Parouse.com
 Parouse.com



Abu `Abdullah Muhammad
Muhammad
Ibn ‘Omar Ibn Waqid al-Aslami (Arabic أبو عبد الله محمد بن عمر بن واقد) (c. 130 – 207 AH; c. 747 – 823 AD) was a historian commonly referred to as al-Waqidi (Arabic: الواقدي). His surname is derived from his grandfather's name Waqid and thus he became famous as al-Imam al-Waqidi.[1] Al-Waqidi was an early Muslim
Muslim
historian and biographer of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
specializing in his campaigns. Al-Waqidi served as a judge (qadi) for Al-Ma'mun. Al-Waqidi's works are known through his scribe and student, Ibn Sa'd, who also worked under Al-Ma'mun
Al-Ma'mun
and was a proponent of the Muʿtazila
Muʿtazila
doctrine of the created Quran
Quran
and supported the king Al-Ma'mun's stance on the matter.[2][3]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Works 3 Criticism 4 Early Islamic scholars 5 Notes 6 External links

Biography[edit] Al-Waqidi was born in Medina in (c. 130 – 207 AH; c. 748 – 822 AD). He was mawla (client) to ‘Abd Allah ibn Burayda of the Banu Aslam of Medina. According to Abu Faraj al-Isfahani, al-Waqidi’s mother was the daughter of ‘Isa ibn Ja‘far ibn Sa’ib Khathir, a Persian, and the great-granddaughter of Sa’ib, who introduced music to Medina.[4] Amongst his prominent teachers were Ibn Abi Thahab Ma'mar bin Rashid, Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
and Sufyan al-Thawri.[1] He lived in Medina at the time of Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
and Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
and studied in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
as a student of Malik ibn Anas. Al-Waqidi also had access to the grandchildren of Muhammad's companions. Since many of Muhammad's companions settled in Medina both the Umayyads and their successors the Abbasids used the Medina fiqh in the early days. Malik ibn Anas was later asked by Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
the Abbasid ruler to compile this fiqh into a book form which became known as Muwatta Imam Malik. The Abbasids later tried other approaches like the Mu'tazila. For his livelihood in Medina, al-Waqidi earned a living as a wheat trader, but when a calamity struck at the age of 50 he migrated to Iraq in 180 AH during the reign of Ma'mun ar-Rashid. There Yahya al-Barmaki welcomed him due to his great learning and he was appointed a judge and he held the post until his death on 11 Dhul Hijjah 207 AH. He is buried in the graveyard of Khayzuran. Al-Waqidi concentrated on history and is acknowledged as a master in history.[1] He wrote some of the earliest history books on the early conquests.[1] His books on the early expeditions and conquests are extremely detailed and predate much of the Sunni and Shia literature of the later Abbasid period. They illustrate the involvement of the early Muslim
Muslim
women and young boys in campaigns in distant lands against the huge Roman armies. He is relied upon regarding the battles of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Companions and history in general by Muslim scholars.[5] Western orientalists who enjoy his writings include Martin Lings.[6] His main area of specialization was history. His hadith narrations need to be scrutinized before acceptance.[1] In regards to hadith, al-Waqidi has been frequently criticized by later Muslim
Muslim
writers, who claim that he is unreliable.[7] Al-Shafi'i
Al-Shafi'i
is reported to have said that al-Waqidi's books are "lies."[5] Because al-Waqidi lived at the time of Abu Hanifa, Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
and Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
in Medina and was taught by Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
and had access to the children and the grandchildren of many of the companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina, initially he was accepted by the greatest scholars of his time and is still accepted for his history, but on the hadiths, since he did not retain the chains of narration, there is debate. Works[edit] Al-Waqidi's work predates most of the Sunni and Shia books, which were written in the later Abbasid period. Only Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
and Malik predate him. Al-Waqidi's chronicles are some of the earliest ones on Islam. They cover a period in history before Shari'a became rigid; a time when the Quran
Quran
and the example of Muhammad
Muhammad
were the only source of law before the Sunni and Shia schools of fiqh developed. They cover a period in history that saw the greatest expansion of the Islamic state. Al-Waqidi is more in line with the other early historians on the Islamic State like Al-Baladhuri and also more in line with the independent Roman history books of the time. Al-Waqidi, along with early historians like al-Baladhuri, illustrates the important role early Muslim
Muslim
women played in society.[citation needed] According to his literature, women played a leading role in Muslim society[additional citation(s) needed] and it was due to their support during the Battle of Yarmouk
Battle of Yarmouk
and other battles that the Muslims defeated the Roman and Persian empires.[additional citation(s) needed] He covers these battles in great detail. The Battle of Yarmouk
Battle of Yarmouk
is regarded as one of the most decisive battles in military history where the Muslims were outnumbered by the Romans but, with the help of the women and the young boys amongst them, defeated the Roman army.[8][9][additional citation(s) needed] They show how early Muslim
Muslim
women, including Hind bint Utbah[10][11][11][12][13][14] and Asma bint Abi Bakr,[15] were instrumental in the Battle of Yarmouk. Al-Waqidi wrote "As for Asma' bint Abi Bakr, she tied her horse's reins to the reins of her husband's, az-Zubayr bin Awwam. Whenever he struck (the enemy), she would equal him. Under desperate circumstances and heavily outnumbered, every time the men would flee, the women would sing:[16]

"O you who flee from his loyal lady

"She is beautiful and stands firmly

"Your abandoning them to the Romans

"to let them the forelocks and girls seize

"They will take what they want from us to the full

"And start fighting among themselves."

After seeing the women fight the men would return and said to each other "If we do not fight then we are more entitled to sit in the women's quarter than the women."[17] One of al-Waqidi's works, Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi ("Book of History and Campaigns"), describes the battles (Arabic "Ghazwat") fought by Muhammad. Another work ascribed to al-Waqidi is Futuh al-Sham ("Conquests of Syria"). It is extremely detailed and shows the extent to which early Muslims went to in order to defeat the huge Roman armies which outnumbered them. It illustrates the extraordinary involvement of the early Muslim
Muslim
women in the campaigns against the huge Roman armies. Muslim
Muslim
scholars believe that the book was written by al-Waqidi but over time as handwritten copies were produced, slight variations and additions were introduced. Sulayman al-Kindi, the translator of the book, says "It must be noted that different companies of ancient manuscripts often differ widely. This should be borne in mind when comparing the translation with the Arabic originals, if differences are found. However, if any clear mistakes are found the translator would appreciate being informed thereof."[1] Some modern Western authors say that some copies of the book contain characters from the sixth Islamic century and could have been changed later.[18] Criticism[edit] Waqidi has faced criticism regarding his scholarly reliability from many Islamic scholars, including: 1. al-Shafi’i (d. 204 A.H.) said "All the books of al-Waqidi are lies. In Medina there were seven men who used to fabricate authorities, one of which was al-Waqidi."[19] 2. Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
(d. 241 A.H.) said "He is a liar, makes alternations in the traditions"[20][additional citation(s) needed] 3. Al-Nasa’i
Al-Nasa’i
(d. 303 A.H.) said "The liars known for fabricating the hadith of the Messenger of Allah are four. They are: Arba’ah b. Abi Yahya in Medina, al-Waqidi in Baghdad, Muqatil b. Sulayman in Khurasan and Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Sa’id in Syria."[21][additional citation(s) needed] 4. Al-Bukhari
Al-Bukhari
(d. 256 A.H.) said "al-Waqidi has been abandoned in hadith. He fabricates hadith"[20][additional citation(s) needed] 5. Al-Dhahabi (d. 748 A.H.) said "Consensus has taken place on the weakness of al-Waqidi"[20][additional citation(s) needed] 6. Yahya ibn Ma'in (d. 233 A.H.) said "He is weak. He is nothing. Not reliable!"[20] 7. Ishaq ibn Rahwayh (d. 238 A.H.) said "According to my view, he is one of those who fabricate Hadith"[19] 8. Abu Dawood
Abu Dawood
(d. 275 A.H.) said "I do not write his hadith and I do not report (hadith) on his authority. I have no doubt that he used to make up hadith"[21] 9. Abu Hatim Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Idris al-Razi (d. 277 A.H.) said "He fabricates hadith. We have abandoned his hadith"[21] 10. Al-Daraqutni (d. 385 A.H.) said "There is weakness in him (in his reporting)"[20] 11. Ali ibn al-Madini (d. 241 A.H.)said "He fabricates Hadith"[20] 12. Ibn ‘Adi (d. 365 A.H.) said "His traditions are not safe and there is danger from him (in accepting his traditions)"[20] 13. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852 A.H.)said "He has been abandoned in spite of vastness of his knowledge"[22] 14. Abu Zur’a al-Razi (d. 264 A.H.) said "(Waqidi's writing) Abandoned, Weak"[19] 15. Al-Nawawi
Al-Nawawi
(d. 676 A.H.): said "Their (muhaddithin scholars) consensus is that al-Waqidi is weak"[21] 16. Al-Albani (d. 1999 C.E.) said that al-Waqidi is a liar. [23]

Although Al-Waqidi had many detractors he also had many supporters including but not limited to: 1. al-Darawardi (d. 186 A.H.): al-Waqidi is a master of traditions.[24] 2. Yazid ibn Harun (2. 206 A.H.): al-Waqidi is reliable. [25] 3. Abu ‘Ubayd al-Qasim ibn Salam (d. 224 A.H.): Reliable.[26] 4. al-Musayyibi (d. 236 A.H.) Reliable. [27] 5. Ibn Numayr (d. 234 A.H.) Here his tradition is alright but for the traditions of the Madinites, they know it better. [28] 6. ‘Abbas al-Anbari (d. 246 A.H.) I like him more than al-Razzaq.[29] 7. Ya’qub ibn Shaybah (d. 264 A.H.) Some of our people have told me that he was reliable.[30] 8. Mus’ab al-Zubayri (d. 236 A.H.) He is reliable and safe. [31] 9. Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ishaq al-Saghani (d. 270 A.H.) Had he not been reliable to me I would have not reported from him.[32] 10. Ibrahim al-Harbi (d. 280 A.H.) al-Waqidi is a trustee of the people of Islam
Islam
[33] 11. Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Salam Al-Jumahi said: ‘al-Waqidi is the scholar of his time’. [34] Even among those who found rejected Al-Waqidi in hadith many of those same people still considered him a pillar in history and accepted his narrations in this regard. Ibn Hajar Asqalani records: "He is acceptable in the narrations of the battles according to our companions and Allah knows the best." [35] Early Islamic scholars[edit]

v t e

Early Islamic scholars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
(570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taught Ali
Ali
(607-661) fourth caliph taught Aisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taught Abd Allah ibn Abbas
Abd Allah ibn Abbas
(618-687) taught Zayd ibn Thabit (610-660) taught Umar
Umar
(579-644) second caliph taught Abu Hurairah
Abu Hurairah
(603 – 681) taught

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taught

 

Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
(626–680) taught Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
(657-725) taught and raised by Aisha Urwah ibn Zubayr
Urwah ibn Zubayr
(died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taught Said ibn al-Musayyib (637-715) taught Abdullah ibn Umar
Umar
(614-693) taught Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624-692) taught by Aisha, he then taught

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taught

 

 

Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taught

 

 

 

 

Hisham ibn Urwah (667-772) taught Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taught Salim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar
Umar
taught Umar
Umar
ibn Abdul Aziz (682-720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hammad bin ibi Sulman taught

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir (676-733) taught Farwah bint al-Qasim
Farwah bint al-Qasim
Abu Bakr's great grand daughter Jafar's mother

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
(699 — 767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah
Shia and originally by the Fatimid and taught Zayd ibn Ali
Ali
(695-740) Ja'far bin Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Baqir (702–765) Ali's and Abu Bakr's great great grand son taught Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
(711 – 795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taught

 

Al-Waqidi (748 – 822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn Anas Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu Yusuf
Abu Yusuf
(729-798) wrote Usul al-fiqh Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Shaybani (749–805)

 

 

 

Al-Shafi‘i
Al-Shafi‘i
(767—820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taught Ismail ibn Ibrahim

 

Ali ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the Companions

 

Ibn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isma'il ibn Jafar
Isma'il ibn Jafar
(719-775) Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
(745-799)

 

Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
(780—855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith books Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari (810-870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
hadith books Muslim
Muslim
ibn al-Hajjaj (815-875) wrote Sahih Muslim
Muslim
hadith books Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824-892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi
Jami` at-Tirmidhi
hadith books Al-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibn Majah
Ibn Majah
(824- 887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah
Sunan ibn Majah
hadith book

 

Abu Dawood
Abu Dawood
(817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood
Abu Dawood
Hadith Book

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi
Kitab al-Kafi
hadith book followed by Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-Tabari

 

Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari
Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari
(874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibn Babawayh
Ibn Babawayh
(923-991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
jurisprudence followed by Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

Sharif Razi (930-977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha
Nahj al-Balagha
followed by Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
(1201-1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

 

Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
(1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on Sufism

 

Rumi
Rumi
(1207-1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi
Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi
on Sufism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key: Some of Muhammad's Companions Key: Taught in Medina Key: Taught in Iraq Key: Worked in Syria Key: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad
Muhammad
and compiled books of hadith Key: Worked in Iran

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f Islamic Conquest of Syria
Syria
A Translation of Futuhusham by al-Imam al-Waqidi Archived 2013-10-12 at the Wayback Machine., pgs. x-xi. Trans. Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi. ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture, ABC-CLIO, p. 278  ^ The Literature of Islam, The Scarecrow Press, p. 107  ^ Meri, Josef W. (January 2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization, Volume 1 An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 858–859. ISBN 978-0-415-96691-7.  ^ a b Al-Dhahabi, Siyar A'lam al-Nubala'', vol. 9, pg. 462. ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Umar
Umar
Waqidi at Let Me Turn the Tables. ^ "Muhammad", in P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs et al., Encyclopædia of Islam, 2nd Edition. (Leiden: E. J. Brill) 12 Vols. published between 1960 and 2005. ^ Walton, Mark W (2003), Islam
Islam
at War, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-98101-0, p. 30 ^ Walton, Mark W (2003), Islam
Islam
at War, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-98101-0 page 6 ^ Islamic Conquest of Syria
Syria
A Translation of "Futuh al-Sham" by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 325 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-09-24.  ^ a b al-Baladhuri 892 [19] Battle of Yarmuk Archived October 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Islamic Conquest of Syria
Syria
A Translation of "Futuh al-Sham" by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 331 to 334 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-09-24.  ^ Islamic Conquest of Syria
Syria
A Translation of "Futuh al-Sham" by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 343-344 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-09-24.  ^ al-Baladhuri 892 [20] from "The Origins of the Islamic State", being a translation from the Arabic of the "Kitab Futuh al-Buldan" of Ahmad ibn-Jabir al-Baladhuri, trans. by P. K. Hitti and F. C. Murgotten, Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, LXVIII (New York, Columbia University Press,1916 and 1924), I, 207-211 ^ Islamic Conquest of Syria
Syria
A translation of "Futuh al-Sham" by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 352-353 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-09-24.  ^ Islamic Conquest of Syria
Syria
A translation of "Futuh al-Sham" by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 331-332 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-09-24.  ^ Islamic Conquest of Syria
Syria
A translation of "Futuh al-Sham" by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 353 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-09-24.  ^ Walter E. Kaegi, Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests, (Cambridge, 2000) 159 n. 34, 172–173. ^ a b c Ibn Abi Hatim, vol.4 pt.1 p.21 ^ a b c d e f g Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ahmad Al-Dhahabi,Mizan al-I`tidal fi Naqd al-Rijal, vol. 3 page 110 ^ a b c d Ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalani, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, volume 9 page 366 No.604, [Hyderabad, 1326 A.H.cf. Yusuf ‘Abbas Hashmi, Zaynab bint Jahash, ‘Islamic Culture’ vol.XLI, No.1, Hyderabad (India), 1967] ^ Ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalani, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, volume 2 page 194, [Cairo, 1960] ^ al-Albani, Silsalat al-Hadith ad-Da'ifa, number 6013 ^ al-Dhahbi, Mizan, vol.3 pp.110-111 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, vol.1 pp.18-21 Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil, vol.4 pt.1 pp.20-21, Hyderabad (India), 1953 ^ al-Dhahbi, Mizan, vol.3 pp.110-111 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, vol.1 pp.18-21 Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil, vol.4 pt.1 pp.20-21, Hyderabad (India), 1953 ^ al-Dhahbi, Mizan, vol.3 pp.110-111 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, vol.1 pp.18-21 Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil, vol.4 pt.1 pp.20-21, Hyderabad (India), 1953 ^ al-Dhahbi, Mizan, vol.3 pp.110-111 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, vol.1 pp.18-21 Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil, vol.4 pt.1 pp.20-21, Hyderabad (India), 1953 ^ al-Dhahbi, Mizan, vol.3 pp.110-111 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, vol.1 pp.18-21 Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil, vol.4 pt.1 pp.20-21, Hyderabad (India), 1953 ^ al-Dhahbi, Mizan, vol.3 pp.110-111 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, vol.1 pp.18-21 Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil, vol.4 pt.1 pp.20-21, Hyderabad (India), 1953 ^ al-Dhahbi, Mizan, vol.3 pp.110-111 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, vol.1 pp.18-21 Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil, vol.4 pt.1 pp.20-21, Hyderabad (India), 1953 ^ al-Dhahbi, Mizan, vol.3 pp.110-111 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, vol.1 pp.18-21 Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil, vol.4 pt.1 pp.20-21, Hyderabad (India), 1953 ^ al-Dhahbi, Mizan, vol.3 pp.110-111 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, vol.1 pp.18-21 Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil, vol.4 pt.1 pp.20-21, Hyderabad (India), 1953 ^ al-Dhahbi, Mizan, vol.3 pp.110-111 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, vol.1 pp.18-21 Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil, vol.4 pt.1 pp.20-21, Hyderabad (India), 1953 ^ Siyar alam al-Nubla, Volume 9 page 457 ^ Talkhis al-Habir, Volume 7 page 57

External links[edit]

Translation of Waqidi's book about early Muslim
Muslim
conquests in Syria

v t e

Historians of Islam

Historians

7th century

Aban bin Uthman Urwah ibn Zubayr Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri

8th century

Hisham ibn al-Kalbi Ibn Ishaq Al-Waqidi Abu Mikhnaf Sayf ibn Umar Al-Mada'ini

9th century

Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam Khalifah ibn Khayyat Ibn Hisham Ya'qubi Al-Tabari Al-Baladhuri Ibn Sa'd Al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar Al-Azraqi Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
Dinawari Ibn Qutaybah

10th century

Ibn al-Nadim Ibn Duraid Ibn al-Qūṭiyya Al-Masudi Miskawayh al-Suli Al-Qadi al-Nu'man Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Hamdani Al-Musabbihi

11th century

Arabic

Ibn Faradi Ibn Hayyan Said al-Andalusi Al-Udri Al-Bakri Ibn Hazm Hilal al-Sabi' Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi Al-Quda'i Ibn Bassam

Persian

Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi Abu Sa'id Gardezi

12th century

Arabic

Mohammed al-Baydhaq Ibn al-Jawzi Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi Ibn al-Qalanisi Ibn `Asakir Usama ibn Munqidh Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad Ibn Hammad

Persian

Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ali
Ali
Rawandi

13th century

Arabic

Yaqut al-Hamawi Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi Ibn Amira Ibn Jubayr Ibn al-Kardabūs Ibn al-Adim Ibn al-Athir Sibt ibn al-Jawzi Ibn Khallikan Al-Qifti Ibn Abi Zar

Persian

Ibn Bibi Muhammad
Muhammad
Aufi Ibn Isfandiyar Minhaj-i-Siraj Ata-Malik Juvayni Rashid-al-Din Hamadani

14th century

Arabic

Abu'l-Fida Ibn Idhari Al-Dhahabi Ibn Battuta Ibn al-Khatib Shihab al-Umari Ibn Kathir Ibn al-Tiqtaqa Ibn al-Furat Al-Mufaddal Ibn Khaldun al-`Asqalani

Persian

Hamdallah Mustawfi Wassaf Ziauddin Barani Hafiz-i Abru

15th century

Arabic

al-Maqrizi Ibn Taghribirdi Al-Sakhawi Al-Suyuti Ibn Ghazi al-Miknasi

Persian

Sharaf ad-Din Ali
Ali
Yazdi Mīr-Khvānd Mullah Nadiri Zahir al-Din Mar'ashi Fazlallah Khunji Isfahani Idris Bitlisi

16th century

Arabic

Ibn Iyas Mujir al-Din Abd al-Aziz al-Fishtali Ibn al-Qadi

Persian

Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak Muhammad
Muhammad
Khwandamir `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni Nizamuddin Ahmad Firishta Iskandar Beg Munshi

17th century

Arabic

Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari Kâtip Çelebi

Persian

Shaikh Inayat Allah Kamboh Muhammad
Muhammad
Saleh Kamboh Abd al-Fattah Fumani Mohsin Fani

18th century

Arabic

Mohammed al-Ifrani Mohammed al-Qadiri Khalil al-Muradi al-Zayyani al-Jabarti

Persian

Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi

19th century

Arabic

Ahmad ibn Khalid al-Nasiri Ibn Bishr Mohammad Farid Ahmad ibn Abi Diyaf Jurji Zaydan

Persian

Jalal al-Din Mirza Qajar

Notable works

The Meadows of Gold History of the Prophets and Kings Mu'jam al-Buldan Concise History of Humanity The Complete History Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries Futuh al-Buldan Kitab al-I'tibar Al-Milal wa al-Nihal History of the Caliphs Kitab al-Rawd al-Mitar Tarikh al-Yaqubi Muqaddimah Book of Idols Rihla

Concepts

Isnad Islamic calendar Biographical evaluation Biographical dictionary Hadith studies Tabaqat Isra'iliyyat

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 34759771 LCCN: n88605196 ISNI: 0000 0001 2127 6733 GND: 102372179 SELIBR: 33921 SUDOC: 083886672 BNF: