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Abu Zakaria Yahya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī (Arabic: أبو زكريا يحيى بن شرف النووي‎;‎ 1233–1277), popularly known as al-Nawawī or Imam
Imam
Nawawī (631–676 A.H./1234–1277), was an influential Sunni
Sunni
Shafi'ite jurist and hadith scholar.[5] He authored numerous and lengthy works ranging from hadith, to theology, biography, and jurisprudence.[6] Al-Nawawi
Al-Nawawi
never married.[7]

Contents

1 Creed 2 Early years

2.1 Background 2.2 Education

3 Life as a scholar

3.1 Notable teachers

4 Relationship with the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate 5 Death and legacy

5.1 Destruction of tomb

6 Works 7 Recent English language editions

7.1 Minhaj al-Talibin 7.2 The Forty Hadith 7.3 Riyad al-Salihin

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Creed[edit] Imam
Imam
Nawawi adhered to the orthodox Sunni
Sunni
Ash'ari
Ash'ari
creed.[3][4] In line with this school, he did not interpret the mutashabihat, or 'unapparent in meaning' verses and hadiths in a literal anthropomorphic way. He states in his commentary of a hadith that:

This is one of the "hadiths of the attributes," about which scholars have two positions. The first is to have faith in it without discussing its meaning, while believing of Allah Most High that "there is nothing whatsoever like unto Him" (Qur'an 42:11), and that He is exalted above having any of the attributes of His creatures. The second is to figuratively explain it in a fitting way, scholars who hold this position adducing that the point of the hadith was to test the slave girl: Was she a monotheist, who affirmed that the Creator, the Disposer, the Doer, is Allah alone and that He is the one called upon when a person making supplication (du'a) faces the sky--just as those performing the prayer (salat) face the Kaaba, since the sky is the qibla of those who supplicate, as the Kaaba is the qibla of those who perform the prayer--or was she a worshipper of the idols which they placed in front of themselves? So when she said, In the sky, it was plain that she was not an idol worshiper.[8]

Early years[edit] Background[edit] He was born at Nawa near Damascus, Syria.[5] As with many Arabic and Semitic names, the last part of his name refers to his hometown. Shaikh Yasin bin Yusuf Marakashi, says: "I saw Imam
Imam
Nawawi at Nawa when he was a youth of ten years of age. Other boys of his age used to force him to play with them, but Imam
Imam
Nawawi would always avoid the play and would remain busy with the recitation of the Noble Qur'an. When they tried to domineer and insisted on his joining their games, he bewailed and expressed his no concern over their foolish action. On observing his sagacity and profundity, a special love and affection developed in my heart for young Nawawi. I approached his teacher and urged him to take exceptional care of this lad as he was to become a great religious scholar. His teacher asked whether I was a soothsayer or an astrologer. I told him I am neither soothsayer nor an astrologer but Allah caused me to utter these words." His teacher conveyed this incident to Imam's father and he keeping in view the learning quest of his son, decided to dedicate the life of his son for the service and promotion of the cause of Islam.[citation needed] Education[edit]

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He had no academic or scholarly atmosphere and there were no religious academies or institutes where one could earn excellence in religious learning, so his father took him to Damascus, which was considered the center of learning and scholarship, and the students from far and wide gathered there for schooling. During that period, there were more than three hundred institutes, colleges and universities in Damascus. Imam Nawawi joined Madrasah Rawahiyah which was affiliated with the Ummvi University. The founder and patron of this Madrasah was a trader named Zakiuddin Abul-Qassim who was known as Ibn Rawahah. Madrasah was named after him. Noted and eminent teachers of the period taught in that Madrasah. Imam
Imam
Nawawi says, "I studied in this institution for two years. During my stay in Madrasah Rawahiyah, I never had complete rest and lived on the limited food supplied by the institution." As a routine he used to sleep very little at night. When it became irresistible as a human being, he would lean and slumber for a while against the support of books. After a short duration he would again be hard at his scholastic pursuits. Life as a scholar[edit] He studied in Damascus
Damascus
from the age of 18 and after making the pilgrimage in 1253 he settled there as a private scholar.[citation needed] From a young age he showed signs of great intelligence, and so his father paid for a good education. As a judge, he was much sought after for advice and adjudication of disputes.[citation needed] Notable teachers[edit] During his stay at Damascus, he studied from more than twenty teachers.[citation needed] These teachers were regarded as masters and authority of their subject field and disciplines they taught. Imam studied Hadith, Islamic Jurisprudence, its principles, syntax and Etymology. Abu Ibrahim Ishaq bin Ahmad AI-Maghribi, Abu Muhammad Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim Al-Fazari, Radiyuddin Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Abu Hafs Umar bin Mudar Al-Mudari, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Isa Al-Muradi, Abul-Baqa Khalid bin Yusuf An-Nablusi, Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Salim Al-Misri, Abu Abdullah Al-Jiyani, Abul-Fath Umar bin Bandar, Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
At-Tanukhi, Sharafuddin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Ansari, Abul-Faraj Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ahmad Al-Maqdisi, Abul-Fada'il Sallar bin Al-Hasan Al Arbali.[9] Relationship with the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate[edit] Imam
Imam
Nawawi drew the ire of Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan
Sultan
Rukn al-Din Baybars, when he petitioned on behalf of residents of Damascus
Damascus
who sought relief from heavy tax burdens during a drought that lasted many years.[10] This prompted Baybars
Baybars
threatened to expel him from Damascus.[11] To this, he responded:

"As for myself, threats do not harm me or mean anything to me. They will not keep me from advising the ruler, for I believe that this is obligatory upon me and others."[12]

Death and legacy[edit] He died at Nawa at the relatively young age of 44, having never married.

Imam
Imam
Nawawi's Forty Hadith
Hadith
taught in the Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan in Cairo, Egypt

An-Nawawi's lasting legacy is his contribution to hadith literature through his momentous works Forty Hadiths and Riyadh as-Saaliheen.[13] This made him respected in all madhabs, despite of him being of Shafi'i
Shafi'i
jurisprudence.[14] Despite adhering to the Sunni
Sunni
Asharite school in aqidah, he is respected by followers of the Salafi sect.[14] According to Al-Dhahabi, Imam
Imam
Nawawi's concentration and absorption in academic love gained proverbial fame. He had devoted all his time for learning and scholarship. Other than reading and writing, he spent his time contemplating on the interacted and complex issues and in finding their solutions.[citation needed] Sheikh Mohiuddin expresses his impression about Imam
Imam
Nawawi as thus:

Imaam an-Nawawi had three distinctive commendable qualities in his person. If anybody has only one out of these three, people turn to him in abundance for guidance. First, having knowledge and its dissemination. Second, to evade completely from the worldly inclinations, and the third, inviting to all that is good (Islam) enjoining virtue and forbidding vice. Imaam an-Nawawi had all three in him.[citation needed]

Destruction of tomb[edit] In 2015, during the ongoing Syrian Civil War, his tomb was demolished by rebels linked to Al Nusra.[15] Works[edit] During his life of 45 years[16] he wrote "at least fifty books"[17] on Islamic studies and other topics. These include:

Al Minhaj bi Sharh Sahih Muslim شرح صحيح مسلم, making use of others before him, and is considered one of the best commentaries on Sahih Muslim. It is available online.[18] Riyadh as-Saaliheen
Riyadh as-Saaliheen
رياض الصالحين, is a collection of hadith on ethics, manners, conduct, and is very popular in the Muslim world today. al-Majmu' sharh al-Muhadhdhab المجموع شرح المهذب, is a comprehensive manual of Islamic law according to the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school has been edited with French translation by van den Bergh, 2 vols., Batavia (1882–1884), and published at Cairo
Cairo
(1888). Minhaj al-Talibin منهاج الطالبين وعمدة المفتين في فقه الإمام الشافعي, a classical manual on Islamic Law according to Shafi'i
Shafi'i
fiqh.[5] Tahdhib al-Asma wal-Lughat تهذيب الأسماء, has been edited as the Biographical Dictionary of Illustrious Men chiefly at the Beginning of Islam
Islam
by F. Wüstenfeld (Göttingen, 1842–1847). Taqrib al-Taisir التقريب والتيسير لمعرفة سنن البشير النذير, an introduction to the study of hadith, it is an extension of Ibn al-Salah's Muqaddimah, was published at Cairo, 1890, with Suyuti's commentary "Tadrib al-Rawi". It has been in part translated into French by W. Marçais in the Journal asiatique, series ix., vols. 16–18 (1900–1901). Forty Hadiths (al-arbaʿīn al-nawawiyya) الأربعون النووية, collection of forty (actually forty-two) fundamental traditions, frequently published along with numerous commentaries. Ma Tamas ilayhi hajat al-Qari li Saheeh al-Bukhaari ما تمس إليه حاجة القاري لصـحيح البـخاري, Tahrir al-Tanbih تحرير التنبيه, Kitab al-Adhkar الأذكار المنتخبة من كلام سيد الأبرار, is a collection of supplications of prophet Muhammad. al-Tibyan fi adab Hamalat al-Quran التبيان في آداب حملة القرآن, Adab al-fatwa wa al-Mufti wa al-Mustafti آداب الفتوى والمفتي والمستفتي, al-Tarkhis fi al-Qiyam الترخيص بالقيام لذوي الفضل والمزية من أهل الإسلام, Manasik متن الإيضاح في المناسك, on Hajj
Hajj
rituals. Sharh Sunan Abu Dawood Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari Mukhtasar at-Tirmidhi Tabaqat ash-Shafi'iyah Rawdhat al-Talibeen Bustan al-`arifin

Recent English language editions[edit]

Bustan al-ʿarifin (The Garden of Gnostics), Translated by Aisha Bewley

Minhaj al-Talibin[edit]

Minhaj et talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law ; According To The School of Shafi, Law Publishing Co (1977) ASIN B0006D2W9I Minhaj et talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law ; According To The School of Shafi, Navrang (1992) ISBN 81-7013-097-2 Minhaj Et Talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law, Adam Publishers (2005) ISBN 81-7435-249-X

The Forty Hadith[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Al-Nawawi's Forty Hadith

The Compendium of Knowledge and Wisdom; Translation of Jami' Uloom wal-Hikam by Ibn Rajab
Rajab
al-Hanbali translated by Abdassamad Clarke, Turath Publishing (2007) ISBN 0-9547380-2-0 Al-Nawawi
Al-Nawawi
Forty Hadiths and Commentary; Translated by Arabic Virtual Translation Center; (2010) ISBN 978-1-4563-6735-0 Ibn-Daqiq's Commentary on the Nawawi Forty Hadiths; Translated by Arabic Virtual Translation Center; (2011) ISBN 1-4565-8325-5 Al-Nawawi's Forty Hadith, Translated by Ezzeddin Ibrahim, Islamic Texts Society; New edition (1997) ISBN 0-946621-65-9 The Forty Hadith
Hadith
of al- Imam
Imam
al-Nawawi, Abul-Qasim Publishing House (1999) ISBN 9960-792-76-5 The Complete Forty Hadith, Ta-Ha Publishers (2000) ISBN 1-84200-013-6 The Arba'een 40 Ahadith of Imam
Imam
Nawawi with Commentary, Darul Ishaat Commentary on the Forty Hadith
Hadith
of Al-Nawawi
Al-Nawawi
(3 Vols.), by Jamaal Al-Din M. Zarabozo, Al-Basheer (1999) ISBN 1-891540-04-1

Riyad al-Salihin[edit]

Gardens of the righteous: Riyadh as-Salihin of Imam
Imam
Nawawi, Rowman and Littlefield (1975) ISBN 0-87471-650-0 Riyad-us-Salihin: Garden of the Righteous, Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiyah Riyadh-us-Saliheen (Vol. 1&2 in One Book) (Arabic-English) Dar Ahya Us-Sunnah Al Nabawiya

See also[edit]

Forty hadith Islamic scholars Imam
Imam
Shafi'i

References[edit]

Arabic Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: al-Nawawi

^ "kitaabun-Classical and Contemporary Muslim and Islamic Books". Kitaabun.com. 2003-01-23. Retrieved 2014-05-20.  ^ "Was Ibn Kathīr the 'Spokesperson' for Ibn Taymiyya? Jonah as a Prophet of Obedience". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 16 (1): 4. 2014-02-01. doi:10.3366/jqs.2014.0130. ISSN 1465-3591.  ^ a b Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Sunni
Sunni
Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. p. 76. ISBN 143845371X.  ^ a b Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni
Sunni
Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 89. ISBN 0230102794.  ^ a b c Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, pp.238-239. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810861615. ^ Fachrizal A. Halim (2014), Legal Authority in Premodern Islam: Yahya B Sharaf Al-Nawawi
Al-Nawawi
in the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
School of Law, p. 1. Routledge. ISBN 041574962X. ^ Abou Al-Fadl, Khaled (2005). The Search for Beauty in Islam: A Conference of the Books. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 174. ISBN 978-0742550940. Retrieved 2016-02-20.  ^ Sahih Muslim bi Sharh al-Nawawi. 18 vols. Cairo
Cairo
1349/1930. Reprint (18 vols. in 9). Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1401/1981, 5.24 ^ "40hadithnawawi.com". 40hadithnawawi.com. Retrieved 2014-05-20.  ^ "Amon our perennial faculty". Zaytuna College. Retrieved 20 March 2015.  ^ Dekmejian, R. Hrair (1995). Islam
Islam
in Revolution: Fundamentalism in the Arab World Contemporary issues in the Middle East (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815626355.  ^ Zarabozo, Jamaal al-Din M. (2008). Commentary on the Forty Hadith
Hadith
of al-Nawawi (2-Volume Set). Denver: Al-Basheer Company. p. 37.  ^ "40 Hadiths of Imam
Imam
Nawawi". 40HadithNawawi. Muslim American Society. Retrieved 20 March 2015.  ^ a b "Who Was Imam
Imam
Al Nawawi (R)". Youtube. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2015.  ^ "Syrian fighters destroy historic Muslim tomb". Al Jazeera English. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015.  ^ "A Short Biography of Imaam an-Nawawi". Islaam.net. Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2014-05-20.  ^ Jamaal al-Din M. Zarabozo, Commentary on the Forty Hadith
Hadith
of Al-Nawawi, Volume 1, Al-Basheer Publication & Translation (1999), p. 33 ^ "الرئيسة - الحديث - موقع الإسلام". Hadith.al-islam.com. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]

A short bio on Imam
Imam
Nawawi An-Nawawi's Forty Hadiths Imam
Imam
Nawawi

v t e

Shafi`i
Shafi`i
School

by century (AH CE)

2nd/8th

Al- Shafi`i
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(founder of the school)

3rd/9th

Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari Al-Humaydi Al-Nasai Harith al-Muhasibi Ibn al-Mundhir Ibn Khuzaymah Ibn Majah Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj

4th/10th

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi Abu Nuaym Abu Talib al-Makki Al-Daraqutni Al-Hakim Nishapuri Ibn Furak

5th/11th

Abu Isḥāq ash-Shirazi Ahmad Ghazali Ahmad ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Tha`labi Al-Baghawi Al-Bayhaqi Al-Juwayni Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi Al-Mawardi Al-Qushayri Yusuf Hamadani

6th/12th

Ahmed al-Rifa`i Al-Ghazali Al-Shahrastani Fakhr al-Din al-Razi Ibn al-Salah Ibn `Asakir Sayf al-Din al-Amidi Shahab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardi

7th/13th

Ahmad al-Badawi Al-Baydawi Al-Nawawi Ibn Abil-Hadid Ibn Daqiq al-Id Ibn Khallikan Izz al-Din ibn Abd al-Salam Safi-ad-din Ardabili Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi

8th/14th

Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami Al-Dhahabi Badr Ad-Din az-Zarkashi Ibn al-Jazari Ibn Kathir Taftazani Taj al-Din al-Subki Taqi al-Din al-Subki Zain al-Din al-Iraqi

9th/15th

Al-Qastallani Al-Sakhawi Al-Suyuti Ali ibn Ahmad al-Samhudi Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani Ibn Nuhaas Zakariyya al-Ansari

10th/16th

Al-Khaṭib ash-Shirbiniy Al-Sha`rani Ibn Hajar al-Haytami

11th/17th

Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad

12th/18th

Muhammad
Muhammad
Hayyat ibn Ibrahim al-Sindhi

13th/19th

Abd Al-Rahman bin Ahmad al-Zayla`i Ibrahim al-Bajuri Shaykh Sufi Uways al-Barawi Yusuf an-Nabhani

14th/20th

Abdul Azeez Madani Abdallah al-Qutbi Abdullah al-Harari Afifi al-Akiti Ahmad Syafi'i Maarif Ahmed Kuftaro Ali al-Jifri Ali Gomaa Awn Al-Qaddoumi Cherussery Zainuddeen Musliyar Gibril Haddad Hamka Hasyim Muzadi K. Ali Kutty Musliyar Mohammad Salim Al-Awa Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Yahya al-Ninowy Nuh Ha Mim Keller Said Nursî Sayyid Ibraheem Khaleel Al Bukhari Sayyid Muhammad
Muhammad
Jifri Muthukkoya Thangal Sheikh Aboobacker Ahmed Syed Muhammad
Muhammad
Naquib al-Attas Taha Jabir Alalwani Umar bin Hafiz Wahbah al-Zuhayli Zaid Shakir

Scholars of other Sunni
Sunni
Islamic schools of jurisprudence

Hanafi Hanbali Maliki Zahiri

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 90059668 LCCN: n82009538 ISNI: 0000 0001 1683 8690 GND: 119158523 SELIBR: 196085 SUDOC: 027045439 BNF: cb11917471c (data) NDL: 01005