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v t e

The Armenian hypothesis
Armenian hypothesis
of the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
homeland, proposed by Georgian Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Russian linguist Vyacheslav Ivanov in 1985, suggests that Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
was spoken during the 4th millennium BC in the Armenian Highlands.

Contents

1 Hypothesis 2 Reception 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links

Hypothesis[edit] The two presented the hypothesis in two articles in Vestnik drevnej istorii and then in a much larger work.[1] They claim that the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
derive from a language spoken originally in Armenia, later migrating to the Pontic steppe
Pontic steppe
from which it expanded, according to the Kurgan
Kurgan
hypothesis, into Western Europe. The Hittite, Indo-Iranian, Greek and Armenian branches split off when this Proto-Indoeuropean language was still spoken in the Armenian homeland.[1] The Indo-Hittite model[citation needed] does not include the Anatolian languages
Anatolian languages
in its scenario, which are identified with the Kura-Araxes culture.[2][3][4][5][6] The phonological peculiarities proposed in the glottalic theory would be best preserved in Armenian and the Germanic languages. Armenian remained in situ and would be particularly archaic despite its late attestation. Proto-Greek
Proto-Greek
would be practically equivalent to Mycenaean Greek from the 17th century BC and closely associate Greek migration to Greece
Greece
with the Indo-Aryan migration
Indo-Aryan migration
to India
India
at about the same time (the Indo-European expansion
Indo-European expansion
at the transition to the Late Bronze Age, including the possibility of Indo-European Kassites). The hypothesis argues for the latest possible date of Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
(without Anatolian), roughly a millennium later than the mainstream Kurgan
Kurgan
hypothesis. In this respect, it represents an opposite to the Anatolian hypothesis
Anatolian hypothesis
in spite of the geographical proximity of the respective suggested Urheimaten by diverging from the timeframe suggested there by approximately 3000 years. Tamas Gamkrelidze published an updated version of the hypothesis in 2010.[7] Reception[edit] Robert Drews says that "most of the chronological and historical arguments seem fragile at best, and of those that I am able to judge, some are evidently wrong". However, he argues that it is far more powerful as a linguistic model, providing insights into the relationship between the Indo-European and the Semitic and Kartvelian languages. He continues, "It is certain that the inhabitants of the forested areas of Armenia
Armenia
very early became accomplished woodworkers, and it now appears that in the second millennium they produced spoked-wheel vehicles that served as models as far away as China. And we have long known that from the second millennium onward, Armenia
Armenia
was important for the breeding of horses. It is thus not surprising to find that what clues we have suggest that chariot warfare was pioneered in eastern Anatolia. Finally, our picture of what the PIE speakers did, and when, owes much to the recently proposed hypothesis that the homeland of the PIE speakers was Armenia."[1] J. Grepin wrote in a review that the model of linguistic relationships is "the most complex, far reaching and fully supported of this century".[8] An extensive paper on genetic analysis published online by Wolfgang Haak and 38 other researchers from 25 research institutions in 2015 [9] concludes :

The Armenian plateau hypothesis gains in plausibility by the fact that we have discovered evidence of admixture in the ancestry of Yamnaya steppe pastoralists, including gene flow from a population of Near Eastern ancestry for which Armenians
Armenians
today appear to be a reasonable surrogate. However, the question of what languages were spoken by the “Eastern European hunter-gatherers” and the southern, Armenian-like, ancestral population remains open.

In 2018, David Reich wrote in his last book that "the most likely location of the population that first spoke an Indo-European language was south of the Caucasus Mountains, perhaps in present-day Iran or Armenia, because ancient DNA from people who lived there matches what we would expect for a source population both for the Yamnaya and for ancient Anatolians".[10] Nevertheless, reich also states that some, if not most, af all Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
were spread by thr Yamnaya-people.[11] See also[edit]

Kura–Araxes culture Graeco-Armeno-Aryan Proto-Armenian
Proto-Armenian
language

References[edit]

^ a b c Drews, Robert, The Coming of the Greeks: Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East, Princeton University Press, 1994, pp.33ff ^ Renfrew, A. C., 1987, Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins, London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6612-5 ^ Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze & V. V. Ivanov (March 1990). "The Early History of Indo-European Languages". Scientific American. Vol. 262 no. 3. pp. 110–116.  ^ Renfrew, Colin (2003). "Time Depth, Convergence Theory, and Innovation in Proto-Indo-European". Languages in Prehistoric Europe. ISBN 3-8253-1449-9.  ^ Gray, Russell D.; Atkinson, Quentin D. (2003). "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin" (PDF). Nature. 426 (6965): 435. doi:10.1038/nature02029. PMID 14647380.  ^ James P. Mallory, "Kuro-Araxes Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997. ^ Gamkrelidse, Tamas (2010). "In Defense of Ejectives for Proto-Indo-European" (PDF). BULLETIN OF THE GEORGIAN NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 4 (1).  ^ J. Grepin, Times Literary Supplement, March 14, 1986, p.278. ^ "Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe" (PDF).  ^ David Reich, Who We Are and How We Got Here: Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2018, p.177 ^ Indo-European.eu, Proto-Indo-European homeland
Proto-Indo-European homeland
south of the Caucasus?

Bibliography[edit]

T. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov, The Early History of Indo-European Languages, Scientific American, March 1990 I. M. Diakonoff, The Prehistory of the Armenian People (1984). Robert Drews, The Coming of the Greeks
Greeks
(1988), argues for late Greek arrival in the framework of the Armenian hypothesis. Martiros Kavoukjian, Armenia, Subartu, and Sumer : the Indo-European homeland and ancient Mesopotamia, trans. N. Ouzounian, Montreal (1987), ISBN 0-921885-00-8.

External links[edit]

Indo-European family tree, showing Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and sub branches Giacomo Benedetti, Can we finally identify the real cradle of Indo-Europeans? PeopleOfAr, The Armenian Plateau Hypothesis Gains In Plausibility Dieneke's Anthropology Blog (2013), Origin of Early Transcaucasian Culture (aka Kura-Araxes culture)

v t e

Armenian language

Origin

Armenian hypothesis Graeco-Armenian Armeno-Aryan

History

Proto-Armenian Classical Armenian
Classical Armenian
(c. 405–1100) Middle Armenian (c. 1100–1700) Modern Armenian
Modern Armenian
(from c. 1700)

Alphabet

Orthography

Classical Reformed

Braille Romanization Numerals

Grammar

Verb table

Eastern Western

Dialects

Standardized

Western Eastern

Regional dialects

Homshetsi Karabakh Karin Mush Yerevan

Literature

List of writers

Promotion and study

Armenian National Academy of Sciences Armenian studies

Related topics

Proverbs

v t e

Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
language

Phonology

Accent Centum and satem Glottalic theory Laryngeal theory s-mobile Sound laws

boukólos rule kʷetwóres rule Glossary of sound laws Bartholomae's Grassmann's Osthoff's Pinault's Siebs' Sievers' (Edgerton's converse) Stang's Szemerényi's

Morphology

Ablaut Caland system h₂e-conjugation Narten present Nasal infix Root Thematic vowel Vṛddhi-derivation

Parts of speech

Nominals (nouns and adjectives) Numerals Particles Pronouns Verbs

copula

Vocabulary

Main sources

Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (IEW) Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben
Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben
(LIV) Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme
Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme
(LIPP) Nomina im Indogermanischen Lexikon
Nomina im Indogermanischen Lexikon
(NIL) Indo-European Etymological Dictionary (IEED)

Origins

Indo-European migrations
Indo-European migrations
& Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
Urheimat hypotheses Salmon problem

Artificial compositions

Schleicher's fable The king and the god

See also

Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
religion Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
society Indo-European studies Encyclopedia of Indo-European C