Parouse.com
 Parouse.com



Armenians
Armenians
(Armenian: հայեր, hayer [hɑˈjɛɾ]) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands. Armenians
Armenians
constitute the main population of Armenia
Armenia
and the de facto independent Artsakh. There is a wide-ranging diaspora of around 5 million people of full or partial Armenian ancestry living outside modern Armenia. The largest Armenian populations today exist in Russia, the United States, France, Georgia, Iran, Germany, Ukraine, Lebanon, Brazil and Syria. With the exceptions of Iran
Iran
and the former Soviet states, the present-day Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
was formed mainly as a result of the Armenian Genocide.[25] Most Armenians
Armenians
adhere to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a non-Chalcedonian church, which is also the world's oldest national church. Christianity began to spread in Armenia
Armenia
soon after Jesus' death, due to the efforts of two of his apostles, St. Thaddeus
St. Thaddeus
and St. Bartholomew.[26] In the early 4th century, the Kingdom of Armenia became the first state to adopt Christianity as a state religion.[27] Armenian is an Indo-European language. It has two mutually intelligible and written forms: Eastern Armenian, today spoken mainly in Armenia, Artsakh, Iran
Iran
and the former Soviet republics, and Western Armenian, used in the historical Western Armenia
Armenia
and, after the Armenian Genocide, primarily in the Armenian diasporan communities. The unique Armenian alphabet
Armenian alphabet
was invented in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Origin 2.2 Antiquity 2.3 Middle Ages 2.4 Early modern history 2.5 Modern history

3 Geographic distribution

3.1 Armenia 3.2 Diaspora

4 Culture

4.1 Religion 4.2 Language and literature 4.3 Architecture 4.4 Sports 4.5 Music and dance 4.6 Carpet weaving 4.7 Cuisine

5 Institutions 6 Notable people 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading

Etymology Main article: Name of Armenia

Hayk, the legendary founder of the Armenian nation. Painting by Mkrtum Hovnatanian (1779–1846)

Historically, the name Armenian has come to internationally designate this group of people. It was first used by neighbouring countries of ancient Armenia. The earliest attestations of the exonym Armenia
Armenia
date around the 6th century BC. In his trilingual Behistun Inscription dated to 517 BC, Darius I the Great
Darius I the Great
of Persia refers to Urashtu (in Babylonian) as Armina (in Old Persian; Armina ( ) and Harminuya (in Elamite). In Greek, Αρμένιοι "Armenians" is attested from about the same time, perhaps the earliest reference being a fragment attributed to Hecataeus of Miletus
Hecataeus of Miletus
(476 BC).[28] Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC. He relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians.[29] Armenians
Armenians
call themselves Hay (Հայ, pronounced [ˈhaj]; plural: Հայեր, [haˈjɛɾ]). The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk
Hayk
(Հայկ), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians
Armenians
and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who, according to Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region.[30] It is also further postulated[31][32] that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi (1600–1200 BC). Movses Khorenatsi, the important early medieval Armenian historian, wrote that the word Armenian originated from the name Armenak or Aram (the descendant of Hayk). History Main article: History of Armenia

Part of a series on

Indo-European topics

Languages

List of Indo-European languages

Historical

Albanian Armenian Balto-Slavic

Baltic Slavic

Celtic Germanic Hellenic

Greek

Indo-Iranian

Indo-Aryan Iranian

Italic

Romance

Extinct

Anatolian Tocharian Paleo-Balkan Dacian Illyrian Liburnian Messapian Mysian Paeonian Phrygian Thracian

Reconstructed

Proto-Indo-European language

Phonology: Sound laws, Accent, Ablaut

Hypothetical

Daco-Thracian Graeco-Armenian Graeco-Aryan Graeco-Phrygian Indo-Hittite Italo-Celtic Thraco-Illyrian

Grammar

Vocabulary Root Verbs Nouns Pronouns Numerals Particles

Other

Proto-Anatolian Proto-Armenian Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
(Proto-Norse) Proto-Celtic Proto-Italic Proto-Greek Proto-Balto-Slavic (Proto-Slavic) Proto-Indo-Iranian (Proto-Iranian)

Philology

Hittite texts Hieroglyphic Luwian Linear B Rigveda Avesta Homer Behistun Gaulish epigraphy Latin epigraphy Runic epigraphy Ogam Gothic Bible Armenian Bible Slanting Brahmi Old Irish glosses

Origins

Homeland Proto-Indo-Europeans Society Religion

Mainstream

Kurgan
Kurgan
hypothesis Indo-European migrations Eurasian nomads

Alternative and fringe

Anatolian hypothesis Armenian hypothesis Indigenous Aryans Baltic homeland Paleolithic Continuity Theory

Archaeology

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
(Copper Age)

Pontic Steppe

Domestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe cultures

Bug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk Yamna

Mikhaylovka culture

Caucasus

Maykop

East-Asia

Afanasevo

Eastern Europe

Usatovo Cernavodă Cucuteni

Northern Europe

Corded ware

Baden Middle Dnieper

Bronze Age

Pontic Steppe

Chariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka Srubna

Northern/Eastern Steppe

Abashevo culture Andronovo Sintashta

Europe

Globular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus Urnfield Lusatian

South-Asia

BMAC Yaz Gandhara grave

Iron Age

Steppe

Chernoles

Europe

Thraco-Cimmerian Hallstatt Jastorf

Caucasus

Colchian

India

Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware

Peoples and societies

Bronze Age

Anatolians Armenians Mycenaean Greeks Indo-Iranians

Iron Age

Indo-Aryans

Indo-Aryans

Iranians

Iranians

Scythians Persians Medes

Europe

Celts

Gauls Celtiberians Insular Celts

Hellenic peoples Italic peoples Germanic peoples Paleo-Balkans/Anatolia:

Thracians Dacians Illyrians Phrygians

Middle Ages

East-Asia

Tocharians

Europe

Balts Slavs Albanians Medieval Europe

Indo-Aryan

Medieval India

Iranian

Greater Persia

Religion and mythology

Reconstructed

Proto-Indo-European religion Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

Historical

Hittite

Indian

Vedic

Hinduism

Buddhism Jainism

Iranian

Persian

Zoroastrianism

Kurdish

Yazidism Yarsanism

Scythian

Ossetian

Others

Armenian

Europe

Paleo-Balkans Greek Roman Celtic

Irish Scottish Breton Welsh Cornish

Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Baltic

Latvian Lithuanian

Slavic Albanian

Practices

Fire-sacrifice Horse sacrifice Sati Winter solstice/Yule

Indo-European studies

Scholars

Marija Gimbutas J.P. Mallory

Institutes

Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European

Publications

Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture The Horse, the Wheel and Language Journal of Indo-European Studies Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

v t e

Origin The Armenian Highland
Armenian Highland
is the area surrounding Mount Ararat, the highest peak of the region. A controversial hypothesis put forward by some scholars, such as T. Gamkrelidze and V. Ivanov, has proposed that the Indo-European homeland was around the Armenian Highland.[33] The modern Armenian language
Armenian language
is often grouped with Greek and Ancient Macedonian ("Helleno-Macedonian") in the Pontic Indo-European (also called Helleno-Armenian) subgroup of Indo-European lanuguages by Eric P. Hamp in his 2012 Indo-European family tree, groups .[34] There are two possible explanations, not mutually exclusive, for a common origin of the Armenian and Greek languages.

Ancient Greek scholars, such as Herodotus
Herodotus
(writing circa 440 BC), suggest that the Phrygians
Phrygians
of western Anatolia, who spoke a Indo-European language, had also made a contribution to the ethnogenesis of the Armenians: "the Armenians
Armenians
were equipped like Phrygians, being Phrygian colonists" (7.73) (Ἀρμένιοι δὲ κατά περ Φρύγες ἐσεσάχατο, ἐόντες Φρυγῶν ἄποικοι.). This appears to imply that some Phrygians
Phrygians
migrated eastward to Armenia
Armenia
following the destruction of Phrygia
Phrygia
by a Cimmerian
Cimmerian
invasion in the late 7th century BC. Greek scholars also believed that the Phrygians
Phrygians
had originated in the Balkans, in an area adjoining Macedonia, from where they had emigrated to Anatolia
Anatolia
many centuries earlier. In Hamp's view the homeland of the proposed Greco-Armenian subgroup is the northeast coast of the Black Sea and its hinterlands.[34] He assumes that they migrated from there southeast through the Caucasus with the Armenians
Armenians
remaining after Batumi
Batumi
while the pre-Greeks proceeded westwards along the southern coast of the Black Sea.[34]

Some genetics studies explain Armenian diversity by several mixtures of Eurasian populations that occurred between ~3,000 and ~2,000 BC. But genetic signals of population mixture cease after ~1,200 BC when Bronze Age
Bronze Age
civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world suddenly and violently collapsed. Armenians
Armenians
have since remained isolated and genetic structure within the population developed ~500 years ago when Armenia
Armenia
was divided between the Ottomans and the Safavid Empire in Iran.[35][36] In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
(at the height of its power), Mitanni
Mitanni
(South-Western historical Armenia), and Hayasa-Azzi (1600–1200 BC). Soon after Hayasa-Azzi
Hayasa-Azzi
came Arme-Shupria (1300s–1190 BC), the Nairi (1400–1000 BC) and the Kingdom of Urartu
Urartu
(860–590 BC), who successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highland. Each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people.[37] Under Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
(669–627 BC), the Assyrian empire reached the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
(modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan).[38] Yerevan, the modern capital of Armenia, was founded in 782 BC by king Argishti I.

The Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
at its greatest extent under Tigranes the Great (95–55 BC)

Antiquity

Persis, Parthia, Armenia. Rest Fenner, published in 1835.

Armenia, Mesopotamia, Babylonia
Babylonia
and Assyria with Adjacent Regions, Karl von Spruner, published in 1865.

The first geographical entity that was called Armenia
Armenia
by neighboring peoples (such as by Hecataeus of Miletus
Hecataeus of Miletus
and on the Achaemenid Behistun Inscription) was established in the late 6th century BC under the Orontid dynasty
Orontid dynasty
within the Achaemenid Persian Empire as part of the latters' territories, and which later became a kingdom. At its zenith (95–65 BC), the state extended from the Caucasus
Caucasus
all the way to what is now central Turkey, Lebanon, and northern Iran. The imperial reign of Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great
is thus the span of time during which Armenia
Armenia
itself conquered areas populated by other peoples. The Arsacid Kingdom of Armenia, itself a branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, was the first state to adopt Christianity as its religion (it had formerly been adherent to Armenian paganism, which was influenced by Zoroastrianism,[39] while later on adopting a few elements regarding identification of its pantheon with Greco-Roman deities).[40] in the early years of the 4th century, likely AD 301,[41] partly in defiance of the Sassanids
Sassanids
it seems.[42] In the late Parthian period, Armenia
Armenia
was a predominantly Zoroastrian-adhering land,[39] but by the Christianisation, previously predominant Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
and paganism in Armenia
Armenia
gradually declined.[42][43] Later on, in order to further strengthen Armenian national identity, Mesrop Mashtots
Mesrop Mashtots
invented the Armenian alphabet, in 405 AD. This event ushered the Golden Age
Golden Age
of Armenia, during which many foreign books and manuscripts were translated to Armenian by Mesrop's pupils. Armenia lost its sovereignty again in 428 AD to the rivalling Byzantine and Sassanid Persian empires, until the Muslim conquest of Persia
Muslim conquest of Persia
overran also the regions in which Armenians
Armenians
lived.

The Cathedral of Ani, completed in 1001

Middle Ages In 885 AD the Armenians
Armenians
reestablished themselves as a sovereign kingdom under the leadership of Ashot I of the Bagratid Dynasty. A considerable portion of the Armenian nobility and peasantry fled the Byzantine occupation of Bagratid Armenia
Armenia
in 1045, and the subsequent invasion of the region by Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
in 1064. They settled in large numbers in Cilicia, an Anatolian region where Armenians
Armenians
were already established as a minority since Roman times. In 1080, they founded an independent Armenian Principality then Kingdom of Cilicia, which became the focus of Armenian nationalism. The Armenians
Armenians
developed close social, cultural, military, and religious ties with nearby Crusader States,[44] but eventually succumbed to Mamluk
Mamluk
invasions. In the next few centuries, Djenghis Khan, Timurids, and the tribal Turkic federations of the Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
and the Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
ruled over the Armenians. Early modern history From the early 16th century, both Western Armenia
Armenia
and Eastern Armenia fell under Iranian Safavid rule.[45][46] Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian geo-political rivalry that would last in Western Asia, significant parts of the region were frequently fought over between the two rivalling empires. From the mid 16th century with the Peace of Amasya, and decisively from the first half of the 17th century with the Treaty of Zuhab until the first half of the 19th century,[47] Eastern Armenia
Armenia
was ruled by the successive Iranian Safavid, Afsharid and Qajar empires, while Western Armenia
Armenia
remained under Ottoman rule. In the late 1820s, the parts of historic Armenia
Armenia
under Iranian control centering on Yerevan
Yerevan
and Lake Sevan
Lake Sevan
(all of Eastern Armenia) were incorporated into the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
following Iran's forced ceding of the territories after its loss in the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) and the outcoming Treaty of Turkmenchay.[48] Western Armenia
Armenia
however, remained in Ottoman hands. Modern history

About 1.5 million Armenians
Armenians
were killed during the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
in 1915–1918.

The ethnic cleansing of Armenians
Armenians
during the final years of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is widely considered a genocide, resulting in an estimated 1.5 million victims. The first wave of persecution was in the years 1894 to 1896, the second one culminating in the events of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
in 1915 and 1916. With World War I
World War I
in progress, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
accused the (Christian) Armenians
Armenians
as liable to ally with Imperial Russia, and used it as a pretext to deal with the entire Armenian population as an enemy within their empire. Governments of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
since that time have consistently rejected charges of genocide, typically arguing either that those Armenians
Armenians
who died were simply in the way of a war, or that killings of Armenians
Armenians
were justified by their individual or collective support for the enemies of the Ottoman Empire. Passage of legislation in various foreign countries, condemning the persecution of the Armenians
Armenians
as genocide, has often provoked diplomatic conflict. (See Recognition of the Armenian Genocide) Following the breakup of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the aftermath of World War I for a brief period, from 1918 to 1920, Armenia
Armenia
was an independent republic. In late 1920, the communists came to power in Russia following an invasion of Armenia
Armenia
by the Red Army; in 1922, Armenia
Armenia
became part of the Transcaucasian SFSR
Transcaucasian SFSR
of the Soviet Union, later on forming the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
(1936 to 21 September 1991). In 1991, Armenia
Armenia
declared independence from the USSR and established the second Republic of Armenia. Geographic distribution

Historical and modern distribution of Armenians.Settlement area of Armenians
Armenians
in early 20th century:   >50%       25–50%       <25%   Armenian settlement area today.

Map of the Armenian diaspora

Armenia Armenians
Armenians
have had a presence in the Armenian Highland
Armenian Highland
for over 4,000 years, since the time when Hayk, the legendary patriarch and founder of the first Armenian nation, led them to victory over Bel of Babylon.[49] Today, with a population of 3.5 million, they not only constitute an overwhelming majority in Armenia, but also in the disputed region of Artsakh. Armenians
Armenians
in the diaspora informally refer to them as Hayastantsis (Հայաստանցի), meaning those that are from Armenia
Armenia
(that is, those born and raised in Armenia). They, as well as the Armenians
Armenians
of Iran
Iran
and Russia speak the Eastern dialect of the Armenian language. The country itself is secular as a result of Soviet domination, but most of its citizens identify themselves as Apostolic Armenian Christian. Diaspora Main article: Armenian diaspora Small Armenian trading and religious communities have existed outside Armenia
Armenia
for centuries. For example, a community survived for over a millennium in the Holy Land, and one of the four-quarters of the walled Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been called the Armenian Quarter.[50] An Armenian Catholic monastic community of 35 founded in 1717 exists on an island near Venice, Italy. There are also remnants of formerly populous communities in India, Myanmar, Thailand, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Ethiopia, Sudan
Sudan
and Egypt.[citation needed] Regardless, most of the modern days diaspora consists of Armenians scattered throughout the world as a direct consequence of the genocide of 1915, constituting the main portion of the Armenian diaspora. However, Armenian communities in the Georgian capital city of Tbilisi, in Syria
Syria
and in Iran
Iran
existed since antiquity.[citation needed] Within the diasporan Armenian community, there is an unofficial classification of the different kinds of Armenians. For example, Armenians
Armenians
who originate from Iran
Iran
are referred to as Parskahay (Պարսկահայ), while Armenians
Armenians
from Lebanon
Lebanon
are usually referred to as Lipananahay (Լիբանանահայ). Armenians
Armenians
of the Diaspora are the primary speakers of the Western dialect of the Armenian language. This dialect has considerable differences with Eastern Armenian, but speakers of either of the two variations can usually understand each other. Eastern Armenian
Eastern Armenian
in the diaspora is primarily spoken in Iran
Iran
and European countries such as Ukraine, Russia, and Georgia (where they form a majority in the Samtskhe-Javakheti
Samtskhe-Javakheti
province). In diverse communities (such as in Canada and the U.S.) where many different kinds of Armenians
Armenians
live together, there is a tendency for the different groups to cluster together. Culture

Armenian woman in traditional dress.

Main article: Culture of Armenia Religion

Church service, Yerevan.

The Etchmiadzin Cathedral, the mother church of the Armenian Apostolic Church, was established in 301 AD.

Ancient Tatev Monastery.

Main articles: Armenian Apostolic Church, Religion in Armenia, and Armenian mythology Before Christianity, Armenians
Armenians
adhered to Armenian paganism: a type of indigenous polytheism that stemmed from the Urartu
Urartu
period but which adopted several Greco-Roman and Iranian religious characteristics.[51][52] In 301 AD, Armenia
Armenia
adopted Christianity as a state religion, becoming the first state to do so.[26] The claim is primarily based on the fifth-century work of Agathangelos
Agathangelos
titled "The History of the Armenians." Agathangelos
Agathangelos
witnessed at first hand the baptism of the Armenian King Trdat III
Trdat III
(c. 301/314 A.D.) by St. Gregory the Illuminator.[53] Trdat III
Trdat III
decreed Christianity was the state religion.[54] Armenia
Armenia
established a Church that still exists independently of both the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
churches, having become so in 451 AD as a result of its stance regarding the Council of Chalcedon.[26] Today this church is known as the Armenian Apostolic Church, which is a part of the Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
communion, not to be confused with the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
communion. During its later political eclipses, Armenia
Armenia
depended on the church to preserve and protect its unique identity. The original location of the Armenian Catholicosate is Echmiadzin. However, the continuous upheavals, which characterized the political scenes of Armenia, made the political power move to safer places. The Church center moved as well to different locations together with the political authority. Therefore, it eventually moved to Cilicia
Cilicia
as the Holy See of Cilicia.[55] The Armenians
Armenians
collective has, at times, constituted a Christian "island" in a mostly Muslim
Muslim
region. There is, however, a minority of ethnic Armenian Muslims, known as Hamshenis
Hamshenis
but many Armenians
Armenians
view them as a separate race, while the history of the Jews in Armenia dates back 2,000 years. The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Cilicia
had close ties to European Crusader States. Later on, the deteriorating situation in the region led the bishops of Armenia
Armenia
to elect a Catholicos in Etchmiadzin, the original seat of the Catholicosate. In 1441, a new Catholicos was elected in Etchmiadzin in the person of Kirakos Virapetsi, while Krikor Moussapegiants preserved his title as Catholicos of Cilicia. Therefore, since 1441, there have been two Catholicosates in the Armenian Church with equal rights and privileges, and with their respective jurisdictions. The primacy of honor of the Catholicosate of Etchmiadzin has always been recognized by the Catholicosate of Cilicia.[56] While the Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
remains the most prominent church in the Armenian community throughout the world, Armenians
Armenians
(especially in the diaspora) subscribe to any number of other Christian denominations. These include the Armenian Catholic Church
Armenian Catholic Church
(which follows its own liturgy but recognizes the Roman Catholic Pope), the Armenian Evangelical Church, which started as a reformation in the Mother church but later broke away, and the Armenian Brotherhood Church, which was born in the Armenian Evangelical Church, but later broke apart from it. There are other numerous Armenian churches belonging to Protestant denominations of all kinds. Through the ages many Armenians
Armenians
have collectively belonged to other faiths or Christian movements, including the Paulicians
Paulicians
which is a form of Gnostic and Manichaean Christianity. Paulicians
Paulicians
sought to restore the pure Christianity of Paul and in c.660 founded the first congregation in Kibossa, Armenia. Another example is the Tondrakians, who flourished in medieval Armenia between the early 9th century and 11th century. Tondrakians advocated the abolishment of the church, denied the immortality of the soul, did not believe in an afterlife, supported property rights for peasants, and equality between men and women. The Orthodox Armenians
Armenians
or the Chalcedonian Armenians
Armenians
in the Byzantine Empire were called Iberians ("Georgians") or "Greeks". See Gregory Pakourianos – the great Byzantine general. Their descendants are the Hayhurum
Hayhurum
and Catholic Armenians
Armenians
in Georgia. Language and literature

A 14th-century Armenian illuminated manuscript

Main articles: Armenian language
Armenian language
and Armenian literature Armenian is a sub-branch of the Indo-European family, and with some 8 million speakers one of the smallest surviving branches, comparable to Albanian or the somewhat more widely spoken Greek, with which it may be connected (see Graeco-Armenian). Today, that branch has just one language – Armenian. Five million Eastern Armenian
Eastern Armenian
speakers live in the Caucasus, Russia, and Iran, and approximately two to three million people in the rest of the Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
speak Western Armenian. According to US Census figures, there are 300,000 Americans who speak Armenian at home. It is in fact the twentieth most commonly spoken language in the United States, having slightly fewer speakers than Haitian Creole, and slightly more than Navajo. Armenian literature
Armenian literature
dates back to 400 AD, when Mesrop Mashtots first invented the Armenian alphabet. This period of time is often viewed as the Golden Age
Golden Age
of Armenian literature. Early Armenian literature was written by the "father of Armenian history", Moses of Chorene, who authored The History of Armenia. The book covers the time-frame from the formation of the Armenian people to the fifth century AD. The nineteenth century beheld a great literary movement that was to give rise to modern Armenian literature. This period of time, during which Armenian culture flourished, is known as the Revival period (Zartonki sherchan). The Revivalist authors of Constantinople
Constantinople
and Tiflis, almost identical to the Romanticists of Europe, were interested in encouraging Armenian nationalism. Most of them adopted the newly created Eastern or Western variants of the Armenian language
Armenian language
depending on the targeted audience, and preferred them over classical Armenian (grabar). This period ended after the Hamidian massacres, when Armenians
Armenians
experienced turbulent times. As Armenian history of the 1920s and of the Genocide
Genocide
came to be more openly discussed, writers like Paruyr Sevak, Gevork Emin, Silva Kaputikyan and Hovhannes Shiraz
Hovhannes Shiraz
began a new era of literature. Architecture Main article: Armenian architecture

The famous Khachkar
Khachkar
at Goshavank, carved in 1291 by the artist Poghos.

The first Armenian churches were built on the orders of St. Gregory the Illuminator, and were often built on top of pagan temples, and imitated some aspects of Armenian pre-Christian architecture.[57] Classical and Medieval Armenian Architecture is divided into four separate periods. The first Armenian churches were built between the 4th and 7th century, beginning when Armenia
Armenia
converted to Christianity, and ending with the Arab invasion of Armenia. The early churches were mostly simple basilicas, but some with side apses. By the fifth century the typical cupola cone in the center had become widely used. By the seventh century, centrally planned churches had been built and a more complicated niched buttress and radiating Hrip'simé style had formed. By the time of the Arab invasion, most of what we now know as classical Armenian architecture
Armenian architecture
had formed. From the 9th to 11th century, Armenian architecture
Armenian architecture
underwent a revival under the patronage of the Bagratid Dynasty with a great deal of building done in the area of Lake Van, this included both traditional styles and new innovations. Ornately carved Armenian Khachkars
Khachkars
were developed during this time.[58] Many new cities and churches were built during this time, including a new capital at Lake Van and a new Cathedral on Akdamar Island
Akdamar Island
to match. The Cathedral of Ani was also completed during this dynasty. It was during this time that the first major monasteries, such as Haghpat and Haritchavank were built. This period was ended by the Seljuk invasion. Sports Main article: Sport in Armenia

Armenian children at the UN Cup Chess
Chess
Tournament in 2005.

Many types of sports are played in Armenia, among the most popular being football, chess, boxing, basketball, hockey, sambo, wrestling, weightlifting and volleyball.[59] Since independence, the Armenian government has been actively rebuilding its sports program in the country. During Soviet rule, Armenian athletes rose to prominence winning plenty of medals and helping the USSR
USSR
win the medal standings at the Olympics on numerous occasions. The first medal won by an Armenian in modern Olympic history was by Hrant Shahinyan, who won two golds and two silvers in gymnastics at the 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
in Helsinki. In football, their most successful team was Yerevan's FC Ararat, which had claimed most of the Soviet championships in the 70s and had also gone to post victories against professional clubs like FC Bayern Munich in the Euro cup. Armenians
Armenians
have also been successful in chess, which is the most popular mind sport in Armenia. Some of the most prominent chess players in the world are Armenian such as Tigran Petrosian, Levon Aronian and Garry Kasparov. Armenians
Armenians
have also been successful in weightlifting and wrestling (Armen Nazaryan), winning medals in each sport at the Olympics.[citation needed] There are also successful Armenians
Armenians
in football – Henrikh Mkhitaryan, boxing – Arthur Abraham and Vic Darchinyan. Music and dance Main articles: Music of Armenia
Armenia
and Armenian Dance

Armenian folk musicians and traditional Armenian dance.

Armenian music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyan's well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music. Instruments like the duduk, the dhol, the zurna and the kanun are commonly found in Armenian folk music. Artists such as Sayat Nova
Sayat Nova
are famous due to their influence in the development of Armenian folk music. One of the oldest types of Armenian music is the Armenian chant which is the most common kind of religious music in Armenia. Many of these chants are ancient in origin, extending to pre-Christian times, while others are relatively modern, including several composed by Saint Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet. Whilst under Soviet rule, Armenian classical music composer Aram Khatchaturian became internationally well known for his music, for various ballets and the Sabre Dance
Sabre Dance
from his composition for the ballet Gayane. The Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
caused widespread emigration that led to the settlement of Armenians
Armenians
in various countries in the world. Armenians kept to their traditions and certain diasporans rose to fame with their music. In the post- Genocide
Genocide
Armenian community of the United States, the so-called "kef" style Armenian dance
Armenian dance
music, using Armenian and Middle Eastern folk instruments (often electrified/amplified) and some western instruments, was popular. This style preserved the folk songs and dances of Western Armenia, and many artists also played the contemporary popular songs of Turkey
Turkey
and other Middle Eastern countries from which the Armenians
Armenians
emigrated. Richard Hagopian is perhaps the most famous artist of the traditional "kef" style and the Vosbikian Band was notable in the 40s and 50s for developing their own style of "kef music" heavily influenced by the popular American Big Band Jazz of the time. Later, stemming from the Middle Eastern Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
and influenced by Continental European (especially French) pop music, the Armenian pop music genre grew to fame in the 60s and 70s with artists such as Adiss Harmandian and Harout Pamboukjian performing to the Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
and Armenia. Also with artists such as Sirusho, performing pop music combined with Armenian folk music in today's entertainment industry. Other Armenian diasporans that rose to fame in classical or international music circles are world-renowned French-Armenian singer and composer Charles Aznavour, pianist Sahan Arzruni, prominent opera sopranos such as Hasmik Papian
Hasmik Papian
and more recently Isabel Bayrakdarian
Isabel Bayrakdarian
and Anna Kasyan. Certain Armenians
Armenians
settled to sing non-Armenian tunes such as the heavy metal band System of a Down
System of a Down
(which nonetheless often incorporates traditional Armenian instrumentals and styling into their songs) or pop star Cher. Ruben Hakobyan (Ruben Sasuntsi) is a well recognized Armenian ethnographic and patriotic folk singer who has achieved widespread national recognition due to his devotion to Armenian folk music and exceptional talent. In the Armenian diaspora, Armenian Revolutionary Songs are popular with the youth.[citation needed] These songs encourage Armenian patriotism and are generally about Armenian history and national heroes. Carpet weaving See also: Armenian carpet

Armenian girls, weaving carpets in Van, 1907, Ottoman Empire

Carpet-weaving is historically a major traditional profession for the majority of Armenian women, including many Armenian families. Prominent Karabakh carpet
Karabakh carpet
weavers there were men too. The oldest extant Armenian carpet
Armenian carpet
from the region, referred to as Artsakh (see also Karabakh carpet) during the medieval era, is from the village of Banants (near Gandzak) and dates to the early 13th century.[60] The first time that the Armenian word for carpet, gorg, was used in historical sources was in a 1242–1243 Armenian inscription on the wall of the Kaptavan Church in Artsakh.[61] Common themes and patterns found on Armenian carpets were the depiction of dragons and eagles. They were diverse in style, rich in color and ornamental motifs, and were even separated in categories depending on what sort of animals were depicted on them, such as artsvagorgs (eagle-carpets), vishapagorgs (dragon-carpets) and otsagorgs (serpent-carpets).[61] The rug mentioned in the Kaptavan inscriptions is composed of three arches, "covered with vegatative ornaments", and bears an artistic resemblance to the illuminated manuscripts produced in Artsakh.[61] The art of carpet weaving was in addition intimately connected to the making of curtains as evidenced in a passage by Kirakos Gandzaketsi, a 13th-century Armenian historian from Artsakh, who praised Arzu-Khatun, the wife of regional prince Vakhtang Khachenatsi, and her daughters for their expertise and skill in weaving.[62] Armenian carpets were also renowned by foreigners who traveled to Artsakh; the Arab geographer and historian Al-Masudi
Al-Masudi
noted that, among other works of art, he had never seen such carpets elsewhere in his life.[63] Cuisine Main article: Armenian cuisine

Khorovats
Khorovats
is a favorite Armenian dish

Khorovats, an Armenian-styled barbecue, is arguably the favorite Armenian dish. Lavash
Lavash
is a very popular Armenian flat bread, and Armenian paklava is a popular dessert made from filo dough. Other famous Armenian foods include the kabob (a skewer of marinated roasted meat and vegetables), various dolmas (minced lamb, or beef meat and rice wrapped in grape leaves, cabbage leaves, or stuffed into hollowed vegetables), and pilaf, a rice dish. Also, ghapama, a rice-stuffed pumpkin dish,[64] and many different salads are popular in Armenian culture. Fruits play a large part in the Armenian diet. Apricots (Prunus armeniaca, also known as Armenian Plum) have been grown in Armenia
Armenia
for centuries and have a reputation for having an especially good flavor. Peaches are popular as well, as are grapes, figs, pomegranates, and melons. Preserves are made from many fruits, including cornelian cherries, young walnuts, sea buckthorn, mulberries, sour cherries, and many others. Institutions

The Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church The Armenian General Benevolent Union
Armenian General Benevolent Union
(AGBU) founded in 1906 and the largest Armenian non-profit organization in the world, with educational, cultural and humanitarian projects on all continents The Armenian Revolutionary Federation, founded in 1890. It is generally referred to as the Dashnaktsutyun, which means Federation in Armenian. The ARF is the strongest worldwide Armenian political organization and the only diasporan Armenian organization with a significant political presence in the Republic of Armenia. Hamazkayin, an Armenian cultural and educational society founded in Cairo
Cairo
in 1928, and responsible for the founding of Armenian secondary schools and institutions of higher education in several countries The Armenian Catholic Church, representing small communities of Armeno-Catholics in different countries around the world, as well as important monastic and cultural institutions in Venice
Venice
and Vienna Homenetmen, an Armenian Scouting and athletic organization founded in 1910 with a worldwide membership of about 25,000 The Armenian Relief Society, founded in 1910

Notable people For a more comprehensive list, see Lists of Armenians. See also

Armenia
Armenia
portal

Peoples of the Caucasus Hemshin peoples Hayk Hidden Armenians

References Notes

^ Abkhazia
Abkhazia
is a de facto sovereign state whose status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is recognised by only a few other countries. The Georgian government and most of the world's other states consider Abkhazia
Abkhazia
de jure a part of Georgia's territory. In Georgia's official subdivision it is an autonomous republic, whose government sits in exile in Tbilisi. ^ The Republic of Artsakh
Republic of Artsakh
is de facto independent and mainly integrated into Armenia, however, it is internationally recognized as de jure part of Azerbaijan ^ The number of Syrian Armenians
Armenians
is estimated to be far lower due to the Syrian Civil War, as these are pre war figures. Many fled to Lebanon, Armenia, and the west respectively.

Inline

^ different sources:

Dennis J.D. Sandole (24 January 2007). Peace and Security in the Postmodern World: The OSCE and Conflict Resolution. Routledge. p. 182. ISBN 9781134145713. The nearly 3 million Armenians in Armenia
Armenia
(and 3–4 million in the Armenian Diaspora worldwide) "perceive" the nearly 8 million Azerbaijanis in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
as "Turks."  McGoldrick, Monica; Giordano, Joe; Garcia-Preto, Nydia, eds. (18 August 2005). Ethnicity and Family Therapy, Third Edition (3 ed.). Guilford Press. p. 439. ISBN 9781606237946. The impact of such a horror on a group who presently number approximately 6 million, worldwide, is incalculable.  Gevorg Sargsyan; Ani Balabanyan; Denzel Hankinson (1 January 2006). From Crisis to Stability in the Armenian Power Sector: Lessons Learned from Armenia's Energy Reform Experience (illustrated ed.). World Bank Publications. p. 18. ISBN 9780821365908. The country's estimated 3–6 million Diaspora represent a major source of foreign direct investment in the country.  Arthur G. Sharp (15 September 2011). The Everything Guide to the Middle East: Understand the people, the politics, and the culture of this conflicted region. Adams Media. p. 137. ISBN 9781440529122. Since the newly independent Republic of Armenia
Armenia
was declared in 1991, nearly 4 million of the world's 6 million Armenians
Armenians
have been living on the eastern edge of their Middle Eastern homeland. 

^ different sources:

Von Voss, Huberta (2007). Portraits of Hope: Armenians
Armenians
in the Contemporary World. New York: Berghahn Books. p. xxv. ISBN 9781845452575. ...there are some 8 million Armenians
Armenians
in the world...  Freedman, Jeri (2008). The Armenian genocide. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. p. 52. ISBN 9781404218253. In contrast to its population of 3.2 million, approximately 8 million Armenians live in other countries of the world, including large communities in the America and Russia.  Guntram H. Herb, David H. Kaplan (2008). Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview: A Global Historical Overview. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 1705. ISBN 9781851099085. A nation of some 8 million people, about 3 million of whom live in the newly independent post-Soviet state, Armenians
Armenians
are constantly battling not to lose their distinct culture, identity and the newly established statehood.  Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Struko (2010). Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 50. ISBN 9780810854758.  Philander, S. George (2008). Encyclopedia of global warming and climate change. Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 77. ISBN 9781412958783. An estimated 60 percent of the total 8 million Armenians
Armenians
worldwide live outside the country...  Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Strukov (2010). Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780810874602. Worldwide, there are more than 8 million Armenians; 3.2 million reside in the Republic of Armenia. 

^ "Statistical Service of Armenia" (PDF). Armstat. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ "National makeup of the population of the Russian Federation (Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации)" (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 5 January 2013.  ^ Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Struko (2010). Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-8108-5475-8.  ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  ^

"Barack Obama on the Importance of US- Armenia
Armenia
Relations". Armenian National Committee of America. 19 January 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  "Kim Kardashian Urges Support for Telethon". The Armenian Weekly. 20 May 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  Milliken, Mary (12 October 2007). "Armenian-American clout buys genocide breakthrough". Reuters. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 

^ Thon, Caroline (2012). Armenians
Armenians
in Hamburg: an ethnographic exploration into the relationship between diaspora and success. Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster. p. 25. ISBN 978-3-643-90226-9.  ^ Taylor, Tony (2008). Denial: history betrayed. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Pub. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-522-85482-4.  ^ "National Statistics Office of Georgia" (PDF).  ^ В Абхазии объявили данные переписи населения. Delfi (in Russian). 29 December 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2013.  (According to the 2011 census). ^ Republic of Artsakh. "Population estimates of NKR as of 01.01.2013". Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ Gibney, Matthew J. (2005). Immigration and asylum: from 1900 to the present. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-57607-796-2.  ^ Vardanyan, Tamara (21 June 2007). Իրանահայ համայնք. ճամպրուկային տրամադրություններ [The Iranian-Armenian community] (in Armenian). Noravank Foundation. Retrieved 5 January 2013.  ^ Sargsyan, Babken (8 December 2012). Armenian Service "Գերմանիաիի հայ համայնքը [Armenian community of Germany]" Check url= value (help) (in Armenian). Retrieved 10 January 2015.  ^ "THE VIRTUAL MUSEUM OF ARMENIAN DIASPORA". Ministry of Diaspora of the Republic of Armenia. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-19.  ^ The distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Kiev: State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2001, retrieved 5 January 2013 [permanent dead link] ^ Comunidade armênia prospera no Brasil, mas não abandona luta pela memória do massacre. By Breno Salvador. O Globo, 24 April 2015 ^ "Federal Senate of Brazil Recognizes Armenian Genocide". Armenian Weekly. 3 June 2015.  ^ Bedevyan, Astghik (18 January 2011). "Հունաստանի հայ համայնքը պատրաստվում է Հայաստանի նախագահի հետ հանդիպմանը [Armenian community of Greece preparing for the meeting with the Armenian president]" (in Armenian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Armenian Service. Retrieved 10 January 2015.  ^ Ayvazyan 2003, p. 100. ^ "Foreign Ministry: 89,000 minorities live in Turkey". Today's Zaman. 15 December 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2013.  ^ Canada National Household Survey, Statistics Canada, 2011, retrieved 20 August 2013 . Of those, 31,075 reported single and 24,675 mixed Armenian ancestry. ^ "Narodowy Spis Powszechny 2011 (Polish Census of 2011)". Główny Urząd Statystyczny (Polish Central Statistical Office). 2011. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.  ^ Richard G. Hovannisian, The Armenian people from ancient to modern times: the fifteenth century to the twentieth century, Volume 2, p. 427, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. ^ a b c see Hastings, Adrian (2000). A World History of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-8028-4875-8.  ^ " Armenia
Armenia
first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion". Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 2007-02-27.  ^ "Χαλύβοισι πρὸς νότον Ἀρμένιοι ὁμουρέουσι (The Armenians
Armenians
border on the Chalybes
Chalybes
to the south)". Chahin, Mark (2001). The Kingdom of Armenia. London: Routledge. pp. fr. 203. ISBN 0-7007-1452-9.  ^ Xenophon. Anabasis. pp. IV.v.2–9.  ^ Razmik Panossian, The Armenians: From Kings And Priests to Merchants And Commissars, Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press
(2006), ISBN 978-0-231-13926-7, p. 106. ^ Rafael Ishkhanyan, "Illustrated History of Armenia," Yerevan, 1989 ^ Elisabeth Bauer. Armenia: Past and Present (1981), p. 49 ^ Thomas Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav V. Ivanov, The Early History of Indo-European Languages, March 1990, p. 110. ^ a b c Hamp, Eric P. (August 2013). "The Expansion of the Indo-European Languages: An Indo-Europeanist's Evolving View" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers. 239: 8, 10, 13. Retrieved 8 February 2014.  ^ Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Xue, Yali; Comas, David; Gasparini, Paolo; Zalloua, Pierre; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2015). "Genetic evidence for an origin of the Armenians
Armenians
from Bronze Age
Bronze Age
mixing of multiple populations". European Journal of Human Genetics. 24 (6): 931. bioRxiv 015396 . doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.206. PMC 4820045 . PMID 26486470.  ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/11/science/study-backs-5th-century-historians-date-for-founding-of-armenia.html?_r=0 ^ Vahan Kurkjian, "History of Armenia", Michigan, 1968, History of Armenia
Armenia
by Vahan Kurkjian; Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, v. 12, Yerevan
Yerevan
1987; Artak Movsisyan, "Sacred Highland: Armenia
Armenia
in the spiritual conception of the Near East", Yerevan, 2000; Martiros Kavoukjian, "The Genesis of Armenian People", Montreal, 1982 ^ Curtis, John (November 2003). "The Achaemenid Period in Northern Iraq". L'archéologie de l'empire achéménide (Paris, France): 12. ^ a b Mary Boyce. Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices Psychology Press, 2001 ISBN 978-0415239028 p 84 ^ "The conversion of Armenia
Armenia
to Christianity was probably the most crucial step in its history. It turned Armenia
Armenia
sharply away from its Iranian past and stamped it for centuries with an intrinsic character as clear to the native population as to those outside its borders, who identified Armenia
Armenia
almost at once as the first state to adopt Christianity". (Nina Garsoïan in Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, ed. R.G. Hovannisian, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997, Volume 1, p.81). ^ traditionally dated to 301 following Mikayel Chamchian (1784). 314 is the date favoured by mainstream scholarship, so Nicholas Adontz (1970), p.82, following the research of Ananian, and Seibt The Christianization of Caucasus
Caucasus
(Armenia, Georgia, Albania) (2002). ^ a b Mary Boyce. Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices Psychology Press, 2001 ISBN 0415239028 p 84 ^ Charl Wolhuter, Corene de Wet. International Comparative Perspectives on Religion and Education AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, ISBN 1920382372. 1 March 2014 p 31 ^ Hodgson, Natasha (2010). Kostick, Conor, ed. The Crusades and the Near East: Cultural Histories. Routledge. ISBN 1136902473.  ^ Donald Rayfield. Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia Reaktion Books, 2013 ISBN 1780230702 p 165 ^ Steven R. Ward. Immortal, Updated Edition: A Military History of Iran
Iran
and Its Armed Forces Georgetown University Press, 8 January 2014 ISBN 1626160325 p 43 ^ "Armenians: Past and Present in the Making of National Identity". Retrieved 30 December 2014.  ^ Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728 ABC-CLIO, 2 December 2014 ISBN 1598849484 ^ Vahan Kurkjian, "History of Armenia", Michigan, 1968, History of Armenia
Armenia
by Vahan Kurkjian ^ " Armenian Quarter
Armenian Quarter
in Jerusalem". Archived from the original on 7 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-27.  ^ The Cambridge Ancient History. vol. 12, p. 486. London: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ^ Terzian, Shelley (2014). Wolhuter, Charl; de Wet, Corene, eds. International Comparative Perspectives on Religion and Education. African Sun Media. p. 29. ISBN 1920382372.  ^ Agathangelos, History of St. Gregory and the Conversion of Armenia ^ Agathangelos, History of the Armenians, Robert W. Thomson, State University of New York Press, 1974 ^ "A Migrating Catholicosate". Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2007.  ^ "Two Catholicosates within the Armenian Church". Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2007.  ^ Sacred Geometry and Armenian Architecture Armenia
Armenia
Travel, History, Archeology & Ecology Tour Armenia
Armenia
Travel Guide to Armenia ^ Armenia, Past and Present; Elisabeth Bauer, Jacob Schmidheiny, Frederick Leist, 1981 ^ "Sport in Armenia". Retrieved 2007-02-27.  ^ Hakobyan, Hravard H. (1990). The Medieval Art of Artsakh. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Parberakan. p. 84. ISBN 978-5-8079-0195-8.  ^ a b c Hakobyan. Medieval Art of Artsakh, p. 84. ^ (in Armenian) Kirakos Gandzaketsi. Պատմություն Հայոց (History of Armenia). Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1961, p. 216, as cited in Hakobyan. Medieval Art of Artsakh, p. 84, note 18. ^ Ulubabyan, Bagrat A. (1975). Խաչենի իշխանությունը, X-XVI դարերում (The Principality of Khachen, From the 10th to 16th Centuries) (in Armenian). Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences. p. 267.  ^ http://www.armeniapedia.org/wiki/Ghapama

General

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State
United States Department of State
website http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm (Background Notes). The categorization of Armenian churches in Los Angeles used information from Sacred Transformation: Armenian Churches in Los Angeles a project of the USC School of Policy, Planning, and Development. Some of the information about the history of the Armenians
Armenians
comes from the multi-volume History of the Armenian People, Yerevan, Armenia, 1971.

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Armenians.

I. M. Diakonoff, The Pre-History of the Armenian People (revised, trans. Lori Jennings), Caravan Books, New York (1984), ISBN 978-0-88206-039-2. George A. Bournoutian, A History of the Armenian People, 2 vol. (1994) Hovannisian, Richard G., ed. (September 1997), The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I – The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-10169-4  Hovannisian, Richard G., ed. (September 1997),  The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times , Volume II - Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century , New York: St. Martin's Press , ISBN 0-312-10168-6  Redgate, Anne Elizabeth (1999), The Armenians
Armenians
(1st ed.), Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, ISBN 0-631-22037-2  Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm, The Polish Experience through World War II: A Better Day Has Not Come, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2013, ISBN 978-0-7391-7819-5 Russell D. Gray and Quentin D. Atkinson, "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin", Nature, 426, 435–439 (2003) George A. Bournoutian, A Concise History of the Armenian People (Mazda, 2003, 2004). Ayvazyan, Hovhannes (2003). Հայ Սփյուռք հանրագիտարան [Encyclopedia of Armenian Diaspora] (in Armenian). 1. Yerevan: Armenian Encyclopedia publishing. ISBN 5-89700-020-4. 

UCLA
UCLA
conference series proceedings

The UCLA
UCLA
conference series titled "Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces" is organized by the Holder of the Armenian Educational Foundation Chair in Modern Armenian History. The conference proceedings are edited by Richard G. Hovannisian. Published in Costa Mesa, CA, by Mazda Publishers, they are:

Armenian Van/Vaspurakan (2000) OCLC 44774992 Armenian Baghesh/Bitlis and Taron/Mush (2001) OCLC 48223061 Armenian Tsopk/Kharpert (2002) OCLC 50478560 Armenian Karin/Erzerum (2003) OCLC 52540130 Armenian Sebastia/Sivas and Lesser Armenia
Armenia
(2004) OCLC 56414051 Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa (2006) OCLC 67361643 Armenian Cilicia
Cilicia
(2008) OCLC 185095701 Armenian Pontus: the Trebizond-Black Sea communities (2009) OCLC 272307784

v t e

Armenian diaspora

Population by country Largest communities Ethnic enclaves

Traditional areas of Armenian settlement

Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) Nakhichevan Western Armenia Cilicia

Caucasus

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(Baku) Georgia

Tbilisi Abkhazia

Former Soviet Union

Russia

Circassia

Ukraine

Crimea

Belarus Moldova Baltic states Central Asia

Americas

Argentina Brazil Canada Chile Mexico United States

Los Angeles

Uruguay Venezuela

Europe

Austria Bulgaria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark France Germany Greece

Hayhurum

Hungary Italy Malta The Netherlands Poland Romania Serbia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom

Middle East

Bahrain Egypt Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Qatar Syria Turkey

Istanbul Hidden Armenians

United Arab Emirates

Asia

Afghanistan Bangladesh China India Indonesia Myanmar Pakistan Singapore

Africa

Ethiopia Sudan

Oceania

Australia

v t e

Armenia articles

History  (timeline)

Early

Origins Name Kura–Araxes culture Hayk Hayasa-Azzi Mitanni Nairi Kingdom of Urartu Median kingdom Orontid Dynasty Achaemenid Empire

Satrapy of Armenia

Kingdom of Armenia Roman Armenia Parthian Empire Byzantine Armenia Sasanian Armenia

Middle

Arminiya Sajids Bagratuni Armenia Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Sallarids Ilkhanate Chobanids Ag Qoyunlu Kara Koyunlu Ottoman Armenia 1508–1828 Persian Armenia Safavid Iran Afsharid Iran Qajar Iran

Erivan Khanate Karabakh Khanate Treaty of Turkmenchay

Russian Armenia

Modern

First Republic of Armenia Soviet Armenia Independent Armenia

By topic

Armenian Genocide Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflict Armenian national liberation movement more...

Geography

Ararat Plain Armenian Highlands Cities Earthquakes Extreme points Lake Sevan Mountains Municipalities Rivers and lakes Shikahogh State Reserve Shirak Plain more...

Politics

Administrative divisions Constitution Corruption Elections Foreign relations Government Human rights Military National Assembly National Security Service Police Political parties President Prime Minister President of the National Assembly more on government on politics

Economy

Agriculture Armex (stock exchange) Central Bank Dram (currency) Energy Mining Pension reform Telecommunications Tourism Transport Waste management

Culture

Alphabet Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Dance Language

Eastern Western

Literature Music Sport Theatre more...

Demographics

Census Crime Education Ethnic minorities Health People

diaspora

Social issues Women more...

Religion

Armenian Apostolic Church Armenian Catholic Church Armenian Evangelical Church Armenian Brotherhood Church Judaism Islam more...

Symbols

Armenian Cross Armenian eternity sign Coat of arms Flag Mount Ararat National anthem Apricot Grape Pomegranate

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

v t e

Eastern Christianity

Cultural sphere
Cultural sphere
of Christian traditions that developed since Early Christianity in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Eastern Africa, Asia Minor, Southern India, and parts of the Far East.

Communions

Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church Oriental Orthodoxy Eastern Catholic Churches Assyrian Church of the East Ancient Church of the East

History

Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church Byzantine Empire Ecumenical council Church of the East Council of Chalcedon Iconoclastic controversy St Thomas Christians Christianization of Bulgaria Christianization of Kievan Rus' East–West Schism

Scriptures

Books Canon Old Testament New Testament

Theology

Hesychasm Icon Apophaticism Filioque
Filioque
clause Miaphysitism Dyophysitism Nestorianism Theosis Theoria Phronema Philokalia Praxis Theotokos Hypostasis Ousia Essence–energies distinction Metousiosis¨

Worship

Sign of the cross Divine Liturgy Iconography Asceticism Omophorion

Ethnic groups with significant adherence

Majorities

Indo-European

Armenians Aromanians Belarusians Bulgarians Greeks

including Greek Cypriots

Macedonians Megleno-Romanians Moldovans Montenegrins Ossetians Romanians Russians Serbs Ukrainians

Afro-Asiatic

Agaw Amhara Assyrians Copts Chaldean Catholics Maronites Tigrayans

Turkic

Chuvash Dolgans Gagauz Khakas Kryashens Yakuts

Kartvelian

Georgians

including Svans
Svans
and Mingrelians

Finno-Ugric

Izhorians Karelians Khanty Komi Mansi Mari Mordvins Setos Udmurts Vepsians Votes

Samoyedic

Enets Nenets Nganasans Selkups

Chukotko-Kamchatkan

Alyutors Itelmens Kereks Koryaks

Dené–Yeniseian

Kets Tlingits

Eskimo–Aleut

Aleuts Yupiks

Northwest Caucasian

Abkhazians

Nakh

Batsbi

Minorities

Adyghe

Kabardians

Kists Albanians Altai Arabs Buryats Chukchi Estonians

Setos Kihnu

Finns Inuit Malayali Oromos Romani Rusyns Saami

Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
portal

v t e

Ethnic groups in Armenia

Armenians

Armeno-Tats Assyrians Azerbaijanis Greeks Kurds

Yazidis

Russians Udis Ukrainians

v t e

Peoples of the Caucasus

Caucasian

Caspian

Avar–Andic

Andi

Akhvakh Bagvalals–Tindis Botlix–Godoberi Chamalals Karata

Avars

Didoic

Bezhta Hinukh Hunzibs Khwarshi Tsez

Lezgic

Aguls Archin Budukh Jek Kryts Lezgins Rutuls Tabasarans Tsakhurs Udin

Nakh

Bats Chechens

including Kists

Ingush

Other

Dargins Khinalug Laks

Kartvelian

Georgians

including Lazs

Pontic

Abkhaz–Abaza Circassians

Indo-European

Armenian

Armenians

Hellenic

Caucasus
Caucasus
Greeks

including Urums

Pontic Greeks

Iranic

Northern

Ossetians

Western

Talysh Tats Kurds

Slavic

Cossacks

Kuban Cossacks Terek Cossacks

Russians Ukrainians

Semitic

Georgian Jews Mountain Jews

Mongolic

Kalmyks

Turkic

Kipchak–Cuman

Karachay–Balkars Kumyks

Kipchak–Nogai

Nogai

Oghuz

Azerbaijanis Meskhetian Turks Turkmens

 Ethnic minorities in Armenia  Ethnic minorities in Azerbaijan  Ethnic minorities in Georgia  Ethnic minorities in Russia

Authority control

LCCN: sh85007306 GND: 4085933-2 N