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The banteng (/ˈbæntɛŋ/) ( Bos
Bos
javanicus), also known as tembadau, is a species of wild cattle found in Southeast Asia. Banteng
Banteng
have been domesticated in several places in Southeast Asia, and there are around 1.5 million domestic banteng, which are called Bali
Bali
cattle. These animals are used as working animals and for their meat.[3] Banteng
Banteng
have also been introduced to Northern Australia, where they have established stable feral populations.[4]

Contents

1 Distribution and subspecies 2 Characteristics 3 Behaviour 4 Status 5 Cloning 6 Hybridization program 7 Banteng
Banteng
in Australia

7.1 Physiology and reproduction in Australia 7.2 Environmental impact in Australia 7.3 Conservation value in Australia

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Distribution and subspecies[edit] These subspecies are recognised:[2]

Javan banteng (B. j. javanicus): Found on Java
Java
and Bali
Bali
in Indonesia, the males are black and females are buff. Bornean banteng (B. j. lowi): From Borneo, they are smaller than Java banteng and the horns are steeper; bulls are chocolate-brown. Burma banteng (B. j. birmanicus): In Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam,and may be in India, but extinct in Bangladesh these males and females are usually buff, but in Cambodia, 20% of the bulls are blackish, and on the Malayan Peninsula
Malayan Peninsula
in Thailand, most of the bulls are black. This subspecies is recognised by the IUCN,[2] but not by Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World, 3rd edition.[1]

Characteristics[edit]

Domesticated
Domesticated
banteng as Bali
Bali
bull with white socks and white rump

Balinese cow with lighter buff color

The banteng is similar in size to domesticated cattle, measuring 1.55 to 1.65 m (5 ft 1 in to 5 ft 5 in) tall at the shoulder and 2.45–3.5 m (8 ft 0 in–11 ft 6 in) in total length, including a tail 60 cm (2.0 ft) long. Body weight can range from 400 to 900 kg (880 to 1,980 lb).[5][6] It exhibits sexual dimorphism, allowing the sexes to be readily distinguished by colour and size. In mature males, the short-haired coat is blue-black or dark chestnut in colour, while in females and young it is chestnut with a dark dorsal stripe. Both males and females have white stockings on their lower legs, a white rump, a white muzzle, and white spots above the eyes. The build is similar to that of domesticated cattle, but with a comparatively slender neck and small head, and a ridge on the back above the shoulders. The horns of females are short and tightly curved, pointing inward at the tips, while those of males arc upwards, growing 60 to 75 cm (24 to 30 in) long, and being connected by a horn-like bald patch on the forehead. Behaviour[edit]

Banteng
Banteng
(cows) in Alas Purwo National Park, Java, Indonesia

Banteng
Banteng
live in sparse forest where they feed on grasses, bamboo, fruit, leaves, and young branches. The banteng is generally active both night and day, but in places where humans are common, they adopt a nocturnal schedule. Banteng
Banteng
tend to gather in herds of two to 30 members. Each herd contains only one adult bull.[7] Mating occurs from May to June, birth from March to April. Cows give birth to one calf after a gestation period of 9.5 month; the calf is weaned at 6 to 9 months. Lifespan is 20 to 26 years in captivity and 16 to 20 years in the wild.[7] Status[edit] The wild banteng is classified as Endangered by the IUCN. The populations on the Asian mainland have decreased by about 80% in the last decades. The total number of wild banteng is estimated to about 5,000-8,000 animals. No population has more than 500 animals, only a few have more than 50. Reasons for the population decline are reduction of habitat, hunting, hybridisation with domesticated cattle, and infections with cattle diseases. The most important stronghold for the species is Java
Java
with the biggest populations in Ujung Kulon National Park and Baluran National Park. The biggest population on the mainland is found in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary
in Thailand. Another larger population lives in Kaeng Krachan. Borneo
Borneo
has still a few hundred bantengs, more than a hundred of which occur in Kulamba Wildlife Reserve in Sabah.[2] Cloning[edit]

Indonesian man feeds his banteng (cows)

The banteng is the second endangered species to be successfully cloned, and the first to survive for more than a week (the first was a gaur that died two days after being born).[8][9] Scientists at Advanced Cell Technology
Advanced Cell Technology
in Worcester, MA, U.S. extracted DNA
DNA
from banteng cells kept in the San Diego Zoo's "Frozen Zoo" facility, and transferred it into eggs from domesticated cattle, a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer. Thirty embryos were created and sent to Trans Ova Genetics, which implanted the fertilized eggs in domestic cattle. Two were carried to term and delivered by Caesarian section.[10] The first was born on 1 April 2003, and the second two days later. The second was euthanized,[11] apparently suffering from large-offspring syndrome, but the first survived and lived for seven years at the San Diego Zoo
San Diego Zoo
Safari Park, where it died in April 2010.[12] Hybridization program[edit] A program to cross-breed domestic and wild banteng began in June 2011, resulting in five pregnancies. This was intended to help improve the quality and productivity of the domesticated breed. The wild bulls were transported from the Baluran National Park
Baluran National Park
in Banyuwangi.[13] Banteng
Banteng
in Australia[edit] The domesticated form of the banteng was first introduced to Australia in 1849 with the establishment of a British military outpost called Port Essington on the Cobourg Peninsula. Twenty animals were taken to the western Arnhem Land, in present-day Northern Territory, as a source of meat. A year after the outpost’s establishment, poor conditions including crop failure and tropical disease led to its abandonment. On the departure of British troops, the banteng were released from their grazing pastures and allowed to form a feral population.[14] By the 1960s, researchers realized that a population of about 1,500 individuals had developed in the tropical forests of the Cobourg Peninsula.[15] Since their introduction in 1849, the population has not strayed far from its initial point of domesticated life; all currently live within the Garig Gunak Barlu National Park.[16] As of 2007, the initial population had grown from only 20 in 1849 to 8,000-10,000[17] and is used exclusively for sport hunting and by Aboriginal subsistence hunters.[18] Physiology and reproduction in Australia[edit] The banteng of the Cobourg Peninsula
Cobourg Peninsula
have developed slightly different life processes than their domesticated counterparts. Growth over lifetime is sexually dimorphic; males grow faster and are larger than females.[19] Furthermore, females reach maximum body mass in three to four years, while males take five to six. Males achieve sexual maturity at three to four years, and females at two to four years. Fecundity declines in older females. Breeding is seasonal; maximum mating occurs during October and November, and most births take place in the winter months of June to August. Calf mortality is high in the first six months of life, and declines quickly thereafter with increasing body size. When compared with domesticated populations, increased food in captive conditions was found to lead to higher fecundity, earlier maturation, and lower juvenile mortality.[19] Environmental impact in Australia[edit] Despite being a non-native species, the feral Australian banteng have adapted to interact positively with native bird populations. Mutual relationships have developed involving the removal of ectoparasites residing on the bovid body by the Torresian crow
Torresian crow
(Corvus orru).[20] This is especially notable because it is the first known relationship where a native bird shares a mutual symbiotic relationship with a non-native wild mammal, and it only needed 150 years to develop. Within the Garig Gunak Barlu National Park, where practically all Australian banteng reside, damage due to overgrazing is limited. They are found primarily within the monsoon forests, but cause little damage, especially when compared with feral pigs.[21] Within the forest, population density was found to be around 70 per km2, close to that on their initial introduction 140 years ago, perhaps because of the possibility that their habitat is a uniquely suitable mosaic of grassland and monsoon forest.[21] Another likely reason for their limited dispersal is the presence of fences along the southern end of the peninsula, installed to manage movement of other feral species such as the water buffalo.[22] Interaction with the habitat is also unclear regarding monsoonal forest succession into grasslands.[23] Within the Garig Gunak Barlu National Park, monsoonal seedlings were found to be encroaching into previously well established grasslands. Grazing by banteng possibly minimises potential dry grass build-up, thus limiting encroachment of seasonal fires (hence postfire grassland) into monsoonal forest areas, and that this may be assisting the spread and germination of monsoonal forest seeds.[23] Conservation value in Australia[edit]

Play media

Video of the Bos
Bos
javanicus at Disney's Animal
Animal
Kingdom

Since Australian banteng are considered an invasive non-native species, some environmental scientists believe that complete removal of the population would allow previously occupied habitat to revert to its pre-1849 state and allow native species to return. However, this is not universally supported, both because of the socio-economic niche the banteng has occupied, and because of its role in helping to recover endangered wild populations in Asia. Small populations in Northern Australia are heavily relied on as a source of income for sport hunting, as well as by aboriginal peoples. Studies revealed that as much as A$200,000 can be made annually from hunting, without damaging population stability.[16] The current population of banteng in Australia has become the center of debate due to its endangered status in its native Asia. Wild banteng are extremely rare in Asia due to loss of suitable habitat. Domesticated
Domesticated
banteng are regularly used in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
as grazers in agricultural settings, but these banteng have varying degrees of introgression from other domesticated Bos
Bos
species. Since a small founder event occurred with only about 20 previously domesticated individuals, a genetic bottleneck has inevitably occurred, causing all current individuals in Australia to lack genetic diversity as a result of inbreeding. This was proven using microsatellites, 12 in all, to determine that their inbreeding coefficient was high, F=0.58.[16] These findings were much higher than the endangered artiodactyl populations in Southeast Asia. Despite the limited genetic pool of this population, conservationists hope that at-risk populations can be preserved. Some have proposed that a deliberate introduction of the endangered populations to the stable but non-native Australian variety would enable viable conservation, though how it would affect Northern Territory
Northern Territory
grazing ranges is unknown.[18] See also[edit]

Stamp with bantengs from the GDR

Bos
Bos
palaesondaicus Wild Asian water buffalo Aurochs

References[edit]

^ a b Grubb, P. (2005). " Bos
Bos
javanicus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 691. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b c d Timmins, R.J.; Duckworth, J.W.; Hedges, S.; Steinmetz, R. & Pattanavibool, A. (2008). " Bos
Bos
javanicus". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2009.  Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of endangered. ^ Friend, J.B. (1978). Cattle
Cattle
of the World, Blandford Press, Dorset. ^ Endangered cattle (Banteng) find pastures new, 5 August 2005, New Scientist ^ Ultimate ungulate page on banteng Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645 ^ a b Saari, J. (2004). " Bos
Bos
javanicus". Animal
Animal
Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 19 May 2017.  ^ Fairfax Digital, Banteng
Banteng
clone leads charge for endangered animals, 9 April 2003. Visited 12 October 2009. ^ World Environment News, Scientists clone endangered Asian banteng, 9 April 2003. Visited 12 October 2009. ^ Advanced Cell Technology, Collaborative Effort Yields Endangered Species Clone Archived 23 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine., 8 April 2003. Visited 12 October 2009. ^ Nature Biotechnology (subscription required) ^ " Animal
Animal
Cloning: The Next Phase". Bloomberg.  ^ " Bali
Bali
cows to meet Java
Java
bulls in East Java". 2 April 2012.  ^ Letts, G. A., and A. W. E. L. Bassingthwaite Vos. (1979). "Feral animals in the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
- Report of the Board of Inquiry". Northern Territory
Northern Territory
Government, Darwin. Taken from Brook B., Bowman D.M.J., Bradshaw C., Campbell B., Whitehead P. (2006) ^ Letts, G. A. (1964). "Feral animals in the Northern Territory". Australian Veterinary Journal Volume 40, issue 3, pp.84–88. Taken From Brook B., Bowman D.M.J., Bradshaw C., Campbell B., Whitehead P. (2006) ^ a b c Bradshaw CJ, Isagi Y, Kaneko S, Brook BW, Bowman DM, Frankham R (July 2007). "Low genetic diversity in the bottlenecked population of endangered non-native banteng in northern Australia". Mol. Ecol. 16 (14): 2998–3008. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03365.x. PMID 17614913.  ^ Bradshaw CJ, Brook BW (2007). "Ecological-economic models of sustainable harvest for an endangered but exotic megaherbivore in northern Australia". Natural Resource Modeling. 20 (1): 129–156. doi:10.1111/j.1939-7445.2007.tb00203.x.  ^ a b Bradshaw CJ, Isagi Y, Kaneko S, Bowman DM, Brook BW (August 2006). "Conservation value of non-native banteng in northern Australia". Conserv. Biol. 20 (4): 1306–11. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00428.x. PMID 16922247.  ^ a b Choquenot D (1993). "Growth, body condition and demography of wild banteng ( Bos
Bos
javanicus) on cobourg peninsula, Northern Australia". Journal of Zoology. 231 (4): 533–542. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1993.tb01936.x.  ^ J. A. Bradshaw; Corey (2006). "Rapid development of cleaning behaviour by Torresian crows Corvus orru on non-native banteng Bos javanicus in northern Australia". Journal of Avian Biology. 37 (4): 409. doi:10.1111/j.2006.0908-8857.03595.x.  ^ a b Bowman DMJS; Panton WJ (1991). "Sign and habitat impact of Banteng
Banteng
( Bos
Bos
javanicus) and pig (Sus scrofa) Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Australia". Australian Journal of Ecology. 16 (1): 15–17. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.1991.tb01477.x.  ^ Brook BW, Bowman DM, Bradshaw CJ, Campbell BM, Whitehead PJ (September 2006). "Managing an endangered Asian bovid in an Australian National Park: the role and limitations of ecological-economic models in decision-making". Environ Manage. 38 (3): 463–9. doi:10.1007/s00267-005-0157-7. PMID 16736298.  ^ a b Bowman, DMJS; Panton, WJ; McDonough, L (1990). "Dynamics of Forest Clumps on Chenier Plains, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory". Australian Journal of Botany. 38 (6): 593. doi:10.1071/BT9900593. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bos
Bos
javanicus.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Banteng

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bantin.

Banteng
Banteng
bos javanicus d'Alton from wildcattleconservation.org ARKive
ARKive
- images and movies of the Banteng
Banteng
( Bos
Bos
javanicus) Banteng
Banteng
thrive on Cobourg Peninsula
Cobourg Peninsula
from CDU Homepage Catalyst Article on Bantengs U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Species Profile

v t e

Extant Artiodactyla species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Ruminantia

Antilocapridae

Antilocapra

Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

Giraffidae

Okapia

Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

Giraffa

Northern giraffe
Northern giraffe
(G. camelopardalis) Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) Reticulated giraffe
Reticulated giraffe
(G. reticulata) Masai giraffe
Masai giraffe
(G. tippelskirchi)

Moschidae

Moschus

Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer
(M. anhuiensis) Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer
(M. berezovskii) Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer
(M. cupreus) Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

Tragulidae

Hyemoschus

Water chevrotain
Water chevrotain
(H. aquaticus)

Moschiola

Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain
(M. indica) Yellow-striped chevrotain
Yellow-striped chevrotain
(M. kathygre) Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
(M. meminna)

Tragulus

Java
Java
mouse-deer (T. javanicus) Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) Vietnam
Vietnam
mouse-deer (T. versicolor) Williamson's mouse-deer
Williamson's mouse-deer
(T. williamsoni)

Cervidae

Large family listed below

Bovidae

Large family listed below

Family Cervidae

Cervinae

Muntiacus

Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. muntjak) Reeves's muntjac
Reeves's muntjac
(M. reevesi) Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) Fea's muntjac
Fea's muntjac
(M. feae) Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac
(M. atherodes) Roosevelt's muntjac
Roosevelt's muntjac
(M. rooseveltorum) Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac
(M. truongsonensis) Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) Sumatran muntjac
Sumatran muntjac
(M. montanus) Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis)

Elaphodus

Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

Dama

Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer
(D. mesopotamica)

Axis

Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

Rucervus

Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

Panolia

Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. eldii)

Elaphurus

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
(E. davidianus)

Hyelaphus

Hog deer (H. porcinus) Calamian deer
Calamian deer
(H. calamianensis) Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii)

Rusa

Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) Rusa deer (R. timorensis) Philippine sambar (R. mariannus) Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

Cervus

Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) Thorold's deer
Thorold's deer
(C. albirostris) Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

Capreolinae

Alces

Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

Hydropotes

Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

Capreolus

Roe deer
Roe deer
(C. capreolus) Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

Rangifer

Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

Hippocamelus

Taruca
Taruca
(H. antisensis) South Andean deer
South Andean deer
(H. bisulcus)

Mazama

Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) Small red brocket
Small red brocket
(M. bororo) Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) Dwarf brocket
Dwarf brocket
(M. chunyi) Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana) Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket
(M. nemorivaga) Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora) Little red brocket
Little red brocket
(M. rufina) Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket
(M. temama)

Ozotoceros

Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

Blastocerus

Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

Pudu

Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles) Southern pudú (P. pudu)

Odocoileus

White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

Family Bovidae

Cephalophinae

Cephalophus

Abbott's duiker
Abbott's duiker
(C. spadix) Aders's duiker
Aders's duiker
(C. adersi) Bay duiker
Bay duiker
(C. dorsalis) Black duiker
Black duiker
(C. niger) Black-fronted duiker
Black-fronted duiker
(C. nigrifrons) Brooke's duiker (C. brookei) Harvey's duiker
Harvey's duiker
(C. harveyi) Jentink's duiker
Jentink's duiker
(C. jentinki) Ogilby's duiker
Ogilby's duiker
(C. ogilbyi) Peters's duiker (C. callipygus) Red-flanked duiker
Red-flanked duiker
(C. rufilatus) Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker
(C. natalensis) Ruwenzori duiker
Ruwenzori duiker
(C. rubidis) Weyns's duiker
Weyns's duiker
(C. weynsi) White-bellied duiker
White-bellied duiker
(C. leucogaster) White-legged duiker
White-legged duiker
(C. crusalbum) Yellow-backed duiker
Yellow-backed duiker
(C. Sylvicultor) Zebra duiker
Zebra duiker
(C. zebra)

Philantomba

Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) Maxwell's duiker
Maxwell's duiker
(P. maxwellii) Walter's duiker
Walter's duiker
(P. walteri)

Sylvicapra

Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

Hippotraginae

Hippotragus

Roan antelope
Roan antelope
(H. equinus) Sable antelope
Sable antelope
(H. niger)

Oryx

East African oryx
East African oryx
(O. beisa) Scimitar oryx
Scimitar oryx
(O. dammah) Gemsbok
Gemsbok
(O. gazella) Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

Addax

Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

Reduncinae

Kobus

Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) Waterbuck
Waterbuck
(K. ellipsiprymnus) Kob
Kob
(K. kob) Lechwe
Lechwe
(K. leche) Nile lechwe
Nile lechwe
(K. megaceros) Puku
Puku
(K. vardonii)

Redunca

Southern reedbuck
Southern reedbuck
(R. arundinum) Mountain reedbuck
Mountain reedbuck
(R. fulvorufula) Bohor reedbuck
Bohor reedbuck
(R. redunca)

Aepycerotinae

Aepyceros

Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

Peleinae

Pelea

Grey rhebok
Grey rhebok
(P. capreolus)

Alcelaphinae

Beatragus

Hirola
Hirola
(B. hunteri)

Damaliscus

Topi
Topi
(D. korrigum) Common tsessebe
Common tsessebe
(D. lunatus) Bontebok
Bontebok
(D. pygargus) Bangweulu tsessebe
Bangweulu tsessebe
(D. superstes)

Alcelaphus

Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) Red hartebeest
Red hartebeest
(A. caama) Lichtenstein's hartebeest
Lichtenstein's hartebeest
(A. lichtensteinii)

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
(C. taurinus)

Pantholopinae

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Caprinae

Large subfamily listed below

Bovinae

Large subfamily listed below

Antilopinae

Large subfamily listed below

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Caprinae)

Ammotragus

Barbary sheep
Barbary sheep
(A. lervia)

Budorcas

Takin
Takin
(B. taxicolor)

Capra

Wild goat
Wild goat
(C. aegagrus) Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur
(C. caucasia) East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur
(C. cylindricornis) Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(C. ibex) Nubian ibex
Nubian ibex
(C. nubiana) Spanish ibex
Spanish ibex
(C. pyrenaica) Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) Walia ibex
Walia ibex
(C. walie)

Capricornis

Japanese serow
Japanese serow
(C. crispus) Taiwan serow
Taiwan serow
(C. swinhoei) Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
(C. sumatraensis) Mainland serow
Mainland serow
(C. milneedwardsii) Red serow
Red serow
(C. rubidusi) Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(C. thar)

Hemitragus

Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) Arabian tahr
Arabian tahr
(H. jayakari) Himalayan tahr
Himalayan tahr
(H. jemlahicus)

Naemorhedus

Red goral
Red goral
(N. baileyi) Long-tailed goral
Long-tailed goral
(N. caudatus) Himalayan goral
Himalayan goral
(N. goral) Chinese goral
Chinese goral
(N. griseus)

Oreamnos

Mountain goat
Mountain goat
(O. americanus)

Ovibos

Muskox
Muskox
(O. moschatus)

Ovis

Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) Domestic sheep (O. aries) Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) Mouflon
Mouflon
(O. musimon) Snow sheep
Snow sheep
(O. nivicola) Urial
Urial
(O. orientalis)

Pseudois

Bharal
Bharal
(P. nayaur) Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

Rupicapra

Pyrenean chamois
Pyrenean chamois
(R. pyrenaica) Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Bovinae)

Boselaphini

Tetracerus

Four-horned antelope
Four-horned antelope
(T. quadricornis)

Boselaphus

Nilgai
Nilgai
(B. tragocamelus)

Bovini

Bubalus

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee) Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) Tamaraw
Tamaraw
(B. mindorensis)

Bos

Banteng
Banteng
(B. javanicus) Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) Gayal
Gayal
(B. frontalis) Domestic yak
Domestic yak
(B. grunniens) Wild yak
Wild yak
(B. mutus) Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) Kouprey
Kouprey
(B. sauveli)

Pseudonovibos

Kting voar (P. spiralis)

Pseudoryx

Saola
Saola
(P. nghetinhensis)

Syncerus

African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

Bison

American bison
American bison
(B. bison) European bison
European bison
(B. bonasus)

Tragelaphini

Tragelaphus (including kudus)

Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) Nyala
Nyala
(T. angasii) Kéwel
Kéwel
(T. scriptus) Cape bushbuck
Cape bushbuck
(T. sylvaticus) Mountain nyala
Mountain nyala
(T. buxtoni) Lesser kudu
Lesser kudu
(T. imberbis) Greater kudu
Greater kudu
(T. strepsiceros) Bongo (T. eurycerus)

Taurotragus

Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) Giant eland
Giant eland
(T. derbianus)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Antilopinae)

Antilopini

Ammodorcas

Dibatag
Dibatag
(A. clarkei)

Antidorcas

Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

Antilope

Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

Eudorcas

Mongalla gazelle
Mongalla gazelle
(E. albonotata) Red-fronted gazelle
Red-fronted gazelle
(E. rufifrons) Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
(E. thomsonii) Heuglin's gazelle
Heuglin's gazelle
(E. tilonura)

Gazella

Mountain gazelle
Mountain gazelle
(G. gazella) Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri) Speke's gazelle
Speke's gazelle
(G. spekei) Dorcas gazelle
Dorcas gazelle
(G. dorcas) Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) Cuvier's gazelle
Cuvier's gazelle
(G. cuvieri) Rhim gazelle
Rhim gazelle
(G. leptoceros) Goitered gazelle
Goitered gazelle
(G. subgutturosa)

Litocranius

Gerenuk
Gerenuk
(L. walleri)

Nanger

Dama gazelle
Dama gazelle
(N. dama) Grant's gazelle
Grant's gazelle
(N. granti) Soemmerring's gazelle
Soemmerring's gazelle
(N. soemmerringii)

Procapra

Mongolian gazelle
Mongolian gazelle
(P. gutturosa) Goa (P. picticaudata) Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle
(P. przewalskii)

Saigini

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Saiga

Saiga antelope
Saiga antelope
(S. tatarica)

Neotragini

Dorcatragus

Beira (D. megalotis)

Madoqua

Günther's dik-dik
Günther's dik-dik
(M. guentheri) Kirk's dik-dik
Kirk's dik-dik
(M. kirkii) Silver dik-dik
Silver dik-dik
(M. piacentinii) Salt's dik-dik
Salt's dik-dik
(M. saltiana)

Neotragus

Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope
(N. batesi) Suni
Suni
(N. moschatus) Royal antelope
Royal antelope
(N. pygmaeus)

Oreotragus

Klipspringer
Klipspringer
(O. oreotragus)

Ourebia

Oribi
Oribi
(O. ourebi)

Raphicerus

Steenbok
Steenbok
(R. campestris) Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) Sharpe's grysbok
Sharpe's grysbok
(R. sharpei)

Suborder Suina

Suidae

Babyrousa

Buru babirusa
Buru babirusa
(B. babyrussa) North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa
(B. celebensis) Togian babirusa
Togian babirusa
(B. togeanensis)

Hylochoerus

Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog
(H. meinertzhageni)

Phacochoerus

Desert warthog
Desert warthog
(P. aethiopicus) Common warthog
Common warthog
(P. africanus)

Porcula

Pygmy hog
Pygmy hog
(P. salvania)

Potamochoerus

Bushpig
Bushpig
(P. larvatus) Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs)

Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig
(S. cebifrons) Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
(S. celebensis) Flores warty pig (S. heureni) Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig
(S. oliveri) Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig
(S. philippensis) Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis) Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
(S. verrucosus)

Tayassuidae

Tayassu

White-lipped peccary
White-lipped peccary
(T. pecari)

Catagonus

Chacoan peccary
Chacoan peccary
(C. wagneri)

Pecari

Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) Giant peccary (P. maximus)

Suborder Tylopoda

Camelidae

Lama

Llama
Llama
(L. glama) Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

Vicugna

Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

Camelus

Dromedary
Dromedary
(C. dromedarius) Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

Whippomorpha
Whippomorpha
(unranked clade)

Hippopotamidae

Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

Choeropsis

Pygmy hippopotamus
Pygmy hippopotamus
(C. liberiensis)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q183035 ADW: Bos_javanicus ARKive: bos-javanicus EoL: 1037711 Fossilworks: 149698 GBIF: 2441027 iNaturalist: 42403 ITIS: 552760 IUCN: 2888 MSW: 1