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African Romance
African Romance
or African Latin is an extinct Romance language that is assumed to have been spoken in the Roman province of Africa by the Roman Africans
Roman Africans
during the later Roman and early Byzantine Empires and several centuries after the annexation of the region by the Umayyad Caliphate in 696. African Roman is poorly attested as it was mainly a spoken, vernacular language; texts and inscriptions in Roman Africa were written exclusively in Classical Latin. It was, along with other languages spoken in the region such as Berber languages, subsequently suppressed and supplanted by Arabic
Arabic
after the Muslim conquest of the area. Later Romance languages
Romance languages
to arrive in the continent (notably Ladino, French and Portuguese) are not covered by this article.

Contents

1 Background 2 History 3 Related languages 4 Characteristics 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography

Background[edit]

Map showing in black the coast of Maghreb
Maghreb
where there existed a now-extinct neo-Latin language

The Roman province of Africa was organized in 146 BCE following the defeat of Carthage
Carthage
in the Third Punic War. Carthage, destroyed following the war, was rebuilt in the dictatorship of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
as a Roman colony. In the time of the Roman Empire, the province had become populous and prosperous, and Carthage
Carthage
was the second-largest Latin-speaking city in the Empire. Latin was, however, largely an urban and coastal speech; Carthaginian Punic continued to be spoken in inland and rural areas as late as the mid-5th century. It is probable that Berber languages
Berber languages
were spoken in some areas as well. Africa was occupied by the Germanic Vandal
Vandal
tribe for over a century, between 429 and 534, when the province was reconquered by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. The changes that occurred in spoken Latin during that time are unknown; literary Latin, however, was maintained at a high standard, as seen in the Latin poetry of the African writer Corippus. History[edit] What happened to African Romance
African Romance
following the Arab conquest in 696 is difficult to trace, though it was soon replaced by Arabic
Arabic
as the primary administrative language. At the time of the conquest a Romance language was probably spoken in the cities and Berber languages
Berber languages
were also spoken in the region.[1] Loanwords from North African Romance
African Romance
to Berber are attested and are usually in the accusative form: examples include atmun ("plough-beam") from temonem.[1] It is unclear for how long Romance continued to be spoken, but its influence on North African Arabic
Arabic
(particularly in the language of northwestern Morocco) indicates it must have had a significant presence in the early years after the Arab conquest.[1] Whether Mozarabic, the group of Romance dialects spoken in medieval Moorish Spain that developed separately from Spanish, shared features with African Latin is unknown. The Normans, when they were acquiring their African kingdom in the 12th century, received help from the remaining Christian populations of Tunisia, and some historians such as Vermondo Brugnatelli argue that those Christians still spoke a Romance language. The language may have existed until the arrival of the Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
Arabs and probably until the beginning of the fourteenth century, according to scholar Andrew H. Merrills and others.[2]Furthermore, the 12th-century Maghrebi geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, describing Gafsa
Gafsa
in southern Tunisia, noted that "its inhabitants are Berberised, and most of them speak the African Latin tongue (al-lisān al-laṭīnī al-ifrīqī)."[3] According to one author,[2]

Christian communities, generally labelled Afariqa
Afariqa
or Ajam in the Arab sources and speaking a latin dialect ("al-li-san al-latini al-Afariq" as is termed by al-Idrisi) are known to have survived until the fourteenth century. — Alan Rushworth, Vandals, Romans and Berbers

Related languages[edit] Muhammad al-Idrisi
Muhammad al-Idrisi
gives us a single but very important datum: writing on the island of Sardinia
Sardinia
in his work (Recreation of the desirer in the account of cities, regions, countries, islands, towns, and distant lands) defines its inhabitants: "The Sardinians are ethnic Romans from Africa, live like the Berbers, shun any other nation of Rûm; these people are courageous and valiant, that never part with their weapons." ("Wa ahl Ğazīrat Sardāniya fī aṣl Rūm Afāriqa mutabarbirūn mutawaḥḥišūn min ağnās ar-Rūm wa hum ahl nağida wa hazm lā yufariqūn as-silāḥ."[4][5]) Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
states, Afrae aures de correptione vocalium vel productione non iudicant: "African ears have no quick perception of the shortness or length of (Latin) vowels."[6] That describes the evolution of vowels in the Sardinian language, which has only five vowels (and no diphthongs): unlike some other surviving Romance languages, the five long and short vowel pairs of classical Latin (a/ā, e/ē, i/ī, o/ō, u/ū) have merged into five single vowels with no length distinction (a, e, i, o, u). Other Romance languages
Romance languages
spoken in North Africa before the European colonization were the Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a pidgin with Arabic
Arabic
and Romance influences, and Judaeo-Spanish, a dialect of Spanish brought by Sephardi Jews. Characteristics[edit] The Italian linguist Vermondo Brugnatelli pinpoints some Berber words, relating to religious topics, as being originally words from Latin: for example, in Ghadames the word "äng'alus" (ⴰⵏⵖⴰⵍⵓⵙ, أنغلس) refers to a spiritual entity, clearly using a word from the Latin angelus "angel".[citation needed]

The Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
within the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
after the reconquest of Justianian.

The Polish Arabist T. Lewicki (1958) tried to reconstruct some sections of this language based on 85 lemmas mainly derived from North African toponyms and anthroponyms found in medieval sources. According to him, several other authors adventured themselves to discover be it some parts of this extinct language.[citation needed] Due to the historical presence in North Africa of Classical Latin, modern Romance languages, as well as the influence of the Mediterranean Lingua Franca
Mediterranean Lingua Franca
(that has Romance vocabulary) makes it very difficult to differentiate the precise origin of words in Berber languages and in the varieties of Maghrebi Arabic. Generally speaking, words originally from African Romance
African Romance
are:

The words ending with -u (for example, the Berber abekkadu "sin") and not -us (as in the Berber asnus "(young) donkey"); The words having a phonological or morphological aspect different from that of Italian, French or Spanish (for instance the Berber word agursel "mushroom", supposing the base *AGARICELLUS).[citation needed][clarification needed]

The studies concerning the African Romance
African Romance
are difficult and often highly conjectural. Another difficulty comes from that, considering the immensity of the North-African territory, it is highly probable that not one but several varieties of African Romance
African Romance
existed, much like the wide variety of Romance languages
Romance languages
in Europe.[7] Because there are doublets of North African Romance
African Romance
words, in many cases one can assume that they come from different Romance languages or that they originate from different periods. See for example:

The berber of central Morocco
Morocco
ayugu "labor ox", Kabylia
Kabylia
tayuga "a pair of oxen" (from Latin iugum, meaning 'a yoke, a team of oxen')

But also: kabyle azaglu "yoke" (from Latin iugulum, meaning 'collarbone')

Kabyle aguglu "fresh curd"

But also: kabyle kkal "curdled", ikkil "curdled milk/sour milk" (from Latin coagulum, meaning 'curd')[citation needed][clarification needed]

See also[edit]

Algeria portal Tunisia
Tunisia
portal Languages portal

Ifriqiya Mediterranean Lingua Franca British Latin Moselle Romance Pannonian Romance Maghrebi Arabic Algerian Arabic Tunisian Arabic Siculo-Arabic Maltese language Berber languages

References[edit]

^ a b c Martin Haspelmath; Uri Tadmor (22 December 2009). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. p. 195. ISBN 978-3-11-021844-2.  ^ a b Merrills, Andrew H. (2004). Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa. Ashgate. ISBN 9780754641452.  ^ سواق, Lameen Souag الأمين (2007-07-06). "Jabal al-Lughat: Berberised Afro-Latin speakers in Gafsa". Jabal al-Lughat. Retrieved 2018-02-09.  ^ Contu Giuseppe, Sardinia
Sardinia
in Arabic
Arabic
sources, Annali della Facoltà di Lingue e Letterature Straniere dell'Università di Sassari, Vol. 3 (2003 pubbl. 2005), p. 287-297. ISSN 1828-5384. , http://eprints.uniss.it/1055/ ^ Mastino, Attilio (2005). Storia della Sardegna antica, Edizioni Il Maestrale, pp.83 ^ De doctrina christiana, Lib.IV, C.10 ^ Franco Fanciullo, Un capitolo della Romania submersa: il latino africano, pp. 162-187.

Bibliography[edit]

Vermondo Brugnatelli, "I prestiti latini in berbero: un bilancio", in: M. Lamberti, L. Tonelli
L. Tonelli
(eds.), Afroasiatica Tergestina. Papers from the 9th Italian Meeting of Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) Linguistics, Trieste, April 23–24, 1998, Padova, Unipress, 1999, pp. 325–332 Franco Fanciullo, "Un capitolo della Romania submersa: il latino africano", in: D. Kremer (ed.), Actes du XVIIIe Congrès International de Linguistique et de Philologie Romane - Universitè de Trèves (Trier) 1986, tome I, Tübingen, Niemeyer, 1992,162-187 pp. Tadeusz Lewicki, "Une langue romane oubliée de l'Afrique du Nord. Observations d'un arabisant", Rocznik Orient. XVII (1958), pp. 415–480 Hugo Schuchardt, Die romanischen Lehnwörter im Berberischen, Wien 1918 (82 pp.)

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African Romance

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