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Alfred Moritz Mond, 1st Baron
Baron
Melchett, PC, FRS, DL (23 October 1868 – 27 December 1930), known as Sir Alfred Mond, Bt, between 1910 and 1928, was a British industrialist, financier and politician. In his later life he became an active Zionist.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Business career 3 Political career 4 Benefactions, Zionism
Zionism
and honours 5 Personal life 6 Publications 7 Literary references 8 Coat of arms 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Early life and education[edit] Mond was born in Farnworth, Widnes, Lancashire, England, the younger son of Ludwig Mond, a chemist and industrialist who had emigrated from Germany, and his wife Frieda, née Löwenthal, both of Jewish extraction. He was educated at Cheltenham College
Cheltenham College
and St. John's College, Cambridge,[1] but failed his natural sciences tripos. He then studied law at the University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
and was called to the bar by the Inner Temple
Inner Temple
in 1894.[2][3] Business career[edit] Following this he joined his father's business, Brunner Mond
Brunner Mond
& Company as director, later becoming its managing director. He was also managing director of his father's other company the Mond Nickel Company. Other directorships included those of the International Nickel Corporation of Canada, the Westminster Bank and the Industrial Finance Investment Corporation. His major business achievement was in 1926 working to create the merger of four separate companies to form Imperial Chemical Industries
Imperial Chemical Industries
(ICI) one of the world's largest industrial corporations at the time.[2] He became its first chairman.[4] Political career[edit] Mond was also involved in politics and sat as Liberal Member of Parliament for Chester
Chester
from 1906 to 1910, for Swansea from 1910 to 1918 and for Swansea West from 1918 to 1923. He served in the coalition government of David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
as First Commissioner of Works from 1916 to 1921 and as Minister of Health (with a seat in the cabinet) from 1921 to 1922. He later switched party and represented Carmarthen from 1924 to 1928, initially as a Liberal. Although a supporter of the "New Liberalism" in his early political career and a "vocal proponent of constructive social reform" in the postwar government,[5] Mond became a Conservative in 1926 after falling out with Lloyd George over the former Prime Minister's controversial plans to nationalise agricultural land.[2][6] Mond was created a Baronet, of Hartford Hill in Great Budworth
Great Budworth
in the County of Chester, in 1910,[7] and was admitted to the Privy Council in 1913.[2][8] In 1928 he was raised to the peerage as Baron
Baron
Melchett, of Landford
Landford
in the County of Southampton.[2][9] Benefactions, Zionism
Zionism
and honours[edit]

Statue of Lord Melchett at Tel Mond, Israel

The Iconoclast Sir Alfred Mond: "I'm sorry to have to disturb Your Majesty, but, owing to the shortage of sites—" George III: "Shortage of sights, indeed!" Cartoon from Punch magazine, 18 August 1920.

Mond's father had bequeathed a collection of old master paintings to the National Gallery and Alfred provided housing for them in 1924. In 1929 he provided land in Chelsea for the Chelsea Health Society.[2] He first visited Palestine in 1921 with Chaim Weizmann and subsequently became an enthusiastic Zionist, contributing money to the Jewish Colonization Corporation for Palestine and writing for Zionist publications.[2] He became President of the British Zionist Foundation and made financial contributions to Zionist causes. He was the first President of the Technion in 1925.[10] Melchett founded the town of Tel Mond, now in Israel.[11] Melchett also started building what is now one of the few private houses on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, now known as Villa Melchett. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and several other Israeli cities have a Melchett Street commemorating him. One of Mond's most enduring contributions to Zionism
Zionism
did not come through direct political means but through his enthusiastic and active support of Pinhas Rutenberg, whom the British Government granted exclusive concessions to produce and distribute electricity in Palestine. Mond sat on the Board of the Palestine Electric Company and actively promoted the case of the company in London's political and industrial circles[12] Mond was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
in 1928 and received a number of honorary degrees from Oxford, Paris and other universities.[2] Personal life[edit] In 1894 Mond married Violet Goetze and they had one son, Henry Ludwig, and three daughters. Mond died in his London home in 1930, and his son succeeded in the barony.[2] Publications[edit]

Industry and Politics (1927) Imperial Economic Unity (1930)

Literary references[edit] Mond is mentioned in T. S. Eliot's 1920 poem A Cooking Egg.[13] He is also widely considered to be the inspiration behind Mustapha Mond, one of the ten world controllers in Aldous Huxley's 1932 novel Brave New World.[14] Coat of arms[edit]

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Alfred Mond, 1st Baron
Baron
Melchett

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Notes Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of the Mond family Coronet A coronet of a Baron Crest A Demi-Bear holding between the paws a Fountain both proper Escutcheon Quarterly: 1st and 4th, Gules a Demi-Lion rampant argent between in chief a Decrescent and an Increscent and in base a Crescent all Or on a Chief Argent an Eagle displayed between two Mullets Sable (Mond); 2nd and 3rd, Azure on a Pile between three Mullets Argent an Eagle displayed Sable (Lowenthal) Supporters Dexter: a Doctor of Science of the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
holding in the exterior hand a Chemical Measure Glass; Sinister: a Labourer holding in the exterior hand a Pick resting on the shoulder, all proper Motto Make Yourself Necessary

See also[edit]

Ludwig Mond
Ludwig Mond
Award Melchett Medal Mond gas

References[edit]

^ "Mond, Alfred Moritz (MNT886AM)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Greenaway, Frank (2004) 'Mond family (per. 1867–1973)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. [1] Retrieved on 9 March 2007. ^ "Mond, Alfred Moritz". Who's Who. Vol. 59. 1907. p. 1241.  ^ ICI's first chairman Sir Alfred Mond, Picture Stockton, retrieved 25 June 2007 [permanent dead link] ^ http://www.liberalhistory.org.uk/history/mond-sir-alfred-lord-melchett/ ^ Bolitho, Alfred Mond: First Lord Melchett; Carmarthen Record Office, Dynevor Papers" ^ "No. 28400". The London Gazette. 26 July 1910. pp. 5391–5392.  ^ "No. 29728". The London Gazette. 13 June 1913. p. 4187.  ^ "No. 33395". The London Gazette. 19 June 1928. p. 4180.  ^ Weintraub, Bob, Alfred Mond (Lord Melchett): Great Zionist Leader, The Israel
Israel
Chemical Society, p. 6, retrieved 25 June 2007  ^ Tel Mond, Israel, Sarasota Sister Cities Association, archived from the original on 3 April 2012, retrieved 25 June 2007  ^ Shamir, Ronen (2013) Current Flow: The Electrification of Palestine. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 121, 127, 134 ^ www.bartleby.com ^ "Aldous Huxley's Bokanovsky ("Bokanowski" de Aldous Huxley)". 16: 85–89. doi:10.2307/4239919. JSTOR 4239919. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 

External links[edit]

Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Alfred Mond Portraits of Alfred Mond, 1st Baron
Baron
Melchett at the National Portrait Gallery, London

Parliament of the United Kingdom

Preceded by Robert Yerburgh Member of Parliament for Chester 1906–1910 Succeeded by Robert Yerburgh

Preceded by Sir George Newnes, Bt Member of Parliament for Swansea 1910–1918 Constituency abolished

New constituency Member of Parliament for Swansea West 1918–1923 Succeeded by Howel Walter Samuel

Preceded by Sir Ellis Ellis-Griffith, Bt Member of Parliament for Carmarthen 1924–1928 Succeeded by William Nathaniel Jones

Political offices

Preceded by Lewis Vernon Harcourt First Commissioner of Works 1916–1921 Succeeded by The Earl of Crawford

Preceded by Christopher Addison Minister of Health 1921–1922 Succeeded by Sir Arthur Griffith-Boscawen

Peerage of the United Kingdom

Preceded by New Creation Baron
Baron
Melchett 1928–1930 Succeeded by Henry Mond

v t e

Chairmen of Imperial Chemical Industries

Lord Melchett (1926–1930) Lord McGowan (1930–1950) Lord Fleck (1953–1960) Sir Paul Chambers (1960–1968) Sir Peter Allen (1968–1971) Sir Jack Callard (1971–1975) Sir Rowland Wright (1975-1978) Sir Maurice Hodgson (1978-1982) Sir John Harvey-Jones (1982–1987) Sir Denys Henderson (1987–1995) Sir Ronnie Hampel (1995–1999) Charles Miller Smith (1999–2001) Lord Trotman (2002–2003) Peter Ellwood (2004–2008)

v t e

Secretaries of State for Health

Ministers of Health

Christopher Addison Alfred Mond Arthur Griffith-Boscawen Neville Chamberlain William Joynson-Hicks John Wheatley Neville Chamberlain Arthur Greenwood Neville Chamberlain Edward Hilton Young Kingsley Wood Walter Elliot Malcolm MacDonald Ernest Brown Henry Willink Aneurin Bevan Hilary Marquand Harry Crookshank Iain Macleod Robin Turton Dennis Vosper Derek Walker-Smith Enoch Powell Anthony Barber Kenneth Robinson

Secretaries of State for Social Services

Richard Crossman Sir Keith Joseph Barbara Castle David Ennals Patrick Jenkin Norman Fowler John Moore

Secretaries of State for Health

Kenneth Clarke William Waldegrave Virginia Bottomley Stephen Dorrell Frank Dobson Alan Milburn John Reid Patricia Hewitt Alan Johnson Andy Burnham Andrew Lansley Jeremy Hunt

Secretaries of State for Health and Social Care

Jeremy Hunt

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 45084200 LCCN: nb2005003782 ISNI: 0000 0001 0968 3811 GND: 117587540 BNF: cb16643008b (data) SN