An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years. Art movements were especially important in modern art, when each consecutive movement was considered as a new avant-garde.


1 Concept 2 19th- and 20th-century art
20th-century art

2.1 19th century 2.2 20th century

2.2.1 1900–1921 2.2.2 1920–1945 2.2.3 1940–1965 2.2.4 1965–2000

2.3 21st century

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Concept[edit] According to theories associated with modernism and the concept of postmodernism, art movements are especially important during the period of time corresponding to modern art.[1] The period of time called "modern art" is posited to have changed approximately halfway through the 20th century and art made afterward is generally called contemporary art. Postmodernism
in visual art begins and functions as a parallel to late modernism[2] and refers to that period after the "modern" period called contemporary art.[3] The postmodern period began during late modernism (which is a contemporary continuation of modernism), and according to some theorists postmodernism ended in the 21st century.[4][5] During the period of time corresponding to "modern art" each consecutive movement was often considered a new avant-garde.[4] Also during the period of time referred to as "modern art" each movement was seen corresponding to a somewhat grandiose rethinking of all that came before it, concerning the visual arts. Generally there was a commonality of visual style linking the works and artists included in an art movement. Verbal expression and explanation of movements has come from the artists themselves, sometimes in the form of an art manifesto,[6][7] and sometimes from art critics and others who may explain their understanding of the meaning of the new art then being produced. In the visual arts, many artists, theorists, art critics, art collectors, art dealers and others mindful of the unbroken continuation of modernism and the continuation of modern art even into the contemporary era, ascribe to and welcome new philosophies of art as they appear.[8][9] Postmodernist theorists posit that the idea of art movements are no longer as applicable, or no longer as discernible, as the notion of art movements had been before the postmodern era.[10][11] There are many theorists however who doubt as to whether or not such an era was actually a fact;[4] or just a passing fad.[5][12] The term refers to tendencies in visual art, novel ideas and architecture, and sometimes literature. In music it is more common to speak about genres and styles instead. See also cultural movement, a term with a broader connotation. As the names of many art movements use the -ism suffix (for example cubism and futurism), they are sometimes referred to as isms. 19th- and 20th-century art
20th-century art
movements[edit] 19th century[edit]

Jacques-Louis David, The Coronation of Napoleon, (1806), Musée du Louvre, Neoclassicism

Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People
Liberty Leading the People
1830, Romanticism

Thomas Cole, The Course of Empire: The Savage State 1836, Hudson River School

Gustave Courbet, Stone-Breakers, 1849, Realist School

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, c. 1867, Ville d'Avray National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, Barbizon School[13]

Claude Monet, Haystacks, (sunset), 1890–1891, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Impressionism

Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889, Post-Impressionism

Edvard Munch, 1893, early example of Expressionism

Academic, c. 16th century–20th century Aesthetic Movement American Barbizon school American Impressionism Amsterdam Impressionism Art Nouveau, c. 1890–1910 Arts and Crafts Movement, founded 1860s Barbizon school, c. 1830s–1870s Biedermeier, c. 1815–1848 Cloisonnism, c. 1888–1900s (decade) Danish Golden Age
Danish Golden Age
c. 1800s-1850s Decadent movement Divisionism, c. 1880s–1910s Düsseldorf School Etching revival Expressionism, c. 1890s–1930s German Romanticism, c. 1790s–1850s Gründerzeit Gustavian Style, 1730-1810 Hague School, c. 1860s–1890s Heidelberg School, c. 1880s–1900s (decade) Hoosier Group Hudson River School, c. 1820s–1900s (decade) Impressionism, c. 1860s–1920s Incoherents, c. 1882-1890s Jugendstil Les Nabis, c. 1890s–1900s (decade)

Les Vingt Luminism Lyon School Macchiaioli
c. 1850s–1900s (decade) Mir iskusstva, founded 1898 Modernism, c. 1860s-ongoing Naturalism Nazarene, c. 1810s–1830 Neo-Classicism, c. 1780s–1900s (decade) Neo-impressionism, c. 1880s–1910s Norwegian romantic nationalism, c. 1840–1867 Norwich School, founded 1803 Orientalism Peredvizhniki Pointillism, c. 1880s–1910s Pont-Aven School, c. 1850s–1890s Post-Impressionism, c. 1880s–1900s (decade) Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Realism, c. 1850s–1900s (decade) Realism, c. 1850s–1900s (decade) Romanticism, c. 1750s–1890s Secession Groups, c. 1890s–1910s Society of American Artists, c. 1877–1906 Spanish Eclecticism, c. 1845-1890s Symbolism Synthetism, c. 1877–1900s (decade) Tonalism, c. 1880–1915 Vienna Secession, founded 1897 White Mountain art, c. 1820s–1870s

20th century[edit] 1900–1921[edit]

Wassily Kandinsky, 1903, Der Blaue Reiter
Der Blaue Reiter
21.1 cm × 54.6 cm (8.3 in × 21.5 in)

Pablo Picasso, Family of Saltimbanques, 1905, Picasso's Rose Period

Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
1905, Fauvism

Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
1907, Proto-Cubism

Georges Braque
Georges Braque
1910, Analytic Cubism

Kazimir Malevich, (Supremus No. 58), Museum of Art, 1916, Suprematism

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917, photograph by Alfred Stieglitz, Dada

Albert Gleizes, Woman with Black Glove, 1920, Crystal Cubism

Piet Mondrian, Tableau I, 1921, De Stijl

Academic, c. 1900s (decade)-ongoing American realism, c. 1890s–1920s Analytic Cubism, c. 1909–1912 Art Deco, c. 1920s–1940s Ashcan School, c. 1890s–1920s Berliner Sezession, founded 1898 Bloomsbury Group, c. 1900s (decade)–1960s Camden Town Group, c. 1911–1913 Constructivism, c. 1920–1922, 1920s–1940s Cubism, c. 1906–1919 Cubo-Futurism, c. 1912–1918 Czech Cubism, c. 1910–1914 Dada, c. 1916–1922 Der Blaue Reiter, c. 1911–1914 De Stijl, c. 1917–1931 Deutscher Werkbund, founded 1907 Die Brücke, founded 1905 Expressionism
c. 1890s–1930s Fauvism, c. 1900–1910 Futurism, c. 1909–1916 German Expressionism, c. 1913–1930 Gothenburg Colourists, c. 1920–1950 Group of Seven (Canada), c. 1913–1930s

Jack of Diamonds, founded 1909 Luminism (Impressionism), c. 1900s (decade)–1930s Modernism, c. 1860s–ongoing Neo-Classicism, c. 1900s (decade)–ongoing Neo-primitivism, from 1913 Neue Künstlervereinigung München Novembergruppe, founded 1918 Objective Abstraction, c. 1933–1936 Orphism, c. 1910–1913 Photo-Secession, founded c. 1902 Picasso's Blue Period, c. 1901–1904 Picasso's Rose Period, c. 1904–1906 Picasso's African Period, 1906–1909 Pittura Metafisica, c. 1911–1920 Proto-Cubism, c. 1906–1908 Purism, c. 1917–1930s Rayonism Section d'Or, c. 1912–1914 Suprematism, formed c. 1915–1916 Synchromism, founded 1912 Synthetic Cubism, c. 1912–1919 The Eight, c. 1909–1918 The Ten, c. 1897–1920 Vorticism, founded 1914


Theo van Doesburg, Composition XX, 1920, De Stijl

Max Ernst, The Elephant Celebes
The Elephant Celebes
(1921), Tate, Surrealism

Charles Demuth, I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold, 1928, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Precisionism

Grant Wood, American Gothic, 1930, Social Realism

American Scene painting, c. 1920s–1950s Arbeitsrat für Kunst Art Deco Bauhaus, c. 1919–1933 Concrete art Der Ring De Stijl, c. 1917–1931 Ecole de Paris Geometric abstraction Gruppo 7 International Style, c. 1920s–1970s Kapists, c. 1930s

Magic Realism Neo-Romanticism Neue Sachlichkeit Novecento Italiano Novembergruppe, founded 1918 Precisionism, c. 1918–1940s Regionalism (art), c. 1930s–1940s Return to order, 1918–1922 Scuola Romana, c. 1928–1945 Social Realism, c. 1920s–1960s Socialist Realism Surrealism, c. 1920s–1960s


Arshile Gorky, The Liver is the Cock's Comb (1944), oil on canvas, 73​1⁄4 × 98" (186 × 249 cm) Albright–Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York. Gorky was an Armenian-born American painter who had a seminal influence on Abstract Expressionism. De Kooning said: "I met a lot of artists — but then I met Gorky... He had an extraordinary gift for hitting the nail on the head; remarkable. So I immediately attached myself to him and we became very good friends."[14]

Abstract expressionism Action painting Arte Povera Art Informel Assemblage Beatnik art Chicago Imagists CoBrA, c. 1948–1951 Color Field
Color Field
painting Combine painting De-collage Fluxus Happening Hard-Edge Painting Kinetic Art Kitchen Sink School Lettrism

Lyrical abstraction Neo-Dada New Brutalism Northwest School Nouveau Réalisme Op Art Organic abstraction Outsider Art Panic Movement Pop Art Post-painterly abstraction Process art Public art Retro art Serial art Shaped canvas Situationist International Tachism Video art


Abstract Illusionism Appropriation Arte Povera Art Photography Body Art Classical Realism Conceptual Art Dogme 95 Earth Art Figuration Libre Funk art Graffiti art Hyperrealism Installation art Internet Art Land art Late modernism Light and Space Lowbrow

Lyrical Abstraction Massurrealism Minimalism Neo-Expressionism Neo-figurative Neo-pop Performance Art Postminimalism Postmodernism Photorealism Psychedelic art Relational art Site-specific art Sound Art Steampunk Transavanguardia Young British Artists

21st century[edit]

Algorithmic art Altermodernism Biomorphism Computer art Computer graphics Digital art Electronic Art Environmental art Excessivism Intentism Internet art Intervention art Maximalism Metamodernism

Neo-minimalism New Media Art Pixel art Post-postmodernism Relational art Remodernism Social practice (art) SoFlo Superflat Stuckism
International Superflat Superstroke Transgressive art Toyism Vaporwave Postinternet

See also[edit]

20th-century Western painting Art periods List of art movements Post-expressionism Western art history


^ Man of his words: Pepe Karmel on Kirk Varnedoe — Passages – Critical Essay Artforum, Nov, 2003 by Pepe Karmel ^ The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths Rosalind E. Krauss, Publisher: The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 9, 1986), Part I, Modernist Myths, pp.8–171 ^ The Citadel of Modernism
Falls to Deconstructionists, – 1992 critical essay, The Triumph of Modernism, 2006, Hilton Kramer, pp 218–221. ^ a b c Post-Modernism: The New Classicism
in Art and Architecture Charles Jencks ^ a b William R. Everdell, The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-century Thought, University of Chicago Press, 1997, p4. ISBN 0-226-22480-5 ^ "Poetry of the Revolution. Marx, Manifestos, and the Avant-Gardes" introduction, Martin Puchner Retrieved April 4, 2006 ^ "Looking at Artists' Manifestos, 1945–1965", Stephen B. Petersen Archived September 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved April 4, 2006 ^ Clement Greenberg: Modernism
and Postmodernism, seventh paragraph of the essay. URL accessed on June 15, 2006 ^ Clement Greenberg: Modernism
and Postmodernism, William Dobell Memorial Lecture, Sydney, Australia, Oct 31, 1979, Arts 54, No.6 (February 1980). His final essay on modernism Retrieved October 26, 2011 ^ Ideas About Art by Desmond, Kathleen K. [1], John Wiley & Sons, 2011, p.148 ^ International postmodernism: theory and literary practice, Bertens, Hans [2], Routledge, 1997, p.236 ^ Alan Kirby, The Death of Postmodernism
and Beyond ^ National Gallery of Art ^ Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning
(1969) by Thomas B. Hess

External links[edit] Art movements since 1900. 20th-Century Art Compiled by Dr.Witcombe, Sweet Briar College, Virginia. WebMuseum, Paris Themes index and detailed glossary of art periods.

v t e

Art movements


Early Christian Migration Period Anglo-Saxon Visigothic Pre-Romanesque Insular Viking Byzantine Merovingian Carolingian Ottonian Romanesque Norman-Sicilian Gothic (International Gothic)


Italian Renaissance Early Netherlandish German Renaissance Antwerp Mannerists Danube school High Renaissance Romanism Mannerism Fontainebleau Northern Mannerism Flemish Baroque

17th century

Baroque Caravaggisti Classicism Dutch Golden Age

18th century

Rococo Neoclassicism Romanticism

19th century

Naïve Nazarene Realism / Realism Historicism Biedermeier Gründerzeit Barbizon school Pre-Raphaelites Academic Aestheticism Decadent Macchiaioli Art Nouveau Peredvizhniki Impressionism Post-Impressionism Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Kalighat painting Symbolism Hudson River School

20th century

Arts and Crafts Fauvism Die Brücke Cubism Expressionism Neue Künstlervereinigung München Futurism Metaphysical art Rayonism Der Blaue Reiter Orphism Synchromism Vorticism Suprematism Ashcan Dada De Stijl Purism Bauhaus Kinetic art New Objectivity Neues Sehen Surrealism Neo-Fauvism Precisionism Scuola Romana Art Deco International Typographic Style Social realism Abstract expressionism Vienna School of Fantastic Realism Color Field Lyrical abstraction Tachisme COBRA Action painting New media art Letterist International Pop art Situationist International Lettrism Neo-Dada Op art Nouveau réalisme Art & Language Conceptual art Land art Systems art Video art Minimalism Fluxus Photorealism Performance art Installation art Endurance art Outsider art Neo-expressionism Lowbrow Young British Artists Amazonian pop art

21st century

Art intervention Hyperrealism Neo-futurism Stuckism Sound art Superstroke Superflat Relational art

Related articles

List of art movements Feminist art movement (in the US) Modern art Modernism Late modernism Postmodern art Avant-garde

v t e


Visual art

Abstract expressionism Art Nouveau Art & Language Conceptual art Constructivism Cubism Proto-Cubism Cubo-Futurism De Stijl Devětsil Divisionism Fauvism Impressionism Neo-Impressionism Post-Impressionism Color Field Incoherents Lyrical Abstraction Mail art Minimalism Mir iskusstva Neue Slowenische Kunst Nonconformism Pop art Rayonism Suprematism Vorticism Nouveau réalisme

and poetry

Acmeism Angry Penguins Asemic writing Cyberpunk Ego-Futurism Experimental literature Flarf poetry Hungry generation Imaginism Language poets Neoteric Nouveau roman Oberiu Oulipo Ultraísmo Visual poetry Zaum


By style

Jazz Metal Pop Rock

Prog Punk


Aleatoric music Ars subtilior Atonal music Drone music Electroacoustic music Electronic music Experimental pop Free jazz Futurism
(music) Industrial music Microtonal music Minimal music Musique concrète New Complexity No wave Noise music Post-rock Rock in Opposition Second Viennese School Serialism Spectral music Stochastic music Textural music Totalism Twelve-tone technique

Cinema and theatre

Cinéma pur Dogme 95 Drop Art Epic theatre Remodernist film Structural film Theatre of the Absurd Theatre of Cruelty


Bauhaus Constructivism Dada Expressionism Fluxus Futurism Lettrism Modernism Minimalism Postminimalism Neo-minimalism Neo-Dada Neoism Postmodernism Late modernism Primitivism Russian Futurism Russian symbolism Situationist International Social realism Socialist realism Surrealism Symbolism


v t e



Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe
Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe
(1862-63) Olympia (1863) A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
(1886) Mont Sainte-Victoir (1887) The Starry Night
The Starry Night
(1889) Ubu Roi
Ubu Roi
(1896) Verklärte Nacht
Verklärte Nacht
(1899) Le bonheur de vivre
Le bonheur de vivre
(1905-1906) Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
(1907) The Firebird
The Firebird
(1910) Afternoon of a Faun (1912) Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
(1912) The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring
(1913) In Search of Lost Time
In Search of Lost Time
(1913–1927) The Metamorphosis
The Metamorphosis
(1915) Black Square (1915) Fountain (1917) The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
(1920) Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921) Ulysses (1922) The Waste Land
The Waste Land
(1922) The Magic Mountain
The Magic Mountain
(1924) Battleship Potemkin
Battleship Potemkin
(1925) The Sun Also Rises
The Sun Also Rises
(1926) The Threepenny Opera
The Threepenny Opera
(1928) The Sound and the Fury
The Sound and the Fury
(1929) Un Chien Andalou
Un Chien Andalou
(1929) Villa Savoye
Villa Savoye
(1931) The Blue Lotus
The Blue Lotus
(1936) Fallingwater
(1936) Waiting for Godot
Waiting for Godot


Guillaume Apollinaire Djuna Barnes Tadeusz Borowski André Breton Mikhail Bulgakov Anton Chekhov Joseph Conrad Alfred Döblin E. M. Forster William Faulkner Gustave Flaubert Ford Madox Ford André Gide Knut Hamsun Jaroslav Hašek Ernest Hemingway Hermann Hesse James Joyce Franz Kafka Arthur Koestler D. H. Lawrence Wyndham Lewis Thomas Mann Katherine Mansfield Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Guy de Maupassant Robert Musil Katherine Anne Porter Marcel Proust Gertrude Stein Italo Svevo Virginia Woolf


Anna Akhmatova Richard Aldington W. H. Auden Charles Baudelaire Luca Caragiale Constantine P. Cavafy Blaise Cendrars Hart Crane H.D. Robert Desnos T. S. Eliot Paul Éluard Odysseas Elytis F. S. Flint Stefan George Max Jacob Federico García Lorca Amy Lowell Robert Lowell Mina Loy Stéphane Mallarmé Marianne Moore Wilfred Owen Octavio Paz Fernando Pessoa Ezra Pound Lionel Richard Rainer Maria Rilke Arthur Rimbaud Giorgos Seferis Wallace Stevens Dylan Thomas Tristan Tzara Paul Valéry William Carlos Williams W. B. Yeats

Visual art

Josef Albers Jean Arp Balthus George Bellows Umberto Boccioni Pierre Bonnard Georges Braque Constantin Brâncuși Alexander Calder Mary Cassatt Paul Cézanne Marc Chagall Giorgio de Chirico Camille Claudel Joseph Cornell Joseph Csaky Salvador Dalí Edgar Degas Raoul Dufy Willem de Kooning Robert Delaunay Charles Demuth Otto Dix Theo van Doesburg Marcel Duchamp James Ensor Max Ernst Jacob Epstein Paul Gauguin Alberto Giacometti Vincent van Gogh Natalia Goncharova Julio González Juan Gris George Grosz Raoul Hausmann Jacques Hérold Hannah Höch Edward Hopper Frida Kahlo Wassily Kandinsky Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Paul Klee Oskar Kokoschka Pyotr Konchalovsky André Lhote Fernand Léger Franz Marc Albert Marque Jean Marchand René Magritte Kazimir Malevich Édouard Manet Henri Matisse Colin McCahon Jean Metzinger Joan Miró Amedeo Modigliani Piet Mondrian Claude Monet Henry Moore Edvard Munch Emil Nolde Georgia O'Keeffe Méret Oppenheim Francis Picabia Pablo Picasso Camille Pissarro Man Ray Odilon Redon Pierre-Auguste Renoir Auguste Rodin Henri Rousseau Egon Schiele Georges Seurat Paul Signac Alfred Sisley Edward Steichen Alfred Stieglitz Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Édouard Vuillard Grant Wood


George Antheil Milton Babbitt Jean Barraqué Alban Berg Luciano Berio Nadia Boulanger Pierre Boulez John Cage Elliott Carter Aaron Copland Henry Cowell Henri Dutilleux Morton Feldman Henryk Górecki Josef Matthias Hauer Paul Hindemith Arthur Honegger Charles Ives Leoš Janáček György Ligeti Witold Lutosławski Olivier Messiaen Luigi Nono Harry Partch Krzysztof Penderecki Sergei Prokofiev Luigi Russolo Erik Satie Pierre Schaeffer Arnold Schoenberg Dmitri Shostakovich Richard Strauss Igor Stravinsky Edgard Varèse Anton Webern Kurt Weill Iannis Xenakis


Edward Albee Maxwell Anderson Jean Anouilh Antonin Artaud Samuel Beckett Bertolt Brecht Anton Chekhov Friedrich Dürrenmatt Jean Genet Maxim Gorky Walter Hasenclever Henrik Ibsen William Inge Eugène Ionesco Alfred Jarry Georg Kaiser Maurice Maeterlinck Vladimir Mayakovsky Arthur Miller Seán O'Casey Eugene O'Neill John Osborne Luigi Pirandello Erwin Piscator George Bernard Shaw August Strindberg John Millington Synge Ernst Toller Frank Wedekind Thornton Wilder Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz


Ingmar Bergman Anton Giulio Bragaglia Luis Buñuel Marcel Carné Charlie Chaplin René Clair Jean Cocteau Maya Deren Alexander Dovzhenko Carl Theodor Dreyer Viking Eggeling Sergei Eisenstein Jean Epstein Robert J. Flaherty Abel Gance Isidore Isou Buster Keaton Lev Kuleshov Fritz Lang Marcel L'Herbier Georges Méliès F. W. Murnau Georg Wilhelm Pabst Vsevolod Pudovkin Jean Renoir Walter Ruttmann Victor Sjöström Josef von Sternberg Dziga Vertov Jean Vigo Robert Wiene


George Balanchine Merce Cunningham Clotilde von Derp Sergei Diaghilev Isadora Duncan Michel Fokine Loie Fuller Martha Graham Hanya Holm Doris Humphrey Léonide Massine Vaslav Nijinsky Alwin Nikolais Alexander Sakharoff Ted Shawn Anna Sokolow Ruth St. Denis Helen Tamiris Charles Weidman Mary Wigman


Alvar Aalto Marcel Breuer Gordon Bunshaft Antoni Gaudí Walter Gropius Hector Guimard Raymond Hood Victor Horta Friedensreich Hundertwasser Philip Johnson Louis Kahn Le Corbusier Adolf Loos Konstantin Melnikov Erich Mendelsohn Pier Luigi Nervi Richard Neutra Oscar Niemeyer Hans Poelzig Antonin Raymond Gerrit Rietveld Eero Saarinen Rudolf Steiner Edward Durell Stone Louis Sullivan Vladimir Tatlin Paul Troost Jørn Utzon Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Frank Lloyd Wright

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American modernism Armory Show Art Deco Art Nouveau Ashcan School Avant-garde Ballets Russes Bauhaus Buddhist modernism Constructivism Cubism Dada Degenerate art De Stijl Der Blaue Reiter Die Brücke Ecomodernism Expressionism Expressionist music Fauvism Fourth dimension in art Fourth dimension in literature Futurism Hanshinkan Modernism High modernism Imagism Impressionism International Style Late modernism Late modernity Lettrism List of art movements List of avant-garde artists List of modernist poets Lyrical abstraction Minimalism Modern art Modernity Neo-Dada Neo-primitivism New Objectivity Orphism Post-Impressionism Postminimalism Postmodernism Reactionary modernism Metamodernism Remodernism Romanticism Second Viennese School Structural film Surrealism Symbolism Synchromism Tonalism W