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French Algeria
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Contemporary era 1960s–80s

Arab nationalism 1965 putsch

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1990s

Algerian Civil War
Algerian Civil War
(Timeline)

FIS GIA List of massacres

High Council of State Civil Concord

2000s to present

Peace Charter AQIM Arab Spring

Related topics

Outline of Algeria Military history of Algeria (List of wars involving Algeria) Postal history of Algeria (List of people on stamps of Algeria) History of North Africa

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Libyco-Berber era pre-146 BC

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Libya
Libya
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Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province
Roman province
on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage
Carthage
in the Third Punic
Punic
War. It roughly comprised the territory of present-day Tunisia, the northeast of modern-day Algeria, and the small Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
coast of modern-day western Libya
Libya
along the Gulf of Sirte. The territory was originally inhabited by Berber people. It was one of the wealthiest provinces in the western part of the Roman empire, second only to Italia. Apart from Carthage, other large settlements in the province were Hadrumetum
Hadrumetum
(modern Sousse, Tunisia), capital of Byzacena, Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
(modern Annaba, Algeria).

The Roman empire
Roman empire
in the time of Hadrian
Hadrian
(ruled 117–138 AD), showing, in northern Africa, the senatorial province of Africa Proconsularis (E. Algeria/Tunisia/Tripolitania). 1 legion deployed in 125.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Timetable

2 Roman Africans 3 Economy

3.1 Pottery production

3.1.1 African Terra Sigillata

4 Governors

4.1 Republican era

4.1.1 146–100 BC 4.1.2 90s–31 BC

4.2 Imperial era

4.2.1 Principate

4.2.1.1 Reign of Augustus 4.2.1.2 Reign of Tiberius 4.2.1.3 Reign of Gaius Caligula 4.2.1.4 Reign of Claudius 4.2.1.5 Reign of Nero 4.2.1.6 Reign of Vespasian 4.2.1.7 Reign of Domitian 4.2.1.8 Reign of Nerva 4.2.1.9 Reign of Trajan 4.2.1.10 Reign of Hadrian 4.2.1.11 Reign of Antoninus Pius 4.2.1.12 Reign of Marcus Aurelius 4.2.1.13 Reign of Commodus 4.2.1.14 Reign of Septimius Severus 4.2.1.15 Reign of Caracalla 4.2.1.16 Reign of Elagabalus 4.2.1.17 Reign of Alexander Severus 4.2.1.18 Reign of Maximinus Thrax 4.2.1.19 Reign of Gordian III 4.2.1.20 Reigns of Valerian and Gallienus 4.2.1.21 Reign of Aurelian 4.2.1.22 Reign of Carinus

4.2.2 Later Empire (Dominate)

5 Episcopal sees 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] Further information: History of Roman-era Tunisia Rome's first province in north Africa was established by the Roman Republic in 146 BC, following the Third Punic
Punic
War. Africa Proconsularis or Africa Vetus (Old Africa), was governed by a proconsul. It is possible that the name "Africa" comes from the Berber word "afer" or "ifri" that designated a tribe. Utica was formed as the administrative capital. The remaining territory was left in the domain of the Berber Numidian client king Massinissa. At this time, the Roman policy in Africa was simply to prevent another great power from rising on the far side of Sicily. In 118 BC, the Numidian prince Jugurtha
Jugurtha
attempted to reunify the smaller kingdoms. However, upon his death, much of Jugurtha's territory was placed in the control of the Berber Mauretanian client king Bocchus; and, by that time, the romanisation of Africa was firmly rooted. In 27 BC, when the Republic had transformed into an Empire, the province of Africa began its Imperial occupation under Roman rule. Several political and provincial reforms were implemented by Augustus and later by Caligula, but Claudius
Claudius
finalized the territorial divisions into official Roman provinces. Africa was a senatorial province. After Diocletian's administrative reforms, it was split into Africa Zeugitana (which retained the name Africa Proconsularis, as it was governed by a proconsul) in the north and Africa Byzacena
Byzacena
in the south, both of which were part of the Dioecesis Africae. The region remained a part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the Germanic migrations of the 5th century. The Vandals
Vandals
crossed into North Africa from Spain in 429 and overran the area by 439 and founded their own kingdom, including Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia
Sardinia
and the Balearics. The Vandals
Vandals
controlled the country as a warrior-elite but face strong resistance from the native Berbers. The Vandals
Vandals
also persecuted Catholic Berbers, as the Vandals
Vandals
were adherents of Arianism
Arianism
(the semi-trinitarian doctrines of Arius, a priest of Egypt). Towards the end of the 5th century, the Vandal state fell into decline, abandoning most of the interior territories to the Mauri and other Berber tribes of the region. In AD 533, Emperor Justinian, using a Vandal dynastic dispute as pretext, sent an army under the general Belisarius
Belisarius
to recover Africa. In a short campaign, Belisarius
Belisarius
defeated the Vandals, entered Carthage in triumph and re-established Roman rule over the province. The restored Roman administration was successful in fending off the attacks of the Amazigh
Amazigh
desert tribes, and by means of an extensive fortification network managed to extend its rule once again to the interior. The north African provinces, together with the Roman possessions in Spain, were grouped into the Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
by Emperor Maurice. The exarchate prospered, and from it resulted the overthrow of the emperor Phocas
Phocas
by Heraclius
Heraclius
in 610. Heraclius
Heraclius
briefly considered moving the imperial capital from Constantinople
Constantinople
to Carthage. After 640, the exarchate managed to stave off the Muslim Conquest, but in 698, a Muslim army from Egypt
Egypt
sacked Carthage
Carthage
and conquered the exarchate, ending Roman and Christian rule in North Africa. Timetable[edit]

EVOLUTION OF THE PROVINCE OF AFRICA

Pre-Roman Conquest Carthage Eastern Numidia
Numidia
(Massylii) Western Numidia
Numidia
(Masaesyli) Mauretania

by 146 BC Africa Numidia Mauretania

by 105 BC Africa Eastern Numidia Western Numidia Mauretania

by 45 BC Africa Vetus Africa Nova Western Numidia Eastern Mauretania Western Mauretania

by 27 BC Africa Proconsularis Mauretania

by 41 AD Africa Proconsularis Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana

by 193 AD Africa Proconsularis Numidia Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana

by 314 AD Tripolitania Africa Byzacena Africa Zeugitana Numidia Mauretania
Mauretania
Sitifensis Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana

Legend

  Roman control Roman Africans[edit] Main article: Roman Africans

The amphitheatre of Thysdrus (modern El Djem)

Even so, the Roman military presence of North Africa was relatively small, consisting of about 28,000 troops and auxiliaries in Numidia and the two Mauretanian provinces. Starting in the 2nd century AD, these garrisons were manned mostly by local inhabitants. A sizable Latin
Latin
speaking population developed that was multinational in background, sharing the north African region with those speaking Punic and Berber languages.[1][2] Imperial security forces began to be drawn from the local population, including the Berbers. Abun-Nasr, in his A History of the Maghrib, said that "What made the Berbers
Berbers
accept the Roman way of life all the more readily was that the Romans, though a colonizing people who captured their lands by the might of their arms, did not display any racial exclusiveness and were remarkably tolerant of Berber religious cults, be they indigenous or borrowed from the Carthaginians. However, the Roman territory in Africa was unevenly penetrated by Roman culture. Pockets of non-Romanized Berbers
Berbers
continued to exist throughout the Roman period, even such as in the rural areas of the deeply romanised regions of Tunisia
Tunisia
and Numidia." By the end of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
nearly all of the Maghreb was fully romanised, according to Mommsen in his The Provinces of the Roman Empire. Roman Africans
Roman Africans
enjoyed a high level of prosperity. This prosperity (and romanisation) touched partially even the populations living outside the Roman limes
Roman limes
(mainly the Garamantes
Garamantes
and the Getuli), who were reached with Roman expeditions to Sub-Saharan Africa.

The willing acceptance of Roman citizenship by members of the ruling class in African cities produced such Roman Africans
Roman Africans
as the comic poet Terence, the rhetorician Fronto of Cirta, the jurist Salvius Julianus of Hadrumetum, the novelist Apuleius of Madauros, the emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
of Lepcis Magna, the Christians Tertullian and Cyprian of Carthage, and Arnobius of Sicca and his pupil Lactantius; the angelic doctor Augustine of Thagaste, the epigrammatist Luxorius of Vandal Carthage, and perhaps the biographer Suetonius, and the poet Dracontius. — Paul MacKendrick, The North African Stones Speak (1969), UNC Press, 2000, p.326

Economy[edit]

Electrum tridrachme struck at Zeugitane in Carthage

A Roman coin
Roman coin
celebrating the province of Africa, struck in AD 136 under the Emperor Hadrian. The personification of Africa is shown wearing an elephant headdress.

Triumph of Poseidon and Amphitrite showing the couple in procession, detail of a vast mosaic from Cirta, Roman Africa (c. 315–325 AD, now at the Louvre)

The prosperity of most towns depended on agriculture. Called the "granary of the empire", North Africa, according to one estimate, produced one million tons of cereals each year[citation needed], one-quarter of which was exported. Additional crops included beans, figs, grapes, and other fruits. By the 2nd century, olive oil rivaled cereals as an export item[citation needed]. In addition to the cultivation of slaves, and the capture and transporting of exotic wild animals, the principal production and exports included the textiles, marble, wine, timber, livestock, pottery such as African Red Slip, and wool. The incorporation of colonial cities into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
brought an unparalleled degree of urbanization to vast areas of territory, particularly in North Africa. This level of rapid urbanization had a structural impact on the town economy, and artisan production in Roman cities became closely tied to the agrarian spheres of production. As Rome's population grew, so did her demand for North African produce. This flourishing trade allowed the North African provinces to increase artisan production in rapidly developing cities, making them highly organized urban centers. Many Roman cities shared both consumer and producer model city aspects, as artisanal activity was directly related to the economic role cities played in long-distance trade networks.[3] The urban population became increasingly engaged in the craft and service sectors and less in agrarian employment, until a significant portion of the town's vitality came from the sale or trade of products through middlemen to markets in areas both rural and abroad. The changes that occurred in the infrastructure for agricultural processing, like olive oil and wine production, as trade continued to develop both cities and commerce directly influenced the volume of artisan production. The scale, quality, and demand for these products reached its acme in Roman North Africa.[3] Pottery production[edit] Main article: African Red Slip

Berber Red Slip flagons and vases, 2nd-4th centuries

A typical plain berber Red Slip dish with simple rouletted decoration, 4th century

The North African provinces spanned across regions rich with olive plantations and potters' clay sources, which led to the early development of fine Ancient Roman pottery, especially African Red Slip terra sigillata tableware and clay oil lamp manufacture, as a crucial industry. Lamps provided the most common form of illumination in Rome. They were used for public and private lighting, as votive offerings in temples, lighting at festivals, and as grave goods. As the craft developed and increased in quality and craftsmanship, the North African creations began to rival their Italian and Grecian models and eventually surpassed them in merit and in demand.[4] The innovative use of molds around the 1st century BC allowed for a much greater variety of shapes and decorative style, and the skill of the lamp maker was demonstrated by the quality of the decoration found typically on the flat top of the lamp, or discus, and the outer rim, or shoulder. The production process took several stages. The decorative motifs were created using small individual molds, and were then added as appliqué to a plain archetype of the lamp. The embellished lamp was then used to make two plaster half molds, one lower half and one upper half mold, and multiple copies were then able to be mass-produced. Decorative motifs ranged according to the lamp's function and to popular taste.[4] Ornate patterning of squares and circles were later added to the shoulder with a stylus, as well as palm trees, small fish, animals, and flower patterns. The discus was reserved for conventional scenes of gods, goddesses, mythological subjects, scenes from daily life, erotic scenes, and natural images. The strongly Christian identity of post-Roman society in North Africa is exemplified in the later instances of North African lamps, on which scenes of Christian images like saints, crosses, and biblical figures became commonly articulated topics. Traditional mythological symbols had enduring popularity as well, which can be traced back to North Africa's Punic
Punic
heritage. Many of the early North African lamps that have been excavated, especially those of high quality, have the name of the manufacturer inscribed on the base, which gives evidence of a highly competitive and thriving local market that developed early and continued to influence and bolster the colonial economy.[4] African Terra Sigillata[edit] After a period of artisanal, political, and social decline in the 3rd century AD, lamp-making revived and accelerated artistry in the early Christian age to new heights. The introduction of fine local red-fired clays in the late 4th century triggered this revival. African Red Slip ware (ARS), or African Terra Sigillata, revolutionized the pottery and lamp-making industry.[5] ARS ware was produced from the last third of the 1st century AD onwards, and was of major importance in the mid-to-late Roman periods. Famous in antiquity as "fine" or high-quality tableware, it was distributed both regionally and throughout the Mediterranean basin along well-established and heavily trafficked trade routes. North Africa's economy flourished as its products were dispersed and demand for its products dramatically increased.[6] Initially, the ARS lamp designs imitated the simple design of 3rd- to 4th-century courseware lamps, often with globules on the shoulder or with fluted walls. But new, more ornate designs appeared before the early 5th century as demand spurred on the creative process. The development and widespread distribution of ARS finewares marks the most distinctive phase of North African pottery-making.[7] These characteristic pottery lamps were produced in large quantities by efficiently organized production centers with large-scale manufacturing abilities, and can be attributed to specific pottery-making centers in northern and central Tunisia
Tunisia
by way of modern chemical analysis, which allows modern archeologists to trace distribution patterns among trade routes both regional and across the Mediterranean.[6] Some major ARS centers in central Tunisia
Tunisia
are Sidi Marzouk Tounsi, Henchir el-Guellal (Djilma), and Henchir es-Srira, all of which have ARS lamp artifacts attributed to them by the microscopic chemical makeup of the clay fabric as well as macroscopic style prevalent in that region. This underscores the idea that these local markets fueled the economy of not only the town itself, but the entire region and supported markets abroad. Certain vessel forms, fabrics, and decorative techniques like rouletting, appliqué, and stamped décor, are specific for a certain region and even for a certain pottery center. If neither form nor decoration of the material to be classified is identifiable, it is possible to trace its origins, not just to a certain region but even to its place of production by comparing its chemical analysis to important northeastern and central Tunisian potteries with good representatives. Governors[edit]

Juba II, king of Mauretania.

Republican era[edit] Unless otherwise noted, names of governors in Africa and their dates are taken from T.R.S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, (New York: American Philological Association, 1951, 1986), vol. 1, and vol. 2 (1952). 146–100 BC[edit] Inscriptional evidence is less common for this period than for the Imperial era, and names of those who held a provincia are usually recorded by historians only during wartime or by the Fasti Triumphales. After the defeat of Carthage
Carthage
in 146 BC, no further assignments to Africa among the senior magistrates or promagistrates are recorded until the Jugurthine War
Jugurthine War
(112–105 BC), when the command against Jugurtha
Jugurtha
in Numidia
Numidia
became a consular province.

P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus Aemilianus (146 BC) uncertain 146/45-112/11 L. Calpurnius Bestia (111 BC) Sp. Postumius Albinus (110–109 BC)[8] Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus (109–107 BC)[9] C. Marius (107–105 BC) L. Cornelius Sulla
Sulla
(105 BC)[10] uncertain 105-100/90s

90s–31 BC[edit] During the civil wars of the 80s and 40s BC, legitimate governors are difficult to distinguish from purely military commands, as rival factions were vying for control of the province by means of force.

None known with reasonable certainty for the 90s BC uncertain 90s-88 P. Sextilius (88–87 BC) Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius (86–84 BC) C. Fabius Hadrianus
C. Fabius Hadrianus
(84–82 BC) Gn. Pompeius Magnus (82–79 BC) uncertain 79-77 L. Licinius Lucullus
Lucullus
(77–76/75 BC) uncertain 76/75-70/69 A. Manlius Torquatus (69 BC or earlier) uncertain 69-67 L. Sergius Catilina (67–66 BC) uncertain 66-62 Q. Pompeius Rufus (62–60/59 BC) T. Vettius, cognomen possibly Sabinus (58–57 BC) Q. Valerius Orca (56 BC) uncertain 56-53/52 P. Attius Varus (52 BC and probably earlier; see also below) C. Considius Longus (51–50 BC) L. Aelius Tubero (49 BC; may never have assumed the post) P. Attius Varus (seized control again in 49 and held Africa until 48) Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica (47 BC) M. Porcius Cato (jointly in 47 BC with special charge of Utica) C. Caninius Rebilus (46 BC) C. Calvisius Sabinus (45–early 44 BC, Africa Vetus) C. Sallustius Crispus, the historian usually known in English as Sallust
Sallust
(45 BC, Africa Nova) Q. Cornificius (44–42 BC, Africa Vetus) T. Sextius (44–40 BC, Africa Nova) C. Fuficius Fango (41 BC) M. Aemilius Lepidus (40–36 BC) T. Statilius Taurus (35 BC) L. Cornificius (34–32 BC) uncertain 32-31

Imperial era[edit] Principate[edit] Reign of Augustus[edit]

uncertain 31-29 Lucius Autronius Paetus (29/28 BC)[11] uncertain 28-25 Marcus Acilius Glabrio (25 BC)[11] uncertain 24-c.21 Lucius Sempronius Atratinus (?c. 21/20 BC)[11] Lucius Cornelius Balbus (20/19 BC)[11] uncertain 19-14 Gaius Sentius Saturninus (14/13 BC)[11] Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (13/12 BC) uncertain 12-9/8 Publius Quinctilius Varus
Publius Quinctilius Varus
approx (9/8–4 BC) Africanus Fabius Maximus (6/5 BC)[12] uncertain 4 BC-c. AD 4 Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso
Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso
(3 BC?)[13][14] Lucius Cornelius Lentulus (c. AD 4)[15] Lucius Passienus Rufus approx (c. AD 4/5) Cossus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus (c. AD 5/6) uncertain c.6-c.8 Lucius Caninius Gallus (c. AD 8) uncertain c.8-14 Lucius Nonius Asprenas[16] (14–15)

Reign of Tiberius[edit]

Lucius Aelius Lamia (15–16) uncertain 16-17 Marcus Furius Camillus[17] (17–18) Lucius Apronius[18] (18–21) Quintus Junius Blaesus[19] (21–23) Publius Cornelius Dolabella[20] (23–24) uncertain 24-26 Gaius Vibius Marsus (26–29) Marcus Junius Silanus (29–35) Gaius Rubellius Blandus (35–36) Servius Cornelius Cethegus (36–37)

Reign of Gaius Caligula[edit]

Lucius Calpurnius Piso (38–39) Lucius Salvius Otho (40–41)

Reign of Claudius[edit]

Quintus Marcius Barea Soranus (41–43) Servius Sulpicius Galba
Galba
(44–46) Marcus Servilius Nonianus (46–47) Titus Statilius Taurus[21] (52–53) Marcus Pompeius Silvanus Staberius Flavianus (53–56)

Reign of Nero[edit]

Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus Peticus (56–57) Gnaeus Hosidius Geta (57–58) Quintus Curtius Rufus[22] (58–59) Aulus Vitellius
Vitellius
(60–61) Lucius Vitellius
Vitellius
(61–62) Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus (62–63) Titus Flavius Vespasianus (63–64) Gaius Vipstanus Apronianus (68)

Reign of Vespasian[edit]

Lucius Calpurnius Piso (69/70)[23] Lucius Junius Quintus Vibius Crispus (71/72) Quintus Manlius Ancharius Tarquitius Saturninus (72/73) Quintus Julius Cordinus Gaius Rutilius Gallicus (74) Gaius Paccius Africanus (77/78) Publius Galerius Trachalus (78/79)

Reign of Domitian[edit]

Lucius Nonius Calpurnius Asprenas (82/83) Sextus Vettulenus Cerialis (83/84) Gnaeus Domitius Lucanus (84/85) Gnaeus Domitius Tullus (85/86) Lucius Funisulanus Vettonianus (91/92) Asprenas (92/93)

Reign of Nerva[edit]

Marius Priscus (97/98)

Reign of Trajan[edit]

Gaius Cornelius Gallicanus (98/99) Gaius Octavius Tidius Tossianus Lucius Javolenus Priscus (101/102) Lucius Cornelius Pusio Annius Messala (103/104) Quintus Peducaeus Priscinus (106/107) Gaius Cornelius Rarus Sextius Naso (108/109) Quintus Pomponius Rufus (110/111) Gaius Pomponius Rufus Acilius Priscus Coelius Sparsus (112/113) Aulus Caecilius Faustinus (115/116) Gaius Julius Plancus Varus Cornutus Tertullus (116/117)

Reign of Hadrian[edit]

Lucius Roscius Aelianus Maecius Celer (117/118) Marcus Vitorius Marcellus (120/121) Lucius Minicius Natalis (121/122) Marcus Appius Bradua (uncertain; 122/123) Lucius Catilius Severus Julianus Claudius
Claudius
Reginus (124/125) Lucius Stertinius Noricus (127/128) Marcus Pompeius Macrinus (130/131) Tiberius
Tiberius
Julius Secundus (131/132) Gaius Ummidius Quadratus Sertorius Severus (133/134) Gaius Bruttius Praesens Lucius Fulvius Rusticus (134/135) [...]catus P. Valerius Priscus (136/137) Lucius Vitrasius Flamininus (137/138) Titus Salvius Rufinus Minicius Opimianus (138/139)

Reign of Antoninus Pius[edit]

Titus Salvius Rufinus Minicius Opimianus (138–139)[24] Titus Prifernius Paetus Rosianus Geminus (140–141)[25] Sextus Julius Major (c. 141–142) Publius Tullius Varro (142–143) Lucius Minicius Natalis Quadronius Verus (153–154) (? Ennius) Proculus (156–157) Lucius Hedius Rufus Lollianus Avitus (157–158) Claudius
Claudius
Maximus (c. 158–159) Quintus Egrilus Plarianus Lucius M[...] (c. 159)

Reign of Marcus Aurelius[edit]

Titus Prifernius Paetus Rosianus Geminus (c. 160–161) Quintus Voconius Saxa Fidus (161–162) Sextus Cocceius Severianus (c. 162–163) Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus (164) Manius Acilius Glabrio Gnaeus Cornelius Severus (c. 166–167) Publius Salvius Julianus
Salvius Julianus
(167–168) Titus Sextius Lateranus (168/169) Gaius Serius Augurinus (169–170) Strabo Aemilius (c. 172) Gaius Aufidius Victorinus (c. 173–174) Gaius Septimus Severus (174–175) Publius Julius Scapula Tertullus (178–179 or 179–180) Publius Vigellius Saturninus[26] (c. 180)

Reign of Commodus[edit]

Gaius Vettius Sabinianus Julius Hospes
Gaius Vettius Sabinianus Julius Hospes
(c. 191)

Reign of Septimius Severus[edit]

Publius Cornelius Anullinus (193)[27] Pollienus Auspex (Between 194 and 200) Marcus Claudius
Claudius
Macrinius Vindex Hermogenianus (Between 194 and 200) Sextus Cocceius Vibianus (Between 194 and 200) Cingius Severus (Between 194 and 197) Lucius Cossonius Eggius Marullus (198–199) Marcus Ulpius Arabianus (c. 200) Gaius Julius Asper (Between 200 and 210) Marcus Umbrius Primus (c. 201/2) Minicius Opimianus (c. 203) Rufinus (c. 204) Marcus Valerius Bradua Mauricus (? c. 206) Titus Flavius Decimus (209) Gaius Valerius Pudens (Between 209 and 211)

Reign of Caracalla[edit]

Publius Julius Scapula Tertullus Priscus (212–213) Appius Claudius
Claudius
Julianus (Between 212 and 220) Gaius Caesonius Macer Rufinianus (Between 213 and 215) Marius Maximus (Between 213 and 217)

Reign of Elagabalus[edit]

Lucius Marius Perpetuus (c. 220) Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus (c. 221)

Reign of Alexander Severus[edit]

Gaius Octavius Appius Suetrius Sabinus (c. 230)

Reign of Maximinus Thrax[edit]

Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (237)

Reign of Gordian III[edit]

Sabinianus (240) Lucius Caesonius Lucillus Macer Rufinianus (c. 240)

Reigns of Valerian and Gallienus[edit]

Aspasius Paternus (257–258) Galerius Maximus (258–259) Lucius Messius [...] (Between 259 and 261)  ? Vibius Passienus (Between 260 and 268) Lucius Naevius Aquilinus (Between 260 and 268) Sextus Cocceius Anicius Faustus (Between 265 and 268)

Reign of Aurelian[edit]

Firmus (278) Lucius Caesonius Ovinius Manlius Rufinianus Bassus (c. 275)

Reign of Carinus[edit]

Gaius Julius Paulinus (283)

Later Empire (Dominate)[edit] Governors are directly chosen by the Emperors, without Roman Senate approval.

Northern Africa under Roman rule

Titus Claudius
Claudius
Aurelius Aristobulus (290–294) Cassius Dio (294–295) Titus Flavius Postumius Titianus (295–296) Lucius Aelius Helvius Dionysius (296–300) Iulianus, possibly Amnius Anicius Julianus (301–302) Gaius Annius Anullinus (302–305) Gaius Caeionius Rufius Volusianus (305–306) Petronius Probianus (315–317) Aconius Catullinus (317–318) Cezeus Largus Maternianus (333-336)[28] Quintus Flavius Maesius Egnatius Lollianus (336-337) Antonius Marcellinus (337-338) Aurelius Celsinus (338-339)

Fabius Aconius Catullinus Philomathius (vicarius, 338–339)[citation needed]

Proculus (340-341) -lius Flavianus (357-358) Sextus Claudius
Claudius
Petronius Probus (358-359) Proclianus (359-361) Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius (361-362) Clodius Octavianus (363-364) P. Ampelius (364-365)  ? Claudius
Claudius
Hermogenianus Caesarius (365-366) Julius Festus Hymetius (366-368)[29] Petronius Claudius
Claudius
(368-371) Sextius Rusticus Julianus (371-373) Quintus Aurelius Symmachus
Quintus Aurelius Symmachus
(373-374) Paulus Constantius (374-375) Chilo (375-376) Decimius Hilarianus Hesperius (April 376-October 377) Thalassius (October 377-April 379) Flavius Afranius Syagrius (379-380) Helvius Vindicianus (380-381; possibly 382-383) Herasius (381-382) Virius Audentius Aemilianus (382-383; possibly 381-382) Flavius Eusignius (383-384) Messianus (385-386) Felix Juniorinus Polemius (388-389) Latinius Pacatus Drepanius (389-390) Flavius Rhodinus Primus (391-392) Aemilius Florus Paternus (392-393)[30] Flaccianus (393-393) Marcianus (394) Flavius Herodes (394-395) Ennodius (395-396) Theodorus (396-397) Anicius Probinus (397)[31] Seranus (397-398) Victorinus (398-399) Apollodorus (399-400) Gabinius Barbarus Pompeianus (400–401) Helpidius (401-402 ?) Septiminus (402-404) Rufius Antonius Agrypnius Volusianus
Rufius Antonius Agrypnius Volusianus
(404-405) Flavius Pionius Diotimus (405-406) C. Aelius Pompeius Porphyrius Proculus (407-408) Donatus (408-409) Macrobius Palladius (409-410) Apringius (410-411) Eucharius (411-412) Q. Sentius Fabricius Iulianus (412-414) Aurelius Anicius Symmachus (415)[32]

Episcopal sees[edit] Ancient episcopal sees of Proconsular Africa listed in the Annuario Pontificio as titular sees:[33]

Abbir Germaniciana Abbir Maius
Abbir Maius
(Henchir-en-Naam) Abitinae Abora Absa Salla Abthugni
Abthugni
(Henchir-Casbat-Es-Souar) Abziri
Abziri
(near Oudna) Agbia (Aïn-Hedia in Tunisia), suffragan of Carthage Altiburus
Altiburus
(Henchir-Medeina, Dahmani) Apisa Maius
Apisa Maius
(ruins of Targ-Ech-Chena) Aptuca
Aptuca
(Henchir-Oudeca) Aquae in Proconsulari
Aquae in Proconsulari
(Henchir-El-Baghla) Aquae Novae in Proconsulari (ruins of Sidi-Ali-Djebin?) Aradi (Henchir-Bou-Arada?) Assuras Ausana Ausuaga Avensa (ruins of Bordj-Hamdouna) Avioccala (ruins of Sidi-Amara) Avissa (Henchir-Bour-Aouitta, Aouïa?) Avitta Bibba Belali (Henchir-Belli) Bencenna (ruins of Sidi-Brahim) Beneventum (Africa)
Beneventum (Africa)
(ruins of Beniata?) Bilta
Bilta
(ruins of Sidi-Salah-El-Balthi?) Bisica
Bisica
(Henchir-Bijga) Bita Bitettum (Bitetto) Bonusta Boseta (ruins of Henchir-El-Oust?) Bossa Botriana Bulla (ruins of Sidi-Mbarec) Bulla Regia Bulna Bure (North Africa) Buruni
Buruni
(Henchir-El-Dakhla) Buslacena Caeciri Canapium (Henchir-El-Casbath) Carpi (Henchir-Mraïssa) Carthage
Carthage
(episcopal see), the Metropolitan Archdiocese, exercising informal primacy Cefala (Ras-El-Djebel?) Cellae in Proconsulari (ruins of Aïn-Zouarin) Cerbali Cilibia (Henchir-Kelbia) Cincari (ruins of Bordj-Toum) Cissita
Cissita
(Sidi-Tabet?) Clypia
Clypia
(Kelibia) Cresima
Cresima
(Aïn-Sbir?) Cubda Culusi
Culusi
(suburb of Carthage) Curubis (Korba, Tunisia) Drusiliana (Khanguet-El-Kidem) Eguga Elephantaria in Proconsulari (Sidi-Ahmed-Djedidi? ruins of Sidi-Saïd?) Enera Furnos Maior Furnos Minor Gisipa Giufi (Bir-Mecherga) Giufi Salaria (near the saltworks of Sebkha-El-Coursia) Gor (Drâa-El-Gamra) Gummi in Proconsulari
Gummi in Proconsulari
(Bordj-Cedria) Gunela Hilta Hippo Diarrhytus Horta (in the territory of Srâ-Orta?) Lacubaza Lapda Lares (Lorbeus) Libertina (ruins at Souc-El-Arba?) Luperciana (Henchir-Tebel? or ruins of Gasseur-Tatoun?) Marcelliana
Marcelliana
(in the region of Henchir-Bez) Mathara in Proconsulari
Mathara in Proconsulari
(Mateur) Mattiana Maxula Prates
Maxula Prates
(Radès) Medeli (Henchir-Mencoub) Megalopolis in Proconsulari (ruins of Mohammedia) Melzi
Melzi
(ruins where the Oued- Melzi
Melzi
flows into the Bagrada) Membressa
Membressa
(Majaz al Bab) Migirpa
Migirpa
(near Carthage) Missua
Missua
(Sidi Daoud) Mizigi
Mizigi
(ruins of Douela) Mulli Musti Muzuca in Proconsulari
Muzuca in Proconsulari
(Henchir-Khachoum) Naraggara Neapolis in Proconsulari (Nabeul) Nova Numluli (Henchir-Mâtria) Obba Paria in Proconsulari Pertusa (El-Haraïria) Pia Pisita (ruins of Bou-Chateur-Sidi-Mansour?) Pocofeltus Pupiana (Mra-Mita, Aïn-Ouassel?) Puppi Rucuma Rusuca
Rusuca
(Ghar al Milh?) Saia Maior
Saia Maior
(Henchir-Duamès-Chiaïa, Henchir-Chiaïa) Scilium Sebarga Selamselae Semina Semta (Dzemda) Serra (Henchir-Cherri) Sicca Veneria Siccenna Sicilibba (ruins of Alaouine, Alaouenine) Simidicca
Simidicca
(Henchir-Simidia?) Simingi
Simingi
(Henchir-Simindja, Sidi Bou Zid) Siminina
Siminina
(Henchir-El-Haïrech, Bir-El-Djedidi) Simitthu
Simitthu
(Chemtou) Sinna
Sinna
(ruins of Calaat-Es-Sinân) Sinnuara Sitipa Suas (ruins of Chaouach) Succuba Sululos Sutunura
Sutunura
(ruins of Aïn-El-Askerm Rdir-Es-Soltan) Tabbora Tacia Montana (ruins of Bordj-Messaoudi) Taddua Tagarata (ruins of Tel-El-Caid, Aïn-Tlit?) Teglata
Teglata
(Henchir Kahloulta) Tela (in the region of Carthage) Tepela
Tepela
(Henchir-Bel-Aït) Thabraca  ? Thapsus
Thapsus
(in Byzacena?!) Theudalis (Henchir-Aouam) Thibaris Thibica
Thibica
(Bir-Magra) Thibiuca
Thibiuca
(Henchir-Gâssa) Thignica Thisiduo
Thisiduo
(ruins of Crich-El-Oued) Thimida
Thimida
(Henchir-Tindja) Thizica Thuburbo Maius Thuburbo Minus Thuburnica
Thuburnica
(Sidi-Ali-Bel-Cassem) Thubursicum-Bure
Thubursicum-Bure
(Téboursouk) Thuccabora (Touccabeur) Thugga Thunigaba (Henchir-Aïn-Laabed) Thunusruma Thunusuda (Sidi-Meskin) Tigimma
Tigimma
(Souk-El-Djemma, Djemâa?) Tinisa in Proconsulari
Tinisa in Proconsulari
(Râs-El-Djebel) Tisili Tituli in Proconsulari
Tituli in Proconsulari
(Henchir-Madjouba) Trisipa
Trisipa
(Aïn-El-Hammam) Tubernuca
Tubernuca
(Aïn Tebernoc) Tubyza (Henchir-Boucha?) Tulana Tunes Turris in Proconsulari
Turris in Proconsulari
(in the territory of Henchir-Mest) Turuda Turuzi Uccula
Uccula
(Henchir-Aïn-Dourat) Uchi Maius
Uchi Maius
(Henchir-Ed-Douamès) Ucres
Ucres
(Bordj-Bou-Djadi) Ululi
Ululi
(Ellez?) Urusi (Henchir-Sougda) Uthina Utica Utimma
Utimma
(between Sidi-Medien and Henchir-Reoucha?) Utimmira
Utimmira
(in the territory of Carthage) Uzalis Uzzipari Vaga (Béja) Vallis (ruins of Sidi-Medien) Vazari
Vazari
(Henchir-Bejar, Bedjar) Vazari-Didda
Vazari-Didda
(Henchir-Badajr?) Vazi-Sarra
Vazi-Sarra
(Henchir-Bez) Vertara
Vertara
(region of Srâa Ouartane) Vicus Turris
Vicus Turris
(Henchir-El-Djemel) Villamagna in Proconsulari (Henchir-Mettich) Vina (Henchir-El-Meden) Vinda (Henchir-Bandou?) Voli Zama Major Zama Minor Zarna Zica (Zaghouan?) Zuri (Aïn Djour? in the region of Carthage?)

v t e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae
Alpes Poeninae
et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia
Raetia
I Raetia
Raetia
II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Mauretania
Mauretania
Sitifensis Numidia
Numidia
Cirtensis Numidia
Numidia
Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum Noricum
Noricum
ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia
Moesia
I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus
Epirus
Nova Epirus
Epirus
Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia
Moesia
II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia I5 Cappadocia II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia I Cilicia II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya
Libya
Superior Libya
Libya
Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian
Justinian
I's administrative reorganization in 534–536

See also[edit]

African Romance Lex Manciana Praetorian prefecture
Praetorian prefecture
of Africa Fossatum Africae Roman limes Roman roads in Africa

Notes[edit]

^ Abun-Nasr, A History of the Maghrib (1970, 1977) at 35-37. ^ Laroui challenges the accepted view of the prevalence of the Latin language, in his The History of the Maghrib (1970, 1977) at 45-46. ^ a b Wilson, A. I., 2002. Papers of the British School at Rome. Vol 70, Urban Production in the Roman World: The View from North Africa. London: British School at Rome. 231-73. ^ a b c Brouillet, Monique Seefried., ed. 1994. From Hannibal to Saint Augustine: Ancient Art of North Africa from the Musee Du Louvre, 82-83, 129-130. Atlanta: Emory University. ^ Brouillet, Monique Seefried., ed. 1994. From Hannibal to Saint Augustine: Ancient Art of North Africa from the Musee Du Louvre, 129-130. Atlanta: Emory University. ^ a b Mackensen, Michael and Gerwulf Schneider. 2006. "Production centres of African Red Slip
African Red Slip
Ware (2nd-3rd c.) in northern and central Tunisia: Archaeological provenance and reference groups based on chemical analysis." Journal of Roman Archaeology 19: 163-188. ^ Brouillet, Monique Seefried., ed. 1994. From Hannibal to Saint Augustine: Ancient Art of North Africa from the Musee Du Louvre, 129. Atlanta: Emory University. ^ Continued as proconsul until the arrival of Metellus in 109 BC. ^ Continued as proconsul until the arrival of his successor Marius, whom he declined to meet for the transfer of command. He triumphed over Numidia
Numidia
in 106 and received his cognomen Numidicus at that time. ^ Delegated command pro praetore when Marius returned to Rome. ^ a b c d e Ronald Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy (Clarendon Press, 1986), p. 45 n 80 ^ Ronald Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford University Press, 1989). ISBN 0-19-814731-7, ISBN 978-0-19-814731-2, p. 320 ^ Dando-Collins, Stephen (2008), Blood of the Caesars: How the Murder of Germanicus Led to the Fall of Rome, Wiley, p. 45, ISBN 9780470137413  ^ Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony; Eidinow, Esther, eds. (2012), The Oxford Classical Dictionary, Oxford University Press, p. 270, ISBN 9780199545568  ^ Syme, Ronald, The Roman Revolution (1939) p. 435 ^ Tacitus, Annals I.53 ^ Tacitus, Annals II.52 ^ Tacitus, Annals III.21 ^ Tacitus, Annals III.35, III.58 ^ Tacitus, Annals IV.23 ^ Tacitus, Annals XII.59 ^ Tacitus, Annals XI.21 ^ Unless otherwise stated, the names of the proconsular governors from 69 to 139 are taken from Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 12 (1982), pp. 281-362; 13 (1983), pp. 147-237 ^ Identified by Werner Eck, "Ergänzungen zu den Fasti Consulares des 1. und 2. Jh.n.Chr.", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 24 (1975), pp. 324-344, esp. pp. 324-6 ^ Unless otherwise stated, the names of the proconsular governors from 139 to 180 are taken from Géza Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977), pp. 207-211 ^ Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand, pp. 365-367 ^ Mennen, Inge, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284 (2011), pg. 261 ^ Unless otherwise stated, the names of the proconsular governors from 333 to 392 are taken from the list in T.D. Barnes, "Proconsuls of Africa, 337-392", Phoenix, 39 (1985), pp. 144-153 ^ Per the list provided in T.D. Barnes, "Proconsuls of Africa: Corrigenda", Phoenix, 39 (1985), pp. 273-274 ^ Unless otherwise stated, the names of the proconsular governors from 392 to 414 are taken from the list T.D. Barnes, "Late Roman Prosopography: Between Theodosius and Justinian", Phoenix, 37 (1983), pp. 248-270 ^ In 396 Quintus Aurelius Symmachus
Quintus Aurelius Symmachus
wrote him a letter (Epistulae, ix); on 17 March 397 he received a law preserved in the Codex Theodosianus (XII.5.3). ^ During this office he received the law preserved in Codex Theodosianus, xi.30.65a. ^ Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013

References[edit]

Lennox Manton, Roman North Africa, 1988. Susan Raven. Rome in Africa. 3rd ed. (London, 1993). Monique Seefried Brouillet, From Hannibal to Saint Augustine: Ancient Art of North Africa from the Musee du Louvre, 1994. A. I. Wilson, Urban Production in the Roman World: The View from North Africa, 2002. Duane R. Roller, The World of Juba II
Juba II
and Kleopatra Selene: Royal Scholarship on Rome's African Frontier (New York and London, Routledge, 2003). Elizabeth Fentress, "Romanizing the Berbers," Past & Present, 190,1 (2006), 3-33. Michael Mackensen and Gerwulf Schneider. Production centres of African Red Slip Ware (2nd-3rd c.) in northern and central Tunisia: Archaeological provenance and reference groups based on chemical analysis, 2006. Cordovana, Orietta Dora, Segni e immagini del potere tra antico e tardoantico: I Severi e la provincia Africa proconsularis. Seconda edizione rivista ed aggiornata (Catania: Prisma, 2007) (Testi e studi di storia antica) Dick Whittaker, "Ethnic discourses on the frontiers of Roman Africa", in Ton Derks, Nico Roymans (ed.), Ethnic Constructs in Antiquity: The Role of Power and Tradition (Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 2009) (Amsterdam Archaeological Studies, 13), 189-206. Erich S. Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (Princeton, PUP, 2010), 197-222. Mennen, Inge, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284 (2011) Stewart, John, African states and rulers (2006)

External links[edit]

Roman Africa at www.unrv.com

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia
Bithynia
and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia Crete and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania Inferior Germania Superior Hispania Baetica Hispania Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia
Lycia
et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

v t e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae
Alpes Poeninae
et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia
Raetia
I Raetia
Raetia
II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Mauretania
Mauretania
Sitifensis Numidia
Numidia
Cirtensis Numidia
Numidia
Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum Noricum
Noricum
ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia
Moesia
I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus
Epirus
Nova Epirus
Epirus
Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia
Moesia
II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia I5 Cappadocia II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia I Cilicia II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya
Libya
Superior Libya
Libya
Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian
Justinian
I's administrative reorganiz