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The Barbizon
Barbizon
school of painters were part of an art movement towards Realism in art, which arose in the context of the dominant Romantic Movement of the time. The Barbizon
Barbizon
school was active roughly from 1830 through 1870. It takes its name from the village of Barbizon, France, near the Forest of Fontainebleau, where many of the artists gathered. Some of the most prominent features of this school are its tonal qualities, color, loose brushwork, and softness of form.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Influence in Europe 3 Gallery 4 Related artists 5 See also 6 References 7 Suggested sources 8 External links

History[edit] In 1824 the Salon de Paris exhibited works of John Constable, an English painter. His rural scenes influenced some of the younger artists of the time, moving them to abandon formalism and to draw inspiration directly from nature. Natural scenes became the subjects of their paintings rather than mere backdrops to dramatic events. During the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
artists gathered at Barbizon
Barbizon
to follow Constable's ideas, making nature the subject of their paintings. The French landscape became a major theme of the Barbizon
Barbizon
painters.[2] The leaders of the Barbizon
Barbizon
school were Théodore Rousseau, Jean-François Millet, and Charles-François Daubigny; other members included Jules Dupré, Constant Troyon, Charles Jacque, Narcisse Virgilio Díaz, Pierre Emmanuel Damoye, Charles Olivier de Penne, Henri Harpignies, Paul-Emmanuel Péraire, Gabriel-Hippolyte Lebas, Albert Charpin, Félix Ziem, François-Louis Français, Émile van Marcke, and Alexandre Defaux. Millet extended the idea from landscape to figures — peasant figures, scenes of peasant life, and work in the fields. In The Gleaners (1857), for example, Millet portrays three peasant women working at the harvest. Gleaners are poor people who are permitted to gather the remains after the owners of the field complete the main harvest. The owners (portrayed as wealthy) and their laborers are seen in the back of the painting. Millet shifted the focus and the subject matter from the rich and prominent to those at the bottom of the social ladders. To emphasize their anonymity and marginalized position, he hid their faces. The women's bowed bodies represent their everyday hard work. In the spring of 1829, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot
came to Barbizon
Barbizon
to paint in the Forest of Fontainebleau, he had first painted in the forest at Chailly in 1822. He returned to Barbizon
Barbizon
in the autumn of 1830 and in the summer of 1831, where he made drawings and oil studies, from which he made a painting intended for the Salon of 1830; "View of the Forest of Fontainebleau'" (now in the National Gallery in Washington) and, for the salon of 1831, another "View of the Forest of Fontainebleau"'. While there he met the members of the Barbizon school; Théodore Rousseau, Paul Huet, Constant Troyon, Jean-François Millet, and the young Charles-François Daubigny.[3] During the late 1860s, the Barbizon
Barbizon
painters attracted the attention of a younger generation of French artists studying in Paris. Several of those artists visited Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
Forest to paint the landscape, including Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley
Alfred Sisley
and Frédéric Bazille.[4] In the 1870s those artists, among others, developed the art movement called Impressionism
Impressionism
and practiced plein air painting. Both Théodore Rousseau
Théodore Rousseau
(1867) and Jean-François Millet
Jean-François Millet
(1875) died at Barbizon. Influence in Europe[edit] Painters in other countries were also influenced by this art. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, many artists came to Paris from Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
to study the new movements. For instance, the Hungarian painter János Thorma
János Thorma
studied in Paris as a young man. In 1896 he was one of the founders of the Nagybánya artists' colony in what is now Baia Mare, Romania, which brought impressionism to Hungary. In 2013 the Hungarian National Gallery
Hungarian National Gallery
opens a major retrospective of his work, entitled, ''János Thorma, the Painter of the Hungarian Barbizon, 8 February - 19 May 2013, Hungarian National Gallery[5] Gallery[edit]

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, View of the Forest of Fontainebleau (1830)

Théodore Rousseau, Barbizon
Barbizon
landscape, ca. 1850, Pushkin Museum, Moscow

Charles-François Daubigny
Charles-François Daubigny
Rising Moon in Barbizon, c. 1850s, Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent

Constant Troyon, The Ford, 1852, Louvre

Charles Jacque, The Old Forest, c. 1860s, Brooklyn Museum

Narcisse Virgilio Díaz, Forest of Fontainebleau, 1868, Dallas Museum of Art

Jules Dupré, The Old Oak, c. 1870, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

Henri Harpignies, Landscape with two figures, c. 1870s, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam

Related artists[edit]

Karl Bodmer Eugène Boudin Hippolyte Boulenger Gustave Courbet Antonio Fontanesi Nicolae Grigorescu Winckworth Allan Gay H. I. Marlatt Adolphe Joseph Thomas Monticelli

See also[edit]

American Barbizon
Barbizon
school Art colony Naturalism (art) landscape art Macchiaioli

References[edit]

^ Craven, Wayne (1994). American Art: History and Culture. New York: Harry N. Adams, Inc. p. 332.  ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art timeline ^ Pomaréde, Vincent, Le ABCdaire de Corot et le passage français (1996), Flammarion, Paris, (ISBN 2-08-012466-8) ^ Heilbrunn Timeline, Metropolitan Museum of Art ^ János Thorma, the Painter of the Hungarian Barbizon, 8 February - 19 May 2013, Hungarian National Gallery

Suggested sources[edit]

Catalogues des Collections des Musees de France. Ministère de la culture. (Catalogs of Collections of Museums of France. Ministry of Culture.)

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Barbizon
Barbizon
school

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Barbizon.

Media related to Barbizon
Barbizon
School at Wikimedia Commons Hecht Museum Cambridge Art Gallery

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