Parouse.com
 Parouse.com



Coordinates: 17°03′N 61°48′W / 17.050°N 61.800°W / 17.050; -61.800

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Each Endeavouring, All Achieving"

Anthem: Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee

Royal anthem: God Save the Queena

Capital and largest city St. John's 17°7′N 61°51′W / 17.117°N 61.850°W / 17.117; -61.850

Official languages English

Ethnic groups (1996) 89% Black 4.4% Mixed 2.4% White 2.5% Other

Demonym Antiguan Barbudan/Barbudian

Government Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional monarchy

• Monarch

Elizabeth II

• Governor-General

Rodney Williams

Legislature Parliament

• Upper house

Senate

• Lower house

House of Representatives

Independence

• Associated State

27 February 1967

• from the United Kingdom

1 November 1981

Area

• Total

440 km2 (170 sq mi) (182nd)

• Water (%)

negligible

Population

• 2016 estimate

100,963[1] (199th)

• 2011 census

81,799

• Density

186/km2 (481.7/sq mi)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$2.372 billion[2]

• Per capita

$25,998[2]

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$1.454 billion[2]

• Per capita

$15,932[2]

HDI (2014)  0.783[3] high · 58th

Currency East Caribbean dollar
East Caribbean dollar
(XCD)

Time zone AST (UTC-4)

Drives on the left

Calling code +1-268

ISO 3166 code AG

Internet TLD .ag

"God Save the Queen" is the official national anthem, but is generally used only on regal and vice-regal occasions.

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda (/ænˈtiːɡ(w)ə ... bɑːrˈb(j)uːdə/ ( listen); ann-TEE-g(w)ə ... bar-B(Y)OO-də) is a sovereign state in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
and the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of two major islands, Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda, and a number of smaller islands (including Great Bird, Green, Guiana, Long, Maiden and York Islands and further south, the island of Redonda). The permanent population numbers about 81,800 (at the 2011 Census) and the capital and largest port and city is St. John's, on Antigua. Lying near each other (the main Barbuda
Barbuda
airport is less than 0.5° of latitude, or 30 nautical miles, north of the main Antigua
Antigua
airport), Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
are in the middle of the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles, roughly at 17°N of the equator. The country's name was given by Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in 1493 after discovering the island, in honor of the Virgin of La Antigua
Antigua
in the Seville Cathedral. The country is nicknamed "Land of 365 Beaches" due to the many beaches surrounding the islands. Its governance, language, and culture have all been strongly influenced by the British Empire, of which the country was formerly a part, gaining sovereignty on 1 November 1981. It remains a member of the Commonwealth and Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
is the head of state.[4] In September 2017, Hurricane Irma
Hurricane Irma
damaged or destroyed 95% of Barbuda's buildings and infrastructure. Everyone on the island was evacuated to Antigua.[5]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Largest cities 3.2 Islands 3.3 Climate 3.4 Ecology

4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnic groups 4.2 Languages 4.3 Religion

5 Governance

5.1 Political system 5.2 Elections

5.2.1 Party elections

5.3 Judiciary 5.4 Foreign relations 5.5 Military 5.6 Administrative divisions

6 Economy 7 Education 8 Culture

8.1 Festivals 8.2 Cuisine 8.3 Media 8.4 Local literature

9 Sports 10 Notables 11 Symbols 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Etymology[edit] Antigua
Antigua
is Spanish for "ancient" and barbuda is Spanish for "bearded". The island of Antigua, originally called Wadadli by Arawaks, is today called Wadadli by locals; Caribs possibly called it Wa'omoni. Christopher Columbus, while sailing by in 1493 may have named it Santa Maria la Antigua, after an icon in the Spanish Seville Cathedral. History[edit] Main article: History of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Antigua
Antigua
was first settled by archaic age hunter-gatherer Amerindians called the Siboney or Ciboney.[6] Carbon dating has established the earliest settlements started around 3100 BC. They were succeeded by the ceramic age pre-Columbian Arawak-speaking Saladoid people who migrated from the lower Orinoco River. The Arawaks
Arawaks
introduced agriculture, raising, among other crops, the famous Antigua
Antigua
black pineapple (Moris cultivar of Ananas comosus), corn, sweet potatoes, chiles, guava, tobacco, and cotton. The indigenous West Indians made excellent seagoing vessels which they used to sail around on the Atlantic and the Caribbean. As a result, Caribs and Arawaks
Arawaks
were able to colonise much of South America and the Caribbean Islands. Their descendants still live there, notably in Brazil, Venezuela, and Colombia. Most Arawaks
Arawaks
left Antigua
Antigua
around 1100 AD; those who remained were later raided by the Caribs. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Caribs' superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most of the West Indian Arawak
Arawak
nations, enslaving some and possibly cannibalising others.

Antigua
Antigua
in 1823

The Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
makes it clear that the European invaders had difficulty differentiating between the various groups of the native peoples they encountered. As a result, the number and types of ethnic/tribal groups in existence at that time may have been much more varied and numerous than just the two mentioned in this article. European and African diseases, malnutrition, and slavery eventually killed most of the Caribbean's native population. Smallpox
Smallpox
was probably the greatest killer.[7] Some historians[who?] believe that the psychological stress of slavery may also have played a part in the massive number of deaths amongst enslaved natives. Others believe the reportedly abundant but starchy, low-protein diet may have contributed to their severe malnutrition as they were used to a diet fortified with protein from the sea.[8] The Spaniards did not colonise Antigua
Antigua
because it lacked fresh water but not aggressive Caribs. The English settled on Antigua
Antigua
in 1632; Christopher Codrington settled on Barbuda
Barbuda
in 1684. Slavery, established to run sugar plantations around 1684, was abolished in 1834. The British ruled from 1632 to 1981, with a brief French interlude in 1666. The islands became an independent state within the Commonwealth of Nations on 1 November 1981, with Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
as the first Queen of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda. Vere Cornwall Bird Sr became the first Prime Minister. Most of Barbuda
Barbuda
was devastated in early September 2017 by Hurricane Irma, which brought winds with speeds reaching 295 km/h (185 mph). The storm damaged or destroyed 95% of the island's buildings and infrastructure, leaving Barbuda
Barbuda
"barely habitable" according to Prime Minister Gaston Browne. Nearly everyone on the island was evacuated to Antigua.[5] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

A map of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

English Harbour, Antigua

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
both are generally low-lying islands whose terrain has been influenced more by limestone formations than volcanic activity. The highest point on Antigua
Antigua
is Mount Obama
Mount Obama
(formerly Boggy Peak), the remnant of a volcanic crater rising 402 metres (1,319 feet). The shorelines of both islands are greatly indented with beaches, lagoons, and natural harbours. The islands are rimmed by reefs and shoals. There are few streams as rainfall is slight. Both islands lack adequate amounts of fresh groundwater. Largest cities[edit] Further information: List of cities in Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Islands[edit]

Antigua

Barbuda

Redonda

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

Antigua17°5′0″N 61°48′0″W / 17.08333°N 61.80000°W / 17.08333; -61.80000

Prickly Pear Island17°10′33″N 61°47′53″W / 17.17583°N 61.79806°W / 17.17583; -61.79806 Great Bird Island17°8′46″N 61°43′31″W / 17.14611°N 61.72528°W / 17.14611; -61.72528 Galley Island Major17°08′35.5″N 61°43′37.5″W / 17.143194°N 61.727083°W / 17.143194; -61.727083 Galley Island Minor Jenny Island Exchange Island17°08′11″N 61°43′23″W / 17.13639°N 61.72306°W / 17.13639; -61.72306 Rabbit Island17°8′10″N 61°43′52″W / 17.13611°N 61.73111°W / 17.13611; -61.73111 Lobster Island17°8′1″N 61°43′47″W / 17.13361°N 61.72972°W / 17.13361; -61.72972 Long Island17°9′19″N 61°45′14″W / 17.15528°N 61.75389°W / 17.15528; -61.75389 Maiden Island17°8′44″N 61°45′48″W / 17.14556°N 61.76333°W / 17.14556; -61.76333 Rat Island17°7′44″N 61°46′11″W / 17.12889°N 61.76972°W / 17.12889; -61.76972 Little Bird Island17°09′27″N 61°44′17″W / 17.15750°N 61.73806°W / 17.15750; -61.73806 Hells Gate Island17°8′26″N 61°43′18″W / 17.14056°N 61.72167°W / 17.14056; -61.72167 Monocle Point Island Red Head Island17°8′16″N 61°43′41″W / 17.13778°N 61.72806°W / 17.13778; -61.72806 Guiana Island17°7′26″N 61°43′57″W / 17.12389°N 61.73250°W / 17.12389; -61.73250 Crump Island17°6′32″N 61°43′8″W / 17.10889°N 61.71889°W / 17.10889; -61.71889 Nanny Island (Henry Island)17°04′05″N 61°41′26″W / 17.06806°N 61.69056°W / 17.06806; -61.69056 Laviscounts Island17°5′57″N 61°43′24″W / 17.09917°N 61.72333°W / 17.09917; -61.72333 Bird Island17°4′45″N 61°40′20″W / 17.07917°N 61.67222°W / 17.07917; -61.67222 Round Island Hawes Island17°6′46″N 61°43′40″W / 17.11278°N 61.72778°W / 17.11278; -61.72778 Little Island Green Island17°4′11″N 61°39′58″W / 17.06972°N 61.66611°W / 17.06972; -61.66611 Pelican Island17°06′21″N 61°42′17″W / 17.10583°N 61.70472°W / 17.10583; -61.70472 York Island17°3′11″N 61°40′9″W / 17.05306°N 61.66917°W / 17.05306; -61.66917 Codrington Island17°6′9″N 61°42′21″W / 17.10250°N 61.70583°W / 17.10250; -61.70583

Blake Island17°0′52″N 61°46′58″W / 17.01444°N 61.78278°W / 17.01444; -61.78278 Cinnamon Island17°7′21″N 61°47′9″W / 17.12250°N 61.78583°W / 17.12250; -61.78583 Five Islands17°04′50″N 61°54′50″W / 17.08056°N 61.91389°W / 17.08056; -61.91389 Hawksbill Rock17°6′43″N 61°54′8″W / 17.11194°N 61.90222°W / 17.11194; -61.90222 Johnson Island17°01′31″N 61°53′28″W / 17.02528°N 61.89111°W / 17.02528; -61.89111 Maiden Island17°5′44″N 61°53′14″W / 17.09556°N 61.88722°W / 17.09556; -61.88722 Moor Rock17°09′49″N 61°45′27.0″W / 17.16361°N 61.757500°W / 17.16361; -61.757500 Mouse Island17°07′42.0″N 61°46′13″W / 17.128333°N 61.77028°W / 17.128333; -61.77028 Neck of Land17°03′40″N 61°40′29″W / 17.06111°N 61.67472°W / 17.06111; -61.67472 Sandy Island17°8′4″N 61°55′36″W / 17.13444°N 61.92667°W / 17.13444; -61.92667 Smith Island17°2′27″N 61°40′48″W / 17.04083°N 61.68000°W / 17.04083; -61.68000 The Sisters17°9′39″N 61°52′6″W / 17.16083°N 61.86833°W / 17.16083; -61.86833 Vernon’s Island17°6′51″N 61°46′8″W / 17.11417°N 61.76889°W / 17.11417; -61.76889 Wicked Will Island17°02′53.5″N 61°40′19.5″W / 17.048194°N 61.672083°W / 17.048194; -61.672083

Barbuda17°37′0″N 61°48′0″W / 17.61667°N 61.80000°W / 17.61667; -61.80000

Goat Island17°42′20″N 61°50′49″W / 17.70556°N 61.84694°W / 17.70556; -61.84694 Kid Island17°41′47″N 61°48′52″W / 17.69639°N 61.81444°W / 17.69639; -61.81444 Man of War Island17°40′5″N 61°51′5″W / 17.66806°N 61.85139°W / 17.66806; -61.85139 Rabbit Island17°42′23″N 61°49′36″W / 17.70639°N 61.82667°W / 17.70639; -61.82667

Redonda16°56′20″N 62°20′30″W / 16.93889°N 62.34167°W / 16.93889; -62.34167

Climate[edit] Rainfall averages 990 mm (39 in) per year, with the amount varying widely from season to season. In general the wettest period is between September and November. The islands generally experience low humidity and recurrent droughts. Temperatures average 27 °C (80.6 °F), with a range from 23 °C (73.4 °F) to 29 °C (84.2 °F) in the winter to from 25 °C (77.0 °F) to 30 °C (86.0 °F) in the summer and autumn. The coolest period is between December and February. Hurricanes strike on an average of once a year, including the powerful Category 5 Hurricane
Hurricane
Irma, on 6 September 2017, which damaged 95% of the structures on Barbuda.[9] Some 1,800 people were evacuated to Antigua.[10] An estimate published by Time indicated that over $100 million would be required to rebuild homes and infrastructure. Philmore Mullin, Director of Barbuda's National Office of Disaster Services, said that "all critical infrastructure and utilities are non-existent – food supply, medicine, shelter, electricity, water, communications, waste management". He summarised the situation as follows: "Public utilities need to be rebuilt in their entirety... It is optimistic to think anything can be rebuilt in six months ... In my 25 years in disaster management, I have never seen something like this."[11] Ecology[edit] The sandy soil on much of the islands has only scrub vegetation. Some parts of Antigua
Antigua
are more fertile–most notably the central plain–due to the volcanic ash in the soil. These areas support some tropical vegetation and agricultural uses. The planting of acacia, mahogany, and red and white cedar on Antigua
Antigua
has led to as much as 11% of the land becoming forested, helping to conserve the soil and water. Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

Antigua
Antigua
& Barbuda's population (1961–2010). Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Ethnic groups[edit] Antigua
Antigua
has a population of 100,963,[1] mostly made up of people of West African, British, and Madeiran descent. The ethnic distribution consists of 91% Black & Mulatto, 4.4% mixed race, 1.7% White, and 2.9% other (primarily East Indian and other Asian). Most Whites are of Irish or British descent. Christian Levantine Arabs, and a small number of Asians
Asians
and Sephardic Jews
Sephardic Jews
make up the remainder of the population. An increasingly large percentage of the population lives abroad, most notably in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(Antiguan Britons), United States
United States
and Canada. A minority of Antiguan residents are immigrants from other countries, particularly from Dominica, Guyana
Guyana
and Jamaica, and, increasing, from the Dominican Republic, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Nigeria. An estimated 4,500 American citizens also make their home in Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda, making their numbers one of the largest American populations in the English-speaking Eastern Caribbean.[12] Languages[edit] English is the official language. The Barbudan accent is slightly different from the Antiguan. In the years before Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda's independence, Standard English was widely spoken in preference to Antiguan Creole. Generally, the upper and middle classes shun Antiguan Creole. The educational system dissuades the use of Antiguan Creole and instruction is done in Standard (British) English. Many of the words used in the Antiguan dialect are derived from British as well as African languages. This can be easily seen in phrases such as: "Ent it?" meaning "Ain't it?" which is itself dialectal and means "Isn't it?". Common island proverbs can often be traced to Africa. Spanish is spoken by around 10,000 inhabitants.[13] Religion[edit]

St. John's Cathedral, St. John's

A majority of 77%[14] of Antiguans are Christians, with the Anglicans (17,6%) being the largest single denomination. Other Christian denominations present are Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church
(12,4%), Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism
(12,2%), Moravian Church
Moravian Church
(8,3%), Roman Catholics (8,2%), Methodist Church
Methodist Church
(5,6%), Wesleyan Holiness Church (4,5%), Church of God (4,1%), Baptists
Baptists
(3,6%), Mormons
Mormons
(<1,0%), and Jehovah's Witnesses. Non-Christian religions practised in the islands include the Rastafari, Islam, and Bahá'í Faith. Governance[edit] Political system[edit] Main article: Politics of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

Downtown St. John's on Antigua.

The politics of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
take place within a framework of a unitary, parliamentary, representative democratic monarchy, in which the Head of State
Head of State
is the Monarch
Monarch
who appoints the Governor General as vice-regal representative.[15] Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
is the present Queen of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda, having served in that position since the islands' independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1981. The Queen is currently represented by Governor General Sir Rodney Williams. A Council of Ministers is appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister, currently Gaston Browne (2014–). The Prime Minister is the Head of Government. Executive power is exercised by the government while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two Chambers of Parliament. The bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 members appointed by members of the government and the opposition party, and approved by the Governor-General), and the House of Representatives (17 members elected by first past the post) to serve five-year terms. The current Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition is the United Progressive Party Member of Parliament (MP), the Honourable Baldwin Spencer. Elections[edit]

St. John's parish on Antigua.

The last elections held were on 12 June 2014, during which the Antigua Labour Party won 14 seats, and the United Progressive Party 3 seats. Since 1949, elections have been won by the populist Antigua
Antigua
Labour Party. However, in the Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
legislative election of 2004 saw the defeat of the longest-serving elected government in the Caribbean. Prime Minister Lester Bryant Bird, who had succeeded his father Vere Cornwall Bird Sr., and Deputy Robin Yearwood had been in office since 1976. The elder Bird was Prime Minister from 1981 to 1994 and Chief Minister of Antigua
Antigua
from 1960 to 1981, except for the 1971–1976 period when the Progressive Labour Movement (PLM) defeated his party. Vere Cornwall Bird, the nation's first Prime Minister, is credited with having brought Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
and the Caribbean into a new era of independence. Party elections[edit] Gaston Browne defeated his predecessor Lester Bryant Bird at the Antigua
Antigua
Labour Party's biennial convention in November 2012 held to elect a political leader and other officers. The party then altered its name from the Antigua
Antigua
Labour Party (ALP) to the Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
Labour Party (ABLP). This was done to officially include the party's presence on the sister island of Barbuda
Barbuda
in its organisation, the only political party on the mainland to have a physical branch in Barbuda. Judiciary[edit] The Judicial branch is the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court of Justice). Antigua
Antigua
is also a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council serves as its Supreme Court of Appeal.[16] Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
is a member of the United Nations, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, the Organization of American States, the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
and the Eastern Caribbean's Regional Security System. Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
is also a member of the International Criminal Court (with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement
Bilateral Immunity Agreement
of Protection for the US military as covered under Article 98 of the Rome Statute). In 2013, Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
called for reparations for slavery at the United Nations. Prime Minister Baldwin Spencer
Baldwin Spencer
said "We have recently seen a number of leaders apologising", and that they should now "match their words with concrete and material benefits".[17] Military[edit] Further information: Royal Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
Defence Force The Royal Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
Defence Force has around 260 members dispersed between the line infantry regiment, service and support unit and coast guard. There is also the Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
Cadet Corps made up of 200 teenagers between the ages of 12 to 18. Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Parishes and dependencies of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
is divided into six parishes and two dependencies:

Parishes of Antigua

Parishes

Saint George Saint John Saint Mary Saint Paul Saint Peter Saint Philip

Dependencies

Barbuda Redonda

BARBUDA REDONDA Saint Mary Saint John St. George St. Peter St. Philip Saint Paul ANTIGUA CARIBBEAN SEA

Note: Though Barbuda
Barbuda
and Redonda
Redonda
are called dependencies they are integral parts of the state, making them essentially administrative divisions. Dependency is simply a title. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

A proportional representation of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda's exports.

Tourism
Tourism
dominates the economy, accounting for more than half of the gross domestic product (GDP). Antigua
Antigua
is famous for its many luxury resorts. Weak tourist activity since early 2000 has slowed the economy, however, and squeezed the government into a tight fiscal corner. Investment banking and financial services also make up an important part of the economy. Major world banks with offices in Antigua
Antigua
include the Royal Bank of Canada
Canada
(RBC) and Scotiabank. Financial-services corporations with offices in Antigua
Antigua
include PriceWaterhouseCoopers. The US Securities and Exchange Commission
US Securities and Exchange Commission
has accused the Antigua-based Stanford International Bank, owned by Texas billionaire Allen Stanford, of orchestrating a huge fraud which may have bilked investors of some $8 billion.[18] (check status 20100312) The twin-island nation's agricultural production is focused on its domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labour shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction work. Manufacturing
Manufacturing
is made up of enclave-type assembly for export, the major products being bedding, handicrafts and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialised world, especially in the United States, from which about one-third of all tourists come. Following the opening of the American University of Antigua
Antigua
College of Medicine by investor and attorney Neil Simon in 2003, a new source of revenue was established. The university employs many local Antiguans and the approximate 1000 students consume a large amount of the goods and services. Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
also utilizes an economic citizenship program to spur investment into the country. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Antigua
Antigua
& Barbuda
Barbuda
has a greater than 90% literacy rate. In 1998, Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
adopted a national mandate to become the pre-eminent provider of medical services in the Caribbean. As part of this mission, Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
built the most technologically advanced hospital in the Caribbean, the Mt. St. John Medical Centre. The island of Antigua
Antigua
currently has two foreign-owned for-profit offshore medical schools, the American University of Antigua (AUA),[19] founded in 2004, and The University of Health Sciences Antigua
Antigua
(UHSA),[20] founded in 1982. The island's medical schools cater mostly to foreign students but contribute to the local economy and health care. There is also a government owned state college in Antigua
Antigua
as well as the Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
Institute of Information Technology (ABIIT) and the Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
Hospitality Training Institute (ABHTI). The University of the West Indies
University of the West Indies
has a branch in Antigua
Antigua
for local students to continue university studies. Antigua
Antigua
has two international primary/secondary schools: CCSET International, which offers the Ontario Secondary School Diploma, and Island Academy, which offers the International Baccalaureate. There are also many other private schools but these institutions tend to follow the same local curriculum (CXCs) as government schools. Culture[edit] See also: Music of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda The culture is predominantly a mixture of West African
West African
and British cultural influences. Cricket is the national sport. Other popular sports include football, boat racing and surfing. ( Antigua
Antigua
Sailing Week attracts locals and visitors from all over the world). Calypso and soca music, both originating primarily out of Trinidad, are important in Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda.[citation needed][21] Festivals[edit] The national Carnival held each August commemorates the abolition of slavery in the British West Indies, although on some islands, Carnival may celebrate the coming of Lent. Its festive pageants, shows, contests and other activities are a major tourist attraction. Cuisine[edit] Further information: Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
cuisine Corn and sweet potatoes play an important role in Antiguan cuisine. For example, a popular Antiguan dish, Dukuna /ˈduːkuːˌnɑː/ is a sweet, steamed dumpling made from grated sweet potatoes, flour and spices. One of the Antiguan staple foods, fungi /ˈfuːndʒiː/, is a cooked paste made of cornmeal and water. Media[edit] There are two daily newspapers: the "Daily Observer" and "Caribbean Times". The local channel ABS TV 10 is available (it is the only station which shows exclusively local programs). There are also several local and regional radio stations, such as V2C-AM 620, ZDK-AM 1100, VYBZ-FM 92.9, ZDK-FM 97.1, Observer Radio 91.1 FM, DNECA Radio 90.1 FM, Second Advent Radio 101.5 FM, Abundant Life Radio 103.9 FM, Crusader Radio 107.3 FM, Nice FM 104.3 Local literature[edit] Jamaica
Jamaica
Kincaid, has published over 20 pieces of literature[22]. Sports[edit] See also: Cricket in the West Indies

The Antigua
Antigua
Recreation Ground.

The Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
national cricket team represented the country at the 1998 Commonwealth Games, but Antiguan cricketers otherwise play for the Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
cricket team in domestic matches and the West Indies cricket team internationally. The 2007 Cricket World Cup
2007 Cricket World Cup
was hosted in the West Indies from 11 March to 28 April 2007. Antigua
Antigua
hosted eight matches at the Sir Vivian Richards
Vivian Richards
Stadium, which was completed on 11 February 2007 and can hold up to 20,000 people. Antigua
Antigua
is a Host of Stanford Twenty20 – Twenty20 Cricket, a version started by Allen Stanford
Allen Stanford
in 2006 as a regional cricket game with almost all Caribbean islands taking part. Rugby and netball are popular as well. Association football, or soccer, is also a very popular sport. Antigua has a national football team which entered World Cup qualification for the 1974 tournament and for 1986 and onwards. A professional team was formed in 2011, Antigua
Antigua
Barracuda FC, which played in the USL Pro, a lower professional league in the USA. The nation's team had a major achievement in 2012, getting out of its preliminary group for the 2014 World Cup, notably due to a victory over powerful Haiti. In its first game in the next CONCACAF
CONCACAF
group play on 8 June 2012 in Tampa, FL, Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda, comprising 17 Barracuda players and 7 from the lower English professional leagues, scored a goal against the United States. However, the team lost 3:1 to the US. Notables[edit]

Runners Sonia Williams and Heather Samuel represented Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
at the Olympic Games. Brendan Christian, runner (100 m, 200 m) Daniel Bailey runner (100 m, 200 m) James Grayman high jumper Viv Richards, cricketeer, scored the fastest Test Century Brian Lara, cricketeer, twice scored the World Test Record at the Antigua
Antigua
Recreation Ground. Cricketeers Sir Vivian Richards, Andy Roberts, and Richie Richardson

Symbols[edit] The national bird is the frigate bird, and the national tree is the Talipariti elatum(Blue Mahoe tree) See also[edit]

Caribbean portal Caricom portal Commonwealth realms portal Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
portal

Outline of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Index of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda-related articles Bibliography of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
– book

References[edit]

^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ a b c d " Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda". International Monetary Fund.  ^ "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.  ^ " Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
- Countries - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov.  ^ a b Panzar, Javier; Willsher, Kim (9 September 2017). "Hurricane Irma leaves Caribbean Islands Devastated". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 September 2017.  ^ "Introduction :: Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda".  ^ Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A pest in the land: new world epidemics in a global perspective. University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 0-8263-2871-7.  ^ Rogozinski, Jan (September 2000). A Brief History of the Caribbean. Penguin Putnam, Inc. ISBN 0-452-28193-8.  ^ Hanna, Jason; Sterling, Joe; Almasy, Steve (2017-09-06). "Hurricane Irma: Powerful storm blamed for three deaths". ABS TV Radio Antigua & Barbuda. CNN. Retrieved 2017-09-06.  ^ Panzar, Javier (9 September 2017). " Hurricane Irma
Hurricane Irma
leaves Caribbean islands devastated" – via LA Times.  ^ Antigua, Tara John /. " Hurricane Irma
Hurricane Irma
Flattens Barbuda, Leaving Population Stranded". Time.  ^ "Background Note: Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda". Archived from the original on 14 August 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2007.  ^ Bernadette Farquhar – The Spanish Language in Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda: Implications for Language Planning and Language Research Archived 15 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda". CIA, 2011.  ^ " Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
1981". Constitute. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ "Caribbean Court of Justice". International Justice Resource Center. 5 September 2012.  ^ " Slavery
Slavery
reparations: Blood money". The Economist. 5 October 2013.  ^ Krauss, Clifford; Creswell, Julie; Savage, Charlie (21 February 2009). "Fraud Case Shakes a Billionaire's Caribbean Realm". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2010.  ^ "American University of Antigua, College of Medicine". Archived from the original on 22 August 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2007.  ^ "University of Health Sciences Antigua". Retrieved 23 August 2007.  ^ " Antigua
Antigua
& Barbuda
Barbuda
– Carnival & Music". www.geographia.com. Retrieved 9 November 2016.  ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
Kincaid".. 2017-10-24. 

External links[edit]

The Wikibook Wikijunior:Countries A-Z has a page on the topic of: Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

Find more about Antigua
Antigua
and Barbudaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

The Official Website of the Government of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Wikimedia Atlas of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda, United States
United States
Library of Congress " Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
from UCB Libraries GovPubs Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
from the BBC News World Bank's country data profile for Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda ArchaeologyAntigua.org – 2010March13 source of archaeological information for Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

v t e

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda articles

History

Governors West Indies Associated States

Geography

Antigua Barbuda Birds Mammals Cities Parishes and dependencies

Politics

Council Elections Flag Foreign relations Governor-General House of Representatives Military Monarchy Political parties Prime Minister Senate

Economy

Communications Central Bank East Caribbean dollar
East Caribbean dollar
(currency) Trade unions Transport

Society

Demographics Education Health care Religion

Culture

Carnival Creole Cuisine Music

Romantic Rhythms Music Festival

Notable Antiguans and Barbudans

Outline Index Bibliography

Book Category Portal

v t e

Countries and dependencies of North America

Sovereign states

Entire

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama St. Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago United States

In part

Colombia

San Andrés and Providencia

France

Guadeloupe Martinique

Caribbean Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Dependencies

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon

Netherlands

Aruba Curaçao Sint Maarten

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Montserrat Turks and Caicos Islands

United States

Navassa Island Puerto Rico United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Venezuela

Federal Dependencies Nueva Esparta

International membership

v t e

Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (ALBA-TCP)

Member states

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Bolivia Cuba Dominica Ecuador Grenada Nicaragua Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Venezuela

v t e

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
(OECS)

Members

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Dominica Grenada Montserrat St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Associate members

Anguilla British Virgin Islands Martinique

Financial institutions

East Caribbean dollar Eastern Caribbean Central Bank Eastern Caribbean Central Securities Registry Eastern Caribbean Securities Exchange

Other institutions

Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

v t e

Caribbean Community
Caribbean Community
(CARICOM)

Secretariat (Secretary-General)

Members

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Bahamas1 Barbados Belize Dominica Grenada Guyana Haiti1 Jamaica Montserrat2 St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago

Associate members

Anguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Observers

Aruba Colombia Curaçao Dominican Republic Mexico Puerto Rico Sint Maarten Venezuela

Institutions

Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) Court of Justice (CCJ) Disaster Emergency Management (CDEMA) Examinations Council (CXC) Meteorological Institute (CMI) Meteorological Organisation (CMO) Public Health Agency (CARPHA) Single Market and Economy (CSME)

Related organizations

CARIFORUM Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
(OECS)

1 Member of the Community but not of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) 2 British overseas territory awaiting entrustment to join the CSME

v t e

Members of the Commonwealth of Nations

Sovereign states (Members)

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Fiji Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania The Gambia Tonga Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

Dependencies of Members

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Norfolk Island

New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue Ross Dependency Tokelau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Montserrat Pitcairn Islands St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Source: Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States

v t e

Monarchies

List of current sovereign monarchs List of current constituent monarchs

Type

Absolute Constitutional Diarchy Elective Federal Hereditary

By region or entity

Africa

Lesotho Morocco Swaziland

Asia

Bahrain Bhutan Brunei Cambodia Japan Jordan Kuwait Malaysia Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Thailand United Arab Emirates

Europe

Andorra Belgium Denmark Luxembourg Liechtenstein Monaco Netherlands Norway Spain Sweden Vatican City United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia Tonga New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Tuvalu

Americas

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Grenada Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

v t e

Commonwealth realms and dominions

Current

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda
Barbuda
(monarchy) Australia
Australia
(monarchy) Bahamas (monarchy) Barbados
Barbados
(monarchy) Belize
Belize
(monarchy) Canada
Canada
(monarchy) Grenada
Grenada
(monarchy) Jamaica
Jamaica
(monarchy) Realm of New Zealand

Cook Islands New Zealand Niue

Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
(monarchy) Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
(monarchy) Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
(monarchy) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(monarchy) Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(monarchy) Tuvalu
Tuvalu
(monarchy) United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(monarchy)

Former

Ceylon Fiji
Fiji
(monarchy) The Gambia Ghana Guyana India Ireland (monarchy) Kenya Malawi Malta
Malta
(monarchy) Mauritius Newfoundland1 Nigeria Pakistan Rhodesia2 Sierra Leone South Africa
South Africa
(monarchy) Tanganyika Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago Uganda

1 Annexed by Canada
Canada
in 1949 2 Rhodesia
Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965, but this was not recognised internationally. Declared itself a republic in 1970.

v t e

English-speaking world

Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region

Further links

Articles

English-speaking world History of the English language British Empire English in the Commonwealth of Nations Anglosphere

Lists

List of countries by English-speaking population List of countries where English is an official language

 

Countries and territories where English is the national language or the native language of the majority

Africa

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Americas

Anguilla Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saba Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Europe

Guernsey Ireland Isle of Man Jersey United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand Norfolk Island Pitcairn Islands

 

Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language

Africa

Botswana Cameroon The Gambia Ghana Kenya Lesotho Liberia Malawi Mauritius Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Sierra Leone Somaliland South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Americas

Puerto Rico

Asia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Special
Special
Administrative Region India Pakistan Philippines Singapore

Europe

Gibraltar Malta

Oceania

American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies shown in italics.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125789813 LCCN: n83129820 ISNI: 0000 0000 8680 1343 GND: 4086593-9 BNF: cb14549586h (d