thomas Mann, Klaus Mann, Golo Mann, Ludwig Thoma, Michael Ende, Ludwig Aurbacher. Scientists Max Planck, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Werner Heisenberg, Adam Ries, Joseph von Fraunhofer, Georg Ohm, Johannes Stark, Carl von Linde, Ludwig Prandtl, Rudolf Mössbauer, Lothar Rohde, Hermann Schwarz, Robert Huber, Martin Behaim, Levi Strauss, Rudolf Diesel. Physicians Max Joseph von Pettenkofer, Sebastian Kneipp, Alois Alzheimer. Politicians Horst Seehofer, Christian Ude, Kurt Eisner, Franz-Josef Strauß, Roman Herzog, Leonard John Rose, Henry Kissinger Football players Max Morlock, Karl Mai, Franz Beckenbauer, Sepp Maier, Gerd Müller, Paul Breitner, Bernd Schuster, Klaus Augenthaler, Lothar Matthäus, Philipp Lahm, Bastian Schweinsteiger, Holger Badstuber, Thomas Müller, Mario Götze, Dietmar Hamann, Stefan Reuter Other sportspeople Bernhard Langer, Dirk Nowitzki Actors Werner Stocker, Helmut Fischer, Walter Sedlmayr, Gustl Bayrhammer, Ottfried Fischer, Ruth Drexel, Elmar Wepper, Fritz Wepper, Uschi Glas, Yank Azman. Entertainers Siegfried Fischbacher Film directors Helmut Dietl, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Bernd Eichinger, Joseph Vilsmaier, Hans Steinhoff and Werner Herzog. Designers Peter Schreyer, Damir Doma Entrepreneurs Charles Diebold, Levi Strauss Military Claus von Stauffenberg Prominent Nazis: Sepp Dietrich, Karl Fiehler, Karl Gebhardt, Hermann Göring, Heinrich Himmler, Alfred Jodl, Josef Kollmer, Joseph Mengele, Ernst Röhm, Franz Ritter von Epp, Julius Streicher Others: Kaspar Hauser, The Smith of Kochel, Mathias Kneißl, Matthias Klostermayr

See also[edit]

Geography portal Europe portal European Union portal Germany
portal Bavaria

Outline of Germany List of rulers of Bavaria List of Premiers of Bavaria Former countries in Europe after 1815


^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). January 2018.  ^ " Bavaria
More than fairy tale castles" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-10-20.  ^ "State population". Portal of the Federal Statistics Office Germany. November 2012. Archived from the original on 28 April 2004. Retrieved 2016-12-09.  ^ Planet, Lonely. " Bavaria
– Lonely Planet". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 2015-08-31.  ^ Unknown, Unknown. "Bavaria". Britannica. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ Local, The. " Bavaria
– The Local". The Local. Retrieved 2015-08-31.  ^ Campbell, Eric. " Germany
– A Bavarian Fairy Tale". ABC. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ Dovid Solomon Ganz, Tzemach Dovid (3rd edition), part 2, Warsaw 1878, pp. 71, 85 (available online Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ) ^ Brown, Warren (2001). Unjust Seizure (1st ed.). p. 63. ISBN 9780801437908. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ Unknown, Unknown. "History of Bavaria". Guide to Bavaria. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ Frassetto, Michael (2013). The Early Medieval World: From the Fall of Rome to the Time of Charlemagne
[2 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 145. ISBN 978-1598849967.  ^ Collins, Roger (2010). Early Medieval Europe, 300–1000. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 273. ISBN 978-1137014283.  ^ Harrington, Joel F. (1995). Reordering Marriage and Society in Reformation Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0521464833.  ^ Hanson, Paul R. (2015). Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0810878921.  ^ Sheehan, James J. (1993). German History, 1770–1866. Clarendon Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0198204329.  ^ James Minahan (2000). One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 106–. ISBN 978-0-313-30984-7.  ^ William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, New York, NY, Simon & Schuster, 2011, p. 33 ^ Karacs, Imre (13 July 1996). " Bavaria
buries the royal dream Funeral of Prince Albrechty". The Independent.  ^ Bavaria
Guide Archived 4 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2013-07-16. ^ Lunau, Kate. (25 June 2009) "No more Bavarian separatism – World",, 25 June 2009, Retrieved on 2013-07-16. ^ Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik, München 2015 (30 August 2015). "Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik – GENESIS-Online Bayern".  ^ Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik, München 2017 (23 April 2017). "Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik – GENESIS-Online Bayern".  ^ n-tv:Fiasko für die CSU Archived 29 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Landtagswahl 2013 – Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung".  ^ "CSU: Debatte um Familien-Mitarbeiter im Landtag". Sü  ^ "Wahlen und Statistiken – Bayerischer Landtag".  ^ Gefährder-Gesetz verschärft, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 19 July 2017 ^ Bayern führt Unendlichkeitshaft ein, Heribert Prantl, 20 July 2017 ^ Reisewarnung für Bayern, Udo Vetter, 20 July 2017 ^ Erinnert ihr euch noch daran, als Bayern als Rechtsstaat galt?, Felix von Leitner, 20 July 2017 ^ Its GDP is 143% of the EU average (as of 2005[update]) against a German average of 121.5%, see Eurostat[permanent dead link] ^ Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg. "Gemeinsames Datenangebot der Statistischen Ämter des Bundes und der Länder".  ^ See the list of countries by GDP. ^ ^ German Statistical Office ^ "Statistik Portal". Statische Ämter. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ Grundriss der Statistik. II. Gesellschaftsstatistik by Wilhelm Winkler, p. 36 ^ a b Bayerischer Rundfunk. "Massive Kirchenaustritte: Das Ende der Kirche wie wir sie kennen – Religion – Themen –". Archived from the original on 22 July 2015.  ^ a b "Kirchenmitgliederzahlen am 31. Dezember 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-03-10.  ^ Bayerischer Rundfunk. "To Bier or not to Bier? vom 22.10.2015: Das Reinheitsgebot
und seine Tücken – BR Mediathek VIDEO". Archived from the original on 27 October 2015.  ^ Königlicher Hirschgarten. "Ein paar Worte zu unserem Biergarten in München ... (in German)".  ^ "Leavenworth Washington Hotels, Lodging, Festivals & Events". Visit Leavenworth Washington, USA. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bavaria.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bavaria.

Official government website Official website of Bayern Tourismus Marketing GmbH Foreign Trade statistics Geographic data related to Bavaria
at OpenStreetMap

Links to related articles

v t e

Swabian League
Swabian League
(1488–1534) of the  Holy Roman Empire

Imperial cities

Aalen Augsburg Biberach Bopfingen Dinkelsbühl Donauwörth Esslingen Giengen Heilbronn Isny Kaufbeuren Kempten Leutkirch Lindau Memmingen Nördlingen Pfullendorf Ravensburg Reutlingen Schwäbisch Gmünd Schwäbisch Hall Überlingen Ulm Wangen Weil Wimpfen


St George's Shield (Gesellschaft von Sanktjörgenschild)


Brandenburg-Ansbach Baden Bavaria Bayreuth Palatinate Hesse Mainz Trier Württemberg

v t e

Bavarian Circle
Bavarian Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire


Berchtesgaden Freising Niedermünster Obermünster Passau Regensburg Salzburg St. Emmeram


Bavaria Breitenegg Ehrenfels Haag Hohenwaldeck Leuchtenberg Neuburg Ortenburg Regensburg Störnstein Sulzbach Sulzbürg-Pyrbaum

Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

Electors of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from 1356 to 1806


Spiritual Mainz Trier Cologne

Secular Bohemia Palatine Saxony Brandenburg

Added in the 17th century Bavaria
(1623) Brunswick-Lüneburg (1692)

Added in the 19th century Regensburg Salzburg (1803–1805) Würzburg
(1805–1806) Württemberg Baden Hesse

v t e

States of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine

Rank elevated by Napoleon


Bavaria Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse



States created



Grand Duchies

Berg Frankfurt1 Würzburg


Aschaffenburg2 Leyen Regensburg2

Pre-existing states

Saxon duchies

Coburg-Saalfeld Gotha-Altenburg Hildburghausen Meiningen Weimar3 Eisenach3 Weimar-Eisenach4

Other duchies

Anhalt (Bernburg Dessau Köthen) Arenberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg



Hechingen Sigmaringen

Isenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Reuss

Ebersdorf Greiz Lobenstein Schleiz

Salm5 Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen


1 from 1810 2 until 1810 3 until 1809 4 from 1809 5 until 1811

v t e

States of the German Confederation
German Confederation




Prussia1 Bavaria Saxony Hanover Württemberg



Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse-Darmstadt Luxembourg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach



Bernburg2 Dessau2 Köthen3

Brunswick Holstein Limburg4 Nassau Saxe-Lauenburg Ernest

Altenburg5 Coburg-Saalfeld6 Coburg-Gotha5 Gotha-Altenburg6 Hildburghausen6 Meiningen


Hesse-Homburg Hohenzollern

Hechingen7 Sigmaringen7

Liechtenstein Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck and Pyrmont


Bremen Frankfurt Hamburg Lübeck

1 w/o areas listed under other territories 2 Merged with Anhalt from 1863 3 until 1847 4 from 1839 5 from 1826 6 until 1826 7 until 1850 8 1849–60 9 as of 1849 10 until 1837 11 until 1829 12 until 1848/57 13 until 1848 14 as of 1848 15 as of 1829 16 as of 1864

v t e

States of the German Empire
German Empire


Bavaria Prussia Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse-Darmstadt Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach


Anhalt Brunswick Saxe-Altenburg Saxe- Coburg
and Gotha Saxe-Lauenburg
(until 1876) Saxe-Meiningen


Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Waldeck and Pyrmont


Bremen Hamburg Lübeck

Imperial Territories



German colonial empire Mittelafrika Mitteleuropa

v t e

States of the Federal Republic of Germany


(since 1952)    Bavaria
(since 1949)    Brandenburg
(since 1990)    Hesse
(since 1949)   Lower Saxony
(since 1949)    Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
(since 1990)    North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
(since 1949)    Rhineland-Palatinate
(since 1949)    Saarland
(since 1957)    Saxony
(since 1990)    Saxony-Anhalt
(since 1990)   Schleswig- Holstein
(since 1949)    Thuringia
(since 1990)


(since 1990)   Bremen (since 1949)    Hamburg
(since 1949)

Former states

   South Baden
South Baden
(1949–1952)    Württemberg-Baden
(1949–1952)    Württemberg-Hohenzollern

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Bavaria
in Germany

Urban districts

Amberg Ansbach Aschaffenburg Augsburg Bamberg Bayreuth Coburg Erlangen Fürth Hof Ingolstadt Kaufbeuren Kempten Landshut Memmingen München (Munich) Nürnberg (Nuremberg) Passau Regensburg Rosenheim Schwabach Schweinfurt Straubing Weiden Würzburg

Rural districts

Aichach-Friedberg Altötting Amberg-Sulzbach Ansbach Aschaffenburg Augsburg Bad Kissingen Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen Bamberg Bayreuth Berchtesgadener Land Cham Coburg Dachau Deggendorf Dillingen Dingolfing-Landau Donau-Ries Ebersberg Eichstätt Erding Erlangen-Höchstadt Forchheim Freising Freyung-Grafenau Fürstenfeldbruck Fürth Garmisch-Partenkirchen Günzburg Haßberge Hof Kelheim Kitzingen Kronach Kulmbach Landsberg Landshut Lichtenfels Lindau Main-Spessart Miesbach Miltenberg Mühldorf München (Munich) Neuburg-Schrobenhausen Neumarkt Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim Neustadt an der Waldnaab Neu-Ulm Nürnberger Land Oberallgäu Ostallgäu Passau Pfaffenhofen Regen Regensburg Rhön-Grabfeld Rosenheim Roth Rottal-Inn Schwandorf Schweinfurt Starnberg Straubing-Bogen Tirschenreuth Traunstein Unterallgäu Weilheim-Schongau Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen Wunsiedel Würzburg

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125426357 LCCN: n81018373 GND: 4005044-0 BNF: cb119484012 (data) HDS: